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Butterflies

 

Identifications made by John Hassett `00 during the summer of 1998, unless otherwise indicated. Several other individuals have made contributions to this list, and these have been noted using the following abbreviations:

  • FF = F.J. Fogelson, presumably a student
  • LD = Linda J. Davis, student
  • MH = Mary S. Harkness, student '92
  • QN = Quint Nelson, student '40
  • RM = Robin Mittenthal, student '95

Scientific names follow Scott (1986) or Heitzman and Heitzman (1987). Common names follow the NABA Checklist (1995). Hostplants refer to foodplants of larvae. Hostplants and information regarding interbreeding and migratory behavior are from Scott (1986). Information regarding habitat, abundance, feeding, perching, and patterns of movement are from field observations made by John Hassett '99. Only hostplant species known to exist in the Arboretum or McKnight Prairie are listed.

Bear in mind that butterflies captured in the Arboretum and McKnight are not necessarily breeding residents: several species are migrants, and others may be hosted by a large variety of plants growing in the surrounding area.

The Butterflies of the Cowling Arboretum, Carleton College

Family Hesperiidae: Skippers

Family Lycaenidae: Gossamer-wing Butterflies

Family Nymphalidae: Brush-Footed Butterflies

Family Papilonidae: Swallowtails

Family Pieridae: Whites and Sulphurs

The Butterflies of McKnight Prairie, Goodhue County, MN

Family Hesperiidae: Skippers

Family Lycaenidae: Gossamer-wing Butterflies

Family Nymphalidae: Brush-Footed Butterflies

Family Papilionidae: Swallowtails

 

 

The Butterflies of the Cowling Arboretum, Carleton College

Family Hesperiidae: Skippers

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  1. Atalopedes campestris(W.H. Edwards); Sachem - Most recently recorded August, 1991 by MH. Hostplants include Digitaria sanguinalis.
  2. Atrytone delaware lagus(W. H. Edwards); Delaware Skipper - Common skipper at Hillside Prairie, late June to early July. Hostplants include Andropogon girardii and Panicum virganum. Often found perching on flower heads of Heliopsis spp.
  3. Epargyreus clarus(Cramer); Silver-spotted Skipper - Occasionally found in prairie, mid-June to mid-July. Hostplants include Amorpha fruticosa, Amphicarpaea bracteata, Astragalus, and Lespedeza capitata. Adult has been observed feeding on nectar of Monarda spp.
  4. Poanes hobomok(Harris); Hobomok Skipper - Most recently recorded June, 1982 by LD. Hostplants include Panicum and Poa.
  5. Pyrgus communis(Grote); Common Checkered Skipper - Most recently recorded October, 1939 by QN. Hostplants include Abutilon theophrasti and Malva neglecta.
  6. Thymelicus lineola(Ochsenheimer); European Skipper - Occasionally found in clearings in oak savanna, June to mid-July. Hostplants include Phleum pratense.

Family Lycaenidae: Gossamer-wing Butterflies

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  1. Celastrina argiolus ladon(Cramer); Spring Azure - Somewhat common in partially shaded areas near edges of successional floodplains, prairies, and in oak savanna. Adults may be found from April through September, possibly as late as October. Hostplants include Prunus serotina, P. virginiana, Ceanothus americanus, Cornus racemosa, Viburnum lentago, Amphicarpaea, Lespedeza, Melilotus officinalis, and Helianthus.
  2. Everes comyntas comyntasGodart; Eastern Tailed-Blue - Common in prairie areas of the arb, May to October. Hostplants include Astragalus, Lespedeza capitata, Lupinus perennis, Medicago lupulina, Melilotus officinalis, Trifolium repens, T. pratense, and Vicia americana.
  3. Lycaena hyllus(Cramer); Bronze Copper - Occasionally found in prairie and successional floodplain portions of the Arboretum, mid-June to mid-July and again mid-August to mid-September. Hostplants include Rumex crispus.
  4. Lycaena phlaeas(Linnaeus); American Copper - Occasional observations in prairie fields, July through August. Hostplants include Rumex acetosella and R. crispus.
  5. Lycaena xanthoides(Boisduval); Great Copper - Somewhat common in Hillside Prairie, June to early July. Hostplants include Rumex acetosella, and R. crispus. Adults have been observed feeding on Asclepias tuberosa.
  6. Satyrium edwardsii(Grote & Robinson); EdwardsÕ Hairstreak - Most recently recorded July, 1993 by RM. Hostplants include Quercus macrocarpa.
  7. Satyrium liparops strigosum(Harris); Striped Hairstreak - Occasional visitor to successional floodplain fields, July to early August. Hostplants include Prunus americana, P. pensylvanica, P. serotina, P. virginiana, Betula papyrifera, Quercus rubra, and Fraxinus pennsylvanica. Adults have been observed feeding on Asclepias incarnata nectar.

Family Nymphalidae: Brush-Footed Butterflies

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  1. Asterocampa celtis(Boisduval & LeConte); Hackberry Emperor - Occasionally found in prairie areas and probably more forested areas as well, June to September. Hostplants include Celtis occidentalis.
  2. Asterocampa clyton clyton(Boisduval & LeConte); Tawny Emperor - Occasionally observed in upland forest and oak savanna, late June through August. Hostplants include Celtis occidentalis.
  3. Cercyonis pegala(Fabricius); Common Wood-Nymph - Very common in prairie fields, late June to early September. Hostplants include Andropogon and Stipa spartea.
  4. Coenonympha tullia(W. H. Edwards); Common Ringlet - Most recently recorded June, 1993 by RM. Hostplants include Stipa and Poa pratensis.
  5. Danaus plexippus(Linnaeus); Monarch - Very common throughout the arb, although generally preferring open, sunny areas. Migratory, generally found from May through October. Hostplants include Asclepias exaltata, A. incarnata, A. syriaca,and A. tuberosa.
  6. Phyciodes tharos(Drury); Pearl Crescent - Somewhat common in successional floodplain fields, May through September. Hostplants include Aster ericoides and A. novae-anglia.
  7. Speyeria aphrodite (Fabricius); Aphrodite Fritillary - Occasionally found in prairie fields, late June to early September. Hostplants include some Violaceae, none of which is among the Violaceae known to grow in the Arboretum.
  8. Speyeria cybele cybele (Fabricius); Great Spangled Fritillary - Common arboretum butterfly, may be seen in virtually all open habitats. Hostplants Violaceae, possibly including Viola canadensis.
  9. Nymphalis antiopa antiopa (Linnaeus); Mourning Cloak - Occasional visitor to early successional floodplain and prairie plants, late June to mid-August. Hostplants include Salix amygadaloides, S. discolor, S. nigra, Populus grandidentata, Betula alleghaniensis, B. papyrifera, Ostrya virginiana, Acer, Celtis occidentalis, Ulmus americana, U. pumila, U. rubra, Rubus, Rosa, Tilia americana, and Rumex acetosella.
  10. Nymphalis milberti (Godart); MilbertÕs Tortoiseshell - Occasionally found in successional floodplain forest and prairie, June through September. Hostplants include Urtica dioica and possibly Laportea canadensis.
  11. Polygonia cf. comma (Harris); Eastern Comma - Somewhat common in early successional floodplain forest, late June through August. Hostplants include Urtica dioica, Laportea canadensis, and Boehmeria cylindrica. Difficult to distinguish from P. progne.
  12. Polygonia interrogationis (Fabricius); Question Mark - Somewhat common in floodplain habitats, mid-May to late August. Hostplants include Ulmus americana, U. pumila, U. rubra, Celtis occidentalis, Urtica dioica, and Boehmeria cylindrica.
  13. Polygonia cf. progne (Cramer); Gray Comma. - Somewhat common in floodplain habitats, mid-June to late August. Hostplants include Ribes cynosbati, R. missouriense, and occasionally Betula papyrifera. Difficult to distinguish from P. comma.
  14. Vanessa atalanta (Linnaeus); Red Admiral - Somewhat common in successional floodplain and prairie fields, late June to early August and late August into October. Hostplants include Urtica dioica, Boehmeria cylindrica, and Laportea canadensis.

Family Papilonidae: Swallowtails

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  1. Papilo glaucus (Linnaeus); Eastern Tiger Swallowtail - Somewhat common in virtually all arboretum habitats, May through August. Hostplants include Prunus americana, P. pennsylvanica, P. serotina, P. virginiana, Rubus, Populus grandidentata, Betula alleghaniensis, B. papyrifera, Corylus, Acer, Ulmus, Tilia americana, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Ptelea trifoliata, and Zanthoxylum americanum.
  2. Papilio polyxenes (Fabricius); Black Swallowtail - Somewhat common in most open and partly open arb habitats, May through September. Hostplants include Angelica atropurpurea, Cryptotaenia canadensis, Osmorhiza longistylis, Pastinaca sativa, Cicuta bulbifera, Taenidia integerrima, and Zizea aurea.

Family Pieridae: Whites and Sulphurs

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  1. Colias eurytheme (Boisduval); Orange Sulphur - Very common in all open arboretum habitats, spring to fall. Hostplants include Astragalus crassicarpus, Baptisia, Coronilla, Lespedeza, Lupinus perennis, Medicago lupulina, M. sativa, Melilotus officinalis, Trifolium repens, T. pratense, and Vicia americana. Hybridizes with C. philodice; difficult to distinguish.
  2. Colias philodice (Godart); Clouded Sulphur - Very common in all open arboretum habitats, spring to fall. Hostplants include Astragalus crassicarpus, Caragana, Lotus, Lupinus perennis, Medicago sativa, Melilotus officinalis, Trifolium repens, T. pratense, and Vicia americana. Hybridizes with C. eurytheme; difficult to distinguish.
  3. Eurema lisa (Boisduval & LeConte); Little Yellow - Somewhat common in open arb habitats, spring to fall. Hostplants include Amphicarpaea.
  4. Pontia protodice (Boisduval & LeConte); Checkered White - Most recently recorded May, 1957 by FF. Hostplants include Arabis glabra, Barbarea vulgaris, Brassica nigra, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Lepidium densiflorum, Sisymbrium altissimum and Thlaspi arvense.
  5. Pieris rapae (Linnaeus); Cabbage White - Very common in most open arb habitats, spring to fall. Hostplants include Arabis glabra, Barbarea vulgaris, Brassica nigra, Hesperis matronalis, Lepidium densiflorum, Sisymbrium altissimum and Thlaspi arvense.

Species Total: 34 Species

The Butterflies of McKnight Prairie, Goodhue County, MN

Family Hesperiidae: Skippers

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  1. Atrytone delaware lagus (W. H. Edwards); Delaware Skipper - A somewhat common skipper at McKnight, late June through July. Hostplants include Andropogon girardii and Panicum virganum. Often found perching on flower heads of Heliopsisspp. and Phlox pilosa.
  2. Polites origines origines (Fabricius); Crossline Skipper - An occasional find from late June to early July. Hostplants include Schizachyrium scoparium. Adults have been found on floral heads of Phlox pilosa and Amorpha canescens.
  3. Polites themistocles (Latreille); Tawny-edged Skipper - Common Skipper at McKnight, mid-June to mid-July. Hostplants include Panicum, Poa pratensis. May be found perching on flowers of Phlox pilosa and Rudbeckia serotina.
  4. Wallengrenia egeremet (Scudder); Northern Broken-Dash - Occasional find, early July. Hostplants include Dicanthelium clandestinum and D. dichotomum. Adults sometimes found perching on flowers of Phlox pilosa and Rudbeckia serotina.

Family Lycaenidae: Gossamer-wing Butterflies

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  1. Everes comyntas comyntas (Godart); Eastern Tailed-Blue - Very common throughout McKnight, adults active May through October. Hostplants include Astragalus, Lespedeza capitata, Lupinus spp., Melilotis officinalis, Trifolium repens, T. pratense, and Vicia americana.
  2. Lycaena phlaeas (Linnaeus); American Copper - Occasionally observed at McKnight, June through September. Hostplants include Rumex crispus.
  3. Lycaena xanthoides (Boisduval); Great Copper - Somewhat common butterfly from late May to early July. Hostplants include Rumex acetosella and R. crispus.

Family Nymphalidae: Brush-Footed Butterflies

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  1. Basilarchia archippus (Cramer); Viceroy - Common visitor to McKnight, June through August. Hostplants (primarily tree Salicaceae, and Rosaceae) do not occur at McKnight Prairie. Has been observed feeding on nectar of Monarda spp., Chamaecrista fasciculata, and others.
  2. Cercyonis pegala (Fabricius); Common Wood-Nymph - Very common throughout McKnight, late June through August. Hostplants include Andropogon, Avena fatua, Stipa spartea, and possibly Poa pratensis. Adults feed especially vigorously on nectar of Asclepias tuberosa and Rudbeckia serotina, but visit other flowers as well.
  3. Coenonympha tullia (W. H. Edwards); Common Ringlet - Most recently identified June 1993 by RM. Hostplants include Stipa and Poa pratensis, possibly also Agrostis.
  4. Danaus plexippus (Linnaeus); Monarch - Common butterfly of McKnight. Migratory; may be found from May to October. Hostplants include Asclepias amplexicaulis, A. syriaca, A. tuberosa, and A. verticillata.
  5. Euptoieta claudia (Cramer); Variegated Fritillary - Occasionally observed, late spring to early fall. Hostplants include some Violaceae as well as Linum sulcatum.
  6. Nymphalis milberti (Godart); MilbertÕs Tortoiseshell - Occasional visitor to McKnight, June through September. Hostplants exclusively Urticaceae (not found at McKnight). Not a breeding resident.
  7. Phyciodes tharos (Drury); Pearl Crescent - Occasionally encountered May to September. Hostplants include Aster laevis and A. ericoides.
  8. Speyeria aphrodite (Fabricius); Aphrodite Fritillary - Very common throughout McKnight, late June to early September. Hostplants exclucively Violaceae. Adults have been observed feeding on nectar of Monarda spp. and especially Rudbeckia serotina.
  9. Vanessa atalanta (Linnaeus); Red Admiral - Occasionally found from late June through September. Migratory, occasionally in mass. Hostplants mainly Urticaceae (not found at McKnight). Not a breeding resident.
  10. Vanessa cardui (Linnaeus); Painted Lady - Occasionally found in McKnight. Migratory, may be found spring through fall. Hostplants include Cirsium discolor, C. vulgare, Achillea millefolium, Helianthus annus, some Lupinus, Medicago sativa, Trifolium, Fragaria, tree Prunus, and Rumex.

Family Papilionidae: Swallowtails

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  1. Papilio glaucus (Linnaeus); Eastern Tiger Swallowtail - Occasional visitor, mid-May through August. Hostplants Prunus americana, P. virginiana, some Rubus, Populus tremuloides, Ulmus and Xanthoxylum americanum. Tends to patrol hilltops.
  2. Papilio polyxenes (Fabricius); Black Swallowtail - Occasional visitor, mid-May through September. Hostplants include some Umbelliferae and Rutaceae: not a breeding resident. Tends to patrol hilltops.
  3. Family Pieridae: Whites and Sulphurs - Colias eurytheme Boisduval; Orange Sulphur
    Common, spring to fall. Hybridizes with C. philodice, often difficult to distinguish. Hostplants include Astragulus crassicarpus, Glycyrhiza lepidota, some Lathyrus, Lespedeza, Medicago sativa, Meliotus alba, Trifolium pratense, T. repens, Vicia americana, and V. sativa.
  4. Colias philodice (Godart); Clouded Sulphur - Common, spring to fall. Hybridizes with C. eurytheme; often difficult to distinguish. Hostplants include Astragalus crassicarpus, some Lathyrus, Lupinus perennius, Medicago sativa, Meliotus alba, Trifolium pratense, T. repens, and Vicia americana.
  5. Eurema lisa (Boisduval & LeConte); Little Yellow - Common butterfly, spring to fall. Hostplants include Legumosinae; no hostplants listed by Scott (1986) are known to occur at McKnight.
  6. Pieris rapae (Linnaeus); Cabbage White - Common at McKnight, April to November. Hostplants include Sisymbrium altissimum and other Brassicaceae.

Species Total: 23 Species

References:

  • Borror, Donald J.; Charles A. Triplehorn; Norman F. Johnson. 1992. An Introduction to the Study of Insects (Sixth Edition). Harcourt Brace College Publishers, Fort Worth, Texas.
  • Heitzman, J. Richard and Joan E. Heitzman. 1996. Butterflies and Moths of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation, Jefferson City, Missouri.
  • North American Butterfly Association. 1995. North American Butterfly Association (NABA) Checklist and English Names of North American Butterflies. North American Butterfly Association, Morristown, New Jersey.
  • Scott, James A. 1986. The Butterflies of North America. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California.

List compiled September 1998, by John E. Hassett