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Using Wikipedia

If your students have 'Googled' any topic recently, they've probably found links to a website called Wikipedia near the top of their results list. Wikipedia is a free online encyclopedia that differs from other encyclopedias in a significant way: along with reading the articles in Wikipedia, anyone can add or edit articles however they like. According to their website, Wikipedia was created in 2001 and has since grown to be one of the largest sites on the web, passing one million entries in the English-language version of the encyclopedia in March of 2006. It is a collaborative effort with articles written by individuals from around the world using wiki software that allows content to be added or changed by anyone. As a result, Wikipedia is a dynamic work that is always growing, always changing.


Limitations and Advantages of Wikipedia

Many of the articles in Wikipedia are long and comprehensive, and many entries exist in Wikipedia for which no equivalent entry may be found in any other encyclopedia. As a result, it can be quite tempting for students to use the information found there in essays and lab reports. Those who would do so, however, are advised to use caution. While Wikipedia is without question a valuable and informative resource, there is an important concern to take into account when using it:

Because anyone can add or change content, there is an inherent lack of reliability and stability to Wikipedia. Authors of articles may not necessarily be experts on the topics they write about, leaving a lot of room for errors, misinformation, and bias.

The founder of Wikipedia, Jimmy Wales, has recently stressed that Wikipedia may not be suitable for academic uses, saying, "It is pretty good, but you have to be careful with it. It's good enough knowledge, depending on what your purpose is."

While it is important to be aware of the limitations of Wikipedia, there are some advantages as well. It is easy to access online for free at www.wikipedia.org. Articles are often added quickly and, as a result, coverage of current events and new technology in particular is quite extensive. Printed encyclopedias can take years to add new entries and those entries may not cover a topic in as exhaustive detail as those in Wikipedia.


Appropriateness as a Source

Whenever your students conduct research for an assignment, it is important for them to understand the type and quality of resources required for the assignment. They should be able to ask and answer for themselves the question: "Is an encyclopedia, print or online, an appropriate source of information for this project?" Wikipedia may be an appropriate resource for some assignments, but not for others. You may want to encourage your students to talk with you if they have difficulty evaluating the appropriateness of any source for their assignments, or have them talk with a librarian.

Because of Wikipedia's extensive and constantly-updated coverage of coverage of current events and new technology, it can be an excellent source of information on these areas of study. It can also be interesting and informative to look at the changes made to Wikipedia's entries as new information has come to light. this can be done by clicking the entry's "history" tab at the top of the page. This can also provide valuable insight into the process of collaborative writing.

You may decide for your students that the best use of Wikipedia might be as a starting point at which to gain contextual information about a topic before moving on to more detailed or more reliable information sources. Suggested starting points for student research can be found in the library's Subject Research Guides.

As with any source of information, in print or on the web, students should explore and evaluate additional equivalent resources simply to be sure that their facts are correct.


Wikipedia as a Curricular Tool

Instructors at colleges and universities around the world have made use of Wikipedia not just as a source of information but as an interactive educational tool. Students have written Wikipedia entries as individual assignments and as exercises in collaborative writing. Students have translated pages from another language into English and from English into another language. Students have also used recent controversies involving Wikipedia as a basis for discussion of ethics and bias.

An overview of past and current projects can be found on Wikipedia's page for school and university projects. A section on considerations and suggestions for projects is included on the page.


Citing Wikipedia

Wikipedia: Citing Wikipedia
Wikipedia provides a page informing its users how to cite its content using the following styles: APA (American Psychological Association), MLA (Modern Language Association), MHRA (Modern Humanities Research Association), Chicago Manual of Style, CBE/CSE (Council of Science Editors), Bluebook, BibTeX, and AMA (American Medical Association).

Citing Sources
Gould Library's guide to citation guides and handbooks and tips on citing internet sources.


Further Information

"7 Things You Should Know About Wikipedia"
by the EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative
A quick overview of the pros and cons of using Wikipedia as an academic resource.

"The Book Stops Here"
by Daniel H. Pink, Wired
A profile of Jimmy Wales, the founder of Wikipedia, and a brief history of the project.

"I Want My Wikipedia!"
by Barry X. Miller, Karl Helicher, & Teresa Berry; Library Journal
Three academic librarians evaluate the usefulness of Wikipedia's coverage of popular culture, current affairs, and science topics.

"Wikipedia"
by K.G. Schneider
A noted librarian and blogger gives her opinion on Wikipedia.

"Evaluating Web Pages: Questions to Ask and Techniques to Apply"
from the UC Berkeley - Teaching Library Internet Workshops
Librarians from the University of California Berkeley provide tips on evaluating the content of web resources.

"Internet Encyclopedias Go Head to Head" (behind subscription wall: click here to view from off-campus)
by Jim Giles, Nature
A study conducted by Nature finds that Wikipedia is only slightly less accurate than the online Encyclopaedia Britannica, igniting a firestorm of controversy.

"Fatally Flawed" (PDF)
by Encylopaedia Britannica, Inc.
Encyclopaedia Britannica
responds point-by-point to Nature's study.

"A Stand Against Wikipedia"
by Scott Jaschik, Inside Higher Ed
Middlebury College's History Department bans the use of Wikipedia as a research source in academic work.

"Wikipedia Makes No Guarantee of Validity"
Wikipedia's disclaimer on the validity of its contents and links to the disclaimers of other online encyclopedias.

"Wikipedia: External Peer Review"
Wikipedia's own page on the Nature/Britannica controversy and other critical reviews of Wikipedia's content.

"Wikipedia Reaches One Million Articles"
by The Wikimedia Foundation
A press release announcing the addition of the one millionth entry in English to Wikipedia.

"See Who's Editing Wikipedia - Diebold, the CIA, a Campaign"
by John Borland, Wired
A story about CalTech graduate student Virgil Griffith, who built a search tool that traces IP addresses of those who make Wikipedia changes.