General Research Guides
- Assembling a List of Works Cited in Your Paper From Duke University Libraries, a guide to citing different types of sources in APA, Chicago, MLA and Turabian styles. Includes guides to citing motion pictures, email messages, web pages and many more.
- Cite Sources From the Library of Congress, this page provides MLA and Turabian citation formats for films, legal documents, maps, photographs, recorded sound, special presentations, and texts.
- Chicago Manual of Style Online A searchable online version of the fifteenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style.
- Style Manuals and Citation Guides From Smith College Libraries, links to citation guides by discipline and format.
- Sources: Their Use and Acknowledgment From Dartmouth College.
- Using Modern Language Association (MLA) Format From Purdue University, this is a guide to writing papers in MLA format. It includes information on citing sources and formatting your works cited list.
Standards have not yet agreed upon standards for citing sources gleaned from the Internet. Scholars and students of all kinds are finding and using Internet resources, but citing these sources is a challenge because the citation format differs significantly from formats developed for print resources.
As a result, librarians and researchers have been adapting or creating guidelines for use in citing electronic sources, but they face some unique concerns, including:
- creating a permanent citation for an online resource that has relocated or whose content has changed
- directing readers to a specific point in a cited document in the absence of page numbers
- citing mailing list documents that are not permanently archived for verification
Standards for citing Internet sources will undoubtedly evolve. In the meantime, however, you may refer to the resources below for help in citing your online resources:
Citation Guides for Internet and Electronic Sources
- Reference PN 171 .F56 L5 1996.
Li, Xia and Nancy B. Crane. Electronic Styles: A Handbook to Citing Electronic Information. 2nd ed. Medford, N.J.: Information Today, ©1996. (It's a thin paperback.)
- Electronic Reference Formats How to cite various forms of electronic media in APA 5th edition style.
- MLA-Style Citations of Electronic Sources by Janice R. Walker. Endorsed by the Alliance for Computers & Writing, this style sheet is widely referenced among authors and editors who seek to emulate Modern Language Association style. It includes examples for citing a variety of networked sources (e.g., e-mail; telnet, FTP, gopher, and WWW sites; as well as discussion list and network news citations).
- Online: A Reference Guide to Using Online Resources by Andrew Harnack and Eugene Kepplinger, the authors of the book by the same name. You won't find the entire book here, but several useful excerpts are available.