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Biology (BIOL)

Chair: Professor Mark McKone

Professors: Mark McKone, Susan R. Singer, John L. Tymoczko, Gary E. Wagenbach, Stephan G. Zweifel

Associate Professors: Fernán Jaramillo, Matthew S. Rand, Debby Rae Walser-Kuntz,

Assistant Professor: Philip Camill III

Visiting Instructors: Anne Elizabeth Carlson, Muir Eaton, Catherine A. Reinke

Adjunct Instructor: Sarah Deel

Senior Lecturer: David J. Hougen-Eitzman


Potential biology majors should select a sequence of courses that will acquaint them with the variety of organisms, and their molecular and cellular structure, physiology, heredity, development, evolution, and ecological interactions. Biologists pursue courses in teaching at the college or high school level, biological research, study in the medical sciences, work in environmental sciences, or work in numerous commercial and industrial areas. This program of study will also serve students interested in biology for purposes of general education.

Requirements for a Major:

Nine courses are required within the department.

      1. Biology 125 and 126 (majors are required to complete both introductory courses, with a grade of "C-" or better before taking any other courses in the department)

      2. One course from each of the following groups including their laboratories where listed separately:

      a. Molecular and Cell Biology (Biology 234/235, 240/241, 278, 280/281, 310/311, 320/321, 340, 380/381, 382/383, 384)

      b. Organismic Biology (Biology 232, 236, 238/239, 250, 270/271, 342/343, 344/345, 359/360, 376/377, 386/387)

      c. Ecology and Evolutionary Biology (Biology 211, 221/222, 258, 348/349, 350, 352/353, 361/362)

      3. Three electives, which may include a six-credit independent study, a junior/senior seminar, Biology 212, or any of the courses listed above

      4. One course must emphasize data interpretation and analysis of the primary literature. Courses that fulfill this include Biology 340, 344, 348/349, 361/362, 367, 373, 382/383, 384, and all junior/senior seminars (All courses numbered from Biology 365 through 379.)

      5. Integrative Exercise (Biology 400 two terms).

Laboratory work is an integral part of most biology courses. In courses in which registration for the laboratory is separable from the lecture portion of the course, all biology majors are required to register concurrently for laboratory and lecture in order for these courses to count toward requirements for the major. No course taken at another school may be used to meet the requirements for the major without prior approval of the Biology faculty.

Because of the close interrelationship of Biology to other sciences, supporting work in other areas is necessary. The minimum requirement includes 1) Physics 112; or Physics 113 and 115; or Physics 114 and 115; or Physics 126; or Mathematics 215; and 2) Chemistry 123 or 128; and 3) Chemistry 230 or 233. The need for additional courses in allied sciences and mathematics will vary with the professional plans of the student.


The Introductory Sequence:

The introductory Biology sequence consists of two courses, Biology 125 and 126. Generally these are required before any further upper-level course work in Biology. The two courses can be taken in either order. There are several versions of Biology 125 from which to choose, and students are urged to make a thoughtful choice of the proper offering for their background.

In the fall term, a section of Biology 125 is offered "with problem solving." There will be additional class meetings on Tuesdays and Thursdays for problem solving and review. This offering is appropriate for students who (1) have not taken AP, IB, or Honors Biology, (2) do not feel confident in their high school preparation for college biology, or (3) do not have a strong chemistry background from either high school or college. Students who take Biology 125 in the fall could then go on to take Biology 126 in either the winter or spring terms.

A second fall term section of Biology 125 will be offered only for first-year students who are enrolled in the Triad program (see Cognitive Studies; requires concurrent enrollment in Psychology 110 and Philosophy 110). This Triad offering of Biology 125 is intended for students who meet the criteria for winter term Biology 125 (see below).

The winter term offering of Biology 125 is designed for students who (1) earned a score of 3 or higher in AP Biology, (2) earned a score of 5 or higher in IB Biology, or (3) earned a grade of B or higher in Honors or Advanced Biology in high school. In addition, these students are expected to have mastered basic concepts of chemistry in either a high school or college chemistry course. These same criteria would apply to any students who would like to take Biology 126 before taking Biology 125.


Biology Courses

BIOL 112. Conservation The current global rate of extinction of species is probably unprecedented in the history of the world, and the rate will increase dramatically in the coming decades. Conservation biology is a new synthetic discipline that emerged in the early 1980s to simultaneously address the scientific and social dimension of biodiversity conservation. The course presents an overview of the founding principles of conservation biology by examining the historic and present-day causes of species extinction, the biological bases central to species conservation, and the social dimension of conservation for sustainable management of biological diversity. 6 credits cr., MS, FallT. Nega

BIOL 125. Genes, Evolution, and Development Will emphasize the role of genetic information in biological systems. Under this theme, we will cover subjects from the molecular to the population levels of organization. Topics will include the nature of inheritance and life cycles, structure/function of DNA, gene expression and regulation, the changing genetic makeup of species as they evolve, and the development of individual organisms from zygotes. 6 credits cr., MS, Fall,WinterS. Singer, D. Walser-Kuntz, M. McKone, C. Reinke


BIOL 126. Energy Flow in Biological Systems Follows the pathways through which energy and matter are acquired, stored, and utilized within cells, organisms, and ecosystems. The focus moves among the different levels of organization from protein function to nutrient movement through ecosystems. 6 credits cr., MS, Winter,SpringJ. Tymoczko, F. Jaramillo, P. Camill

BIOL 160. Agroecology An investigation of the biological properties of agricultural ecosystems. In addition to examining the basis of food production, the effects of agricultural practices on the environment will be explored. Issues addressed could include: herbicide and pesticide use and misuse, implications of biotechnology, conservation of genetic diversity, organic farming, and effects of farming on global health. Since the management of ecosystems involves a human dimension, the social and economic effects of agricultural practices also will be explored. Does not count toward the Biology major. This course will replace Sustainable Agriculture, BIOL/ENTS 295. 6 credits cr., MS, Offered in alternate years. Not offered in 2004-2005.

BIOL 190. Global Change Biology Environmental problems are caused by a complex mix of physical, biological, social, economic, political, and technological factors. We use scientific data analyses and humanistic perspectives for understanding the causes of global change, how it affects the biosphere, including humanity, and strategies for solving environmental problems. Topics include natural climatic and ecological systems, evolution and species' capacity for change, human population growth and resource consumption, land-use change and sprawl, climate warming, pollution (air, land, and water), extinction and biodiversity loss, invasive species, tropical deforestation, and environmental protection. Does not count toward the Biology major. 6 credits cr., MS, WinterP. Camill

BIOL 211. Plant Taxonomy and Pollination Ecology This class has two goals. The first is to learn the identification and systematics of local plant species. There will be coverage of techniques for field collection, use of taxonomic keys and preservation of museum-quality specimens. The second goal is to take an investigative approach to major questions in the reproduction ecology of several local fall-blooming species. We will learn both lab and field techniques used by pollination biologists. During the first half of the term, there will be frequent field trips to the Arb, McKnight Prairie, and other local natural areas. Prerequisite: Biology 124 or Biology 125 and 126. 6 credits cr., MS, Offered in alternate years. Not offered in 2004-2005.

BIOL 212. Marine Biology Program in Australia and New Zealand: Biology Field Studies and Research Designed to complement Biology 250, the course teaches methods and approaches to the analysis of biological problems with emphasis on ecology and conservation biology. Topics for analysis arise from field and lab examination of animals and plants from both terrestrial and marine habitats. Several small and one large research project are required, with written reports and class presentation. Prerequisites: Biology 123 and 124 or Biology 125 and 126. 6 credits cr., MS, Not offered in 2004-2005.

BIOL 221. Ecosystem Ecology This course examines major ecosystems on Earth, including terrestrial, wetland, lake, river, estuarine, and marine systems. Topics include the two major themes of energy flow and production and decomposition, microbial ecology and nutrient transformations, element cycles, ecosystems as a component of the Earth System, and global change. Current applied issues are emphasized as case studies, including clear cutting, rising atmospheric CO2, eutrophication of aquatic systems, acid rain, wetland delineation, and biodiversity effects on ecosystems. Prerequisites: Biology 123 and 124 or Biology 125 and 126, or Geology 110, or Chemistry 123 or 128. Concurrent registration in Biology 222 is required. Formerly Biology 356. 6 credits cr., MS, FallP. Camill

BIOL 222. Ecosystem Ecology Laboratory Formerly Biology 357. 2 credits cr., ND, FallP. Camill

BIOL 232. Biology of Invertebrates An investigation of the major groups of terrestrial, marine and freshwater invertebrates. Field and laboratory study of living invertebrates will focus on functional organization, life cycles, ecology, and selected special topics. Prerequisites: Biology 123 and 124 or Biology 125 and 126. 6 credits cr., MS, WinterG. Wagenbach

BIOL 234. Microbiology A study of the metabolism, genetics, structure and function of microorganisms. While presented in the framework of the concepts of cellular and molecular biology, the emphasis will be on the uniqueness and diversity of the microbial world. Prerequisites: Biology 123 and 124 or Biology 125 and 126. 6 credits cr., MS, Offered in alternate years. Not offered in 2004-2005.

BIOL 235. Microbiology Laboratory 2 credits cr., ND, Not offered in 2004-2005.

BIOL 236. Plant Biology An exploration of structure-function relationships in plants. This course is framed in the context of advances in evolution and genomics, which offer insight into physiological, developmental, morphological, and anatomical adaptations to diverse environments. The biology behind current issues, including genetically modified organisms, will be investigated. Emphasis is placed on experimental approaches to the studies of plants. Prerequisites: Biology 123 and 124 or Biology 125 and 126. 6 credits cr., MS, WinterS. Singer

BIOL 238. Entomology Insects are one of the most successful groups of organisms on the planet, playing major roles in all terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. In addition, since insects are ubiquitous they affect human endeavors on many fronts, both positively (e.g., crop pollination) and negatively (damage to crops and transmitting disease). This class will focus on the biology of insects, including physiology, behavior, and ecology. Many examples will highlight current environmental issues. Prerequisites: Biology 123 and 124 or Biology 125 and 126. Concurrent registration in Biology 239 required. 6 credits cr., MS, Offered in alternate years. FallD. Hougen-Eitzman

BIOL 239. Entomology Laboratory Field and laboratory investigation of living insects. Synoptic examination of the major orders of insects, including evolution of different groups, physiology, structure, and identification. Field labs will focus on insect ecology and collection techniques for making a comprehensive insect collection. 2 credits cr., ND, Offered in alternate years. FallD. Hougen-Eitzman

BIOL 240. Genetics A study of the transmission of genetic information between generations of organisms, and of the mechanism of expression of information within an individual organism. The main emphasis will be on the physical and chemical basis of heredity; mutational, transmissional and functional analysis of the genetic material, and gene expression. Prerequisites: Biology 123 and 124 or Biology 125 and 126 or permission of the instructor. 6 credits cr., MS, SpringC. Reinke

BIOL 241. Genetics Laboratory 2 credits cr., ND, SpringC. Reinke

BIOL 250. Marine Biology Program in Australia and New Zealand: Marine Biology The course focuses on a study of two marine ecosystems through extensive field work, lecture, discussion, and development of small projects. Selected reefs near the southern end of the Great Barrier Reef in the Capricorn-Bunker group will be the setting for analysis of reefs and coral cays. Hatching sea turtles and nesting birds will also be examined at this site. Territory near the University of Auckland's Leigh Marine Laboratory, a contrasting site, will feature study of sandy and rocky intertidal and mangrove communities. 6 credits cr., MS, Not offered in 2004-2005.

BIOL 258. Ecosystem Management In recent years, promoting ecosystem based approaches to resource management have become a central concern for policy makers, scientists, governmental and nongovernmental organizations. This course provides an advanced introduction to ecosystem management. It will focus on principles, tools, and techniques of ecosystem management, discusses examples of its implementation, and provides hands on approach for understanding how computers are used to integrate the social, economic, and ecological aspects of ecosystem management. Prerequisites: one introductory science course. 6 credits cr., MS, SpringT. Nega

BIOL 260. Visiting Speakers Seminar Meets up to once per week for all three terms. Research presentations by distinguished visiting scholars in various areas of biology. Credit awarded during spring term after attendance of two-thirds of all the presentations. Not open to senior majors. 1 credit for all three terms cr., S/CR/NC, ND, Fall,Winter,SpringStaff

BIOL 270. Animal Physiology An analysis of the mechanisms underlying physiological systems of animals employing principles of biology and chemistry. Topics include gas exchange, energy use, temperature regulation, ion and osmoregulation, reproduction, information processing and control of effectors. Associated laboratory will emphasize experimentation and application of concepts in living organisms, including ourselves. Prerequisites: Biology 123 and 124 or Biology 125 and 126. 6 credits cr., MS, WinterA. Carlson

BIOL 271. Animal Physiology Laboratory 2 credits cr., ND, WinterA. Carlson

BIOL 275. Science and Society Science today is hardwired into virtually every aspect of our lives and the world we inhabit so much so that there is no 'space' outside science. Our societies can equally well die of the production of science (e.g., global warming, species extinction) or safeguard itself from them. In such a context, how we understand science and with what tools is a key question. The aim of this course is to explore major approaches for understanding and explaining scientific knowledge and the implications of these approaches for understanding the place and importance of science in an age of global environmentalism. 6 credits cr., MS, WinterT. Nega

BIOL 278. Introduction to Biochemistry This course presents an overview of the biochemical aspects of energy and information metabolism. This course is intended to provide students with the fundamental biochemical knowledge to support their further studies in biology. Questions such as the following are addressed: What defines a good fuel? How are metabolic pathways constructed and made to occur at rates sufficient to support life? Interwoven throughout the discussion of energy will be consideration of information processing. How do molecules recognize one another? How is the complex metabolic web of the cell regulated? How does this regulation change in response to signals such as hormones or environmental conditions, and to conditions such as exercise, starvation, alcohol consumption or disease states? This course does not fulfill requirements for the Biochemistry concentration. Prerequisites: Biology 125 and 126, Chemistry 123 or 128. 6 credits cr., MS, SpringJ. Tymoczko

BIOL 280. Cell Biology An examination of the structures and processes that underlie the life of cells, both prokaryotic and eukaryotic. Topics to be covered include energy capture, storage, and utilization; cellular reproduction; organelles, membranes, and other cellular components; and cell-cell communication. Prerequisites: Biology 123 and 124 or Biology 125 and 126. 6 credits cr., MS, FallF. Jaramillo

BIOL 281. Cell Biology Laboratory The focus of the laboratory will be on current techniques used to study cellular structure and function. Concurrent registration in Biology 280 required. 2 credits cr., ND, FallF. Jaramillo

BIOL 302. Methods of Teaching Science Cross-listed with EDUC 347. This course will explore teaching methods for the life and physical sciences in grades 5-12. Curricular materials and active learning labs will be discussed and developed. In addition, time outside of class will be spent observing and teaching in local science classrooms. Will not count toward a biology major. Prerequisites: Educational Studies 234, senior standing, and permission of instructor. 6 credits cr., ND, SpringD. Walser-Kuntz

BIOL 310. Immunology This course will examine the role of the immune system in defense, allergic reactions, and autoimmunity. Topics to be covered include the structure and function of antibodies, cytokines, the role of the major histocompatibility complex in antigen presentation, cellular immunity, immunodeficiencies, and current techniques used to study immune responses. Prerequisites: Biology 123 and 124 or Biology 125 and 126. Biology 280 is recommended. 6 credits cr., MS, WinterD. Walser-Kuntz

BIOL 311. Immunology Laboratory 2 credits cr., ND, WinterD. Walser-Kuntz

BIOL 340. Developmental Genetics An investigation of the genetic regulation of animal development. The applications of genetics and molecular biology utilized to study development will be examined in various model systems. This is an analytical course focusing on the experimental basis behind current developmental concepts. Prerequisites: Biology 123 and 124 or Biology 125 and 126. 6 credits cr., MS, Not offered in 2004-2005.

BIOL 342. Animal Developmental Biology An analysis of animal development from fertilization to the establishment of the adult body form. Lectures and discussions will examine the key processes of animal embryogenesis, as well as the molecular and cellular mechanisms that control these developmental processes. Students will perform experiments in developmental biology using a variety of terrestrial and aquatic embryos during the weekly laboratories. Prerequisites: Biology 123 and 124 or Biology 125 and 126. 6 credits cr., MS, FallC. Reinke

BIOL 343. Animal Developmental Biology Laboratory 2 credits cr., ND, Not offered in 2004-2005.

BIOL 344. Plant Development A study of the development of vascular plants. Topics including embryogenesis, meristem function, leaf morphogenesis, and reproduction will be investigated through the analysis of primary literature. Emphasis will be placed on the experimental basis for current concepts in plant development ranging from molecular mechanisms to evolution of developmental pathways. Prerequisites: Biology 123 and 124 or Biology 125 and 126. 6 credits cr., MS, SpringS. Singer

BIOL 345. Plant Development Laboratory Laboratories will introduce students to techniques used to investigate plant development including plant tissue culture, transgenic plant construction, plant genetics, image analysis, and use of the scanning electron microscope. Concurrent registration required in BIOL 344. 2 credits cr., ND, SpringS. Singer

BIOL 348. Paleoecology In this seminar, students examine current primary literature in paleoclimatology and paleoecology to understand climate and biosphere changes over Earth's history, with emphasis on the last 18,000 years. Topics include glacial cycles, ocean circulation, vegetation migration, tree ring analysis, paleoclimatic proxies, and the methodology of conducting paleoecological studies. In-class research includes coring a lake and analyzing fossil pollen and charcoal, and reconstructing aridity and precipitation using tree rings. Prerequisites: Biology 123 and 124 or Biology 125 and 126 or Geology 110. Recommended courses: exposure to some community and ecosystem ecology, sedimentary geology, tectonics, or geochemistry. 6 credits cr., MS, WinterP. Camill

BIOL 349. Paleoecology Laboratory 2 credits cr., ND, WinterP. Camill

BIOL 350. Evolution Principles and history of evolutionary change in wild populations, with consideration of both microevolutionary and macroevolutionary time scales. Topics covered include causes of change in gene frequency, the nature of adaptation, constraints on evolutionary change, the evolution of genes and proteins, rates of speciation and extinction, and the major events in evolutionary history. Prerequisites: Biology 123 and 124 or Biology 125 and 126. 6 credits cr., MS, FallM. Eaton

BIOL 352. Population Ecology An investigation of the properties of populations and communities. Topics include population growth and regulation, life tables, interspecific and intraspecific competition, predation, parasitism, mutualism, the nature of communities, and biogeography. Prerequisites: Biology 123 and 124 or Biology 125 and 126; Mathematics 111. Recommended course: Mathematics 215, Psychology 124 or equivalent exposure to statistical analysis. Concurrent registration in Biology 353 required. 6 credits cr., MS, SpringM. McKone

BIOL 353. Population Ecology Laboratory 2 credits cr., ND, SpringM. McKone

BIOL 359. Plant Physiological Ecology This course examines plant physiological mechanisms to explain ecological patterns. Topics include physiological tolerances and species distributions, nutrient uptake and allocation, water and nutrient use efficiency, C3, C4 and CAM photosynthesis, carbon allocation, acclimation, responses to light, UV, and CO2, plant competition, alpine and arctic treelines, and adaptations in North American plant communities. Emphasis is placed on testing hypotheses and investigative field studies. Prerequisites: Biology 123 and 124 or Biology 125 and 126. Recommended courses: Biology 352, Mathematics 215, Psychology 124 or equivalent exposure to statistical analysis. Concurrent registration in Biology 360 is required. 6 credits cr., MS, Offered in alternate years. Not offered in 2004-2005.

BIOL 360. Plant Physiological Ecology Lab 2 credits cr., ND, Offered in alternate years. Not offered in 2004-2005.

BIOL 361. Tropical Rainforest Ecology The tropical rainforests contain most of the earth's species, but have been less studied than many other biological communities. Recently there has been a dramatic increase in ecological investigations in the tropics, and the goal of this course is to survey the most contemporary and influential published work in rainforest ecology. Topics to be emphasized include the latitudinal gradient in species diversity, evolutionary ecology, and interactions between species. Prerequisites: Biology 352 or other ecology course work and permission of the instructor. 6 credits cr., MS, Offered in alternate years. FallM. McKone

BIOL 362. Field Investigation in Tropical Rainforest Ecology This course begins with a two-week visit in December to the La Selva Biological Station near Puerto Viejo, Costa Rica. The station is located in lowland rainforest and has been the site of many important ecological experiments. While at La Selva, the class will perform extensive field experiments planned during Biology 361. In regular meetings during the term, data will be analyzed and presented in oral and written reports. Prerequisites: Biology 361 and permission of the instructor. Does not count toward the Biology major. 6 credits cr., MS, Offered in alternate years. WinterM. McKone

BIOL 365. Seminar: Selected Topics in Neurobiology: Ion Channel Diseases These "channelopathies," which include cystic fibrosis, myasthenia gravis, hyperkalemic periodic paralysis, etc., offer an excellent opportunity to further explore the critical role played by ion channels. Prerequisites: Biology 123 and 124 or Biology 125 and 126. 6 credits cr., MS, Not offered in 2004-2005.

BIOL 366. Seminar: Selected Topics in Human Genetics Seminar course examining the application of classical genetics, cytogentics, and molecular biology to human variation and disease. Prerequisite: Biology 240. 6 credits cr., MS, Not offered in 2004-2005.

BIOL 367. Seminar: Selected Topics in Molecular Genetics What mechanisms of gene regulation lie beyond transcription and translation? In this course we will explore different ways that cells interpret the information endcoded in their genomes. Topics include gene conversion and gene rearrangement, gene silencing and genetic imprinting, siRNA-mediated RNA degradation and prion diseases. Emphasis will be placed on critical examination of examples from primary literature and data interpretation. Prerequisite: Biology 240. 6 credits cr., MS, WinterC. Reinke

BIOL 369. Seminar: Selected Topics in Parasitism and Mutualism An examination of the wide array of interactions between host and associating organisms and their importance in biology and medicine. Probably every organism on earth has one or more virus, bacterial, protist, animal, fungal or plant associates. Some cause disease (e.g. malaria), others change behavior of the host, etc. Detailed examination of selected examples through primary literature, discussion, and writing. Prerequisites: Biology 123 and 124 and Biology 125 and 126. 6 credits cr., MS, WinterG. Wagenbach

BIOL 370. Seminar: Selected Topics in Virology An examination of selected animal viruses. The course will focus on the most recent developments in HIV-related research, including implications for HIV-treatment and vaccines and the impact of viral infection on the immune system of the host. In addition to studying the structure and replication of particular viruses we will also discuss the current laboratory techniques used in viral research. Prerequisites: Biology 123 and 124 or Biology 125 and 126. 6 credits cr., MS, SpringD. Walser-Kuntz

BIOL 372. Seminar: Selected Topics in Exercise Biochemistry An examination of how basic biochemical and physiological systems respond to the demands of exercise, and how they are modified in response to training. Prerequisite: Biology 330 or 380. 6 credits cr., MS, Not offered in 2004-2005.

BIOL 373. Seminar: Selected Topics in Animal Behavior: Avian Sexual Selection Darwin identified sexual selection as a major force in the evolution of differences between female and male animals. Birds have been central experimental organisms in research on sexual selection since Darwin's time. We will use contemporary primary literature to examine experimental and theoretical advances in understanding avian sexual selection. Prerequisites: Biology 123 and 124 or 125 and 126. Previous course work in behavior or evolution is recommended. 6 credits cr., MS, FallM. Eaton

BIOL 376. Seminar: Animal Behavior in the Galápagos We will explore topics in animal behavior that specifically relate to some of the unusual as well as the usual behavioral patterns exhibited by animals in the Galápagos Islands. One of the goals for this course is to attempt to design procedures for behavioral observation under less than optimal conditions. Wildlife conservation issues will not allow us to manipulate animals and will place serious time constraints on our observations. The challenge will be to design studies using comparative observations while minimizing the disturbance to the wildlife. Prerequisites: Biology 123 and 124 or Biology 125 and 126, permission of the instructor 6 credits cr., MS, Not offered in 2004-2005.

BIOL 377. Animal Behavior in the Galápagos The Galápagos Islands are one of the few places on earth where large animals (especially birds) do not possess an innate fear of humans. This unusual behavioral pattern coupled with the amazing abundance of the island fauna, creates an extremely unique opportunity to observe, characterize, and measure animal behavior under natural conditions. This two-week course includes a visit to the Galápagos Islands and a short trip to the Ecuadorian Rainforest in December. Regular meetings during the term will be used to present oral and written reports based on our observations in the field. Prerequisites: Biology 376, permission of the instructor. 6 credits cr., MS, Not offered in 2004-2005.

BIOL 380. Biochemistry Biochemistry is an examination of the molecular basis of life processes. The course provides an indepth investigation of metabolic pathways, their interrelationships and regulation, protein structure and function with special emphasis on enzymes. Other topics include the techniques of protein analysis and how they are employed to examine problems of fundamental biochemical importance. This course meets the requirement for the Biochemistry concentration. Prerequisites: Biology 123 and 124 or Biology 125 and 126 and Chemistry 233 and 234. 6 credits cr., MS, FallStaff

BIOL 381. Biochemistry Laboratory 2 credits cr., ND, FallStaff

BIOL 382. Molecular Biology The molecular basis of the structure, replication, stable inheritance, and expression of genetic material illustrated with examples from the primary literature. Topics include: DNA replication and recombination, chromosome stability, DNA mutation and repair, regulation of gene expresion, methods of gene identification, and the impact of recombinant DNA technology on human genetics. Laboratory will focus on current techniques in molecular biology including: gene cloning, genome databases, DNA finger printing, DNA sequencing, and the polymerase chain reaction. Prerequisite: Biology 240, Chemistry 233. Concurrent registration in Biology 383 required. 6 credits cr., MS, Not offered in 2004-2005.

BIOL 383. Molecular Biology Laboratory 2 credits cr., ND, Not offered in 2004-2005.

BIOL 384. Oncogenes and the Molecular Biology of Cancer An analysis of the biochemical, molecular and cellular processes that result in the transformation of normal cells into cancer cells. An analytical approach, based on the primary literature used and emphasis will be placed on critical evaluation of experimental design and data-interpretation. Prerequisites: Biology 240 or 380. 6 credits cr., MS, WinterJ. Tymoczko

BIOL 386. Neurobiology An analysis of the biology of neurons and the nervous system. Topics include the molecular basis of electrical excitability in neurons, transfer of information across synapses, mechanisms of sensation, learning, memory, and behavior. Prerequisites: Biology 123 and 124 or Biology 125 and 126. 6 credits cr., MS, SpringF. Jaramillo

BIOL 387. Neurobiology Laboratory 2 credits cr., ND, SpringF. Jaramillo

BIOL 394. Biology Research Laboratory and/or field investigation associated with an ongoing research program in the department of Biology. The project is undertaken with the direct supervision of a faculty member. Regular individual meetings, written progress reports, and public presentations should be expected. 1-6 credits cr., ND, Fall,Winter,SpringStaff

BIOL 400. Integrative Exercise Preparation and submission of the written portion of the Integrative Exercise. Continuing course (fall or winter). Oral examination, evaluation of the Integrative Exercise, and participation in visiting speakers seminars (spring). 6 credits cr., S/NC, ND, Fall,Winter,SpringStaff