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Environmental and Technology Studies Concentration (ENTS)

Director: Professor Dale Jamieson

Post-Doctoral Fellow: Tsegaye Nega

Committee Members: Philip Camill, III, Debroah Gross, William E. Hollingworth, Julie A. Klassen, Kelly L. Kollman, Michael J. Kowalewski, Beverly Nagel, Mary E. Savina, Kimberly K. Smith, Gary E. Wagenbach

The Environmental and Technology Studies program grew out of the conviction that the College has a responsibility to prepare students to respond to the grave threats posed to natural ecosystems by patterns of human development. In the search for just and sustainable environmental solutions, ENTS brings faculty and students together from a broad range of academic departments and backgrounds to address scientific, economic, ethical, social, political, historical and aesthetic dimensions. This truly integrated, multidisciplinary commitment emphasizes not only critical thinking, but also hands-on laboratory and field research reaching across all divisions of the College. It values and facilitates opportunities for research projects, internships and other work experiences, and off-campus studies. The ENTS concentration is open to students in all majors. Concentrators are advised to contact the Educational Associate early in their academic career, and to work out their program in consultation with an ENTS faculty member.

Requirements for the Concentration:

1. One project-based introductory course: 110, 120, or 189;

2. Six courses in the following four categories, with at least one from each category:

Science: Biology 212, 250, Environmental and Technology Studies 112, 128, 160, 210, 212, 221/2, 238, 239, 252/3, 258, 270, 328/9, 340, 348/9, 359/60, 365, 371, 375

Ethics and Values: 225, 242, 243, 370

Arts and Culture: 113, 183, 190, 195, 227, 229, 232, 233, 234, 235, 236, 237, 260, 287, 305, 330, 386

Society and Policy: 130, 244, 245, 257, 262, 265, 268, 271, 273, 289, 312, 318

3. Three credits of 298 and three credits of 398

4. Among the courses taken, at least one must be a lab course (lab courses include 110, 120, 128, 210, 221/222, 252/3, 258, 270, 328/9, 340, 348/9, 359/60, 371, 375).

5. Among the courses taken, at least one must primarily have an international perspective (these courses include 130, 229, 234, 238, 265, 268, 289, 312)

6. No more than three 100-level courses will be counted towards the concentration.

Environmental and Technology Studies Courses

ENTS 100 does count toward the total of six courses required to obtain an ENTS concentration. However, this class does not count as one of the project-based ENTS "introductory courses, and it does not satisfy one of the four ENTS distribution categories that must be covered in pursuit of the required six-course total.

ENTS 100. Science, Technology and Public Policy Science and technology have led to profound effects upon public life over the past century. This course will study the social and political impacts of scientific and technological developments on modern life. We will investigate particular cases drawn from across the sciences, such as genetics, energy production and consumption, nuclear weapons, and the information revolution. The relationship between government, the public, and the science/technology enterprise will be examined. What is, and what should be the role of the practitioners themselves? 6 credits cr., S/CR/NC, ND, FallJ. Weisberg

ENTS 110. Introduction to Environmental and Technology Studies: Envisioning Landscapes An introductory course on the topic of landscape that will provide an opportunity to think in an interdisciplinary way. In what ways do we interact with real and imagined landscapes? In what ways are our interactions defined by our perceptions and experience? We will explore the ecological, geological, social, and esthetic dimensions of a variety of landscapes. Perspectives from science, the humanities and public policy will be utilized in a search for understanding. The course will involve classroom, laboratory, and field study. Open only to first and second year students or by permission of the instructors. 6 credits cr., ND, FallJ. Klassen, G. Wagenbach

ENTS 112. Conservation Cross-listed with BIOL 112. . The current global rate of extinction of species is probably unprecedented in the history of the world, and the rate will increase dramatically in the coming decades. Conservation biology is a new synthetic discipline that emerged in the early 1980s to simultaneously address the scientific and social dimension of biodiversity conservation. The course presents an overview of the founding principles of conservation biology by examining the historic and present-day causes of species extinction, the biological bases central to species conservation, and the social dimension of conservation for sustainable management of biological diversity. 6 credits cr., MS, FallT. Nega

ENTS 113. Field Drawing Cross-listed with ARTS 113. . A beginning drawing course for science students and others who are interested in developing their skills in drawing from nature. Most of the classwork will be done outdoors and deal directly with drawing from plant forms, geological sources, and the landscape as subjects. Emphasis will be placed on the development of the technical skills needed for visual note-taking and development of journals. Problems will deal with the analysis of space and objects through line, shape, volume, and tone. No prerequisites. 6 credits cr., AL, Not offered in 2003-2004.

ENTS 120. Introduction to Environmental Geology Cross-listed with GEOL 120. . An introduction to the basic principles needed to understand humankind's use and abuse of soil, water, fuels, and other resources. Field trips and laboratories included. Not open to students who have taken Geology 110. 6 credits cr., MS, Not offered in 2003-2004.

ENTS 128. Principles of Environmental Chemistry Cross-listed with CHEM 128. Cross-listed with ENTS 128. This course covers many of the same topics of Chemistry 123, but with an environmental emphasis. The core topics of introductory chemistry (i.e. thermodynamics, kinetics, equilibrium, and bonding) are central to understanding major environmental topics such as greenhouse warming, ozone depletion, acid-rain deposition, and general chemical contamination in air, water, and soil. These topics and the chemical principles behind them are addressed through an emphasis on the earth's atmosphere. One four-hour laboratory per week. Students cannot receive credit for both Chemistry 123 and 128. Prerequisite: Adequate secondary school preparation as indicated by the self-administered Chemistry Placement Exam (Chemistry Home Page) or Chemistry 122. 6 credits cr., MS, SpringW. Hollingsworth

ENTS 130. Population and Food in the Global System Cross-listed with SOAN 130,LTAM 130. . This course focuses on issues of population growth, hunger, and world food supply. Topics to be considered include: dynamics of population growth and demographic change; food production systems and sustainable development in the Third World; socio-political and ecological causes of famine; and patterns of world food distribution. Special attention will be given to policies aimed at controlling population and increasing food production, and why they succeed or fail. No prerequisites. 6 credits cr., SS, Not offered in 2003-2004.

ENTS 160. Agroecology Cross-listed with BIOL 160. An investigation of the biological properties of agricultural ecosystems. In addition to examining the basis of food production, the effects of agricultural practices on the environment will be explored. Issues addressed could include: herbicide and pesticide use and misuse, implications of biotechnology, conservation of genetic diversity, organic farming, and effects of farming on global health. Since the management of ecosystems involves a human dimension, the social and economic effects of agricultural practices also will be explored. Does not count toward the Biology major. This course will replace Sustainable Agriculture, BIOL/ENTS 295. 6 credits cr., MS, Offered in alternate years. FallD. Hougen-Eitzman

ENTS 183. Farm and Forest in African History Cross-listed with AFAM 183,HIST 183. This course will study the history of environmental change in Africa, using the concepts of "farm" and "forest" to analyze human intervention and ecological change in a variety of ecosystems. Our focus will be primarily on the 19th and 20th centuries, as we look at the impact of such processes as urbanization, trade, colonial settlement and post-colonial development policy on African landscapes. As we investigate these topics, we will also discuss how African environmental issues have been represented in colonial and post-colonial discourses. 6 credits cr., HU, FallJ. Monson

ENTS 189. Global Change Biology Cross-listed with BIOL 190. . Environmental problems are caused by a complex mix of physical, biological, social, economic, political, and technological factors. We use scientific data analyses and humanistic perspectives for understanding the causes of global change, how it affects the biosphere, including humanity, and strategies for solving environmental problems. Topics include natural climatic and ecological systems, evolution and species' capacity for change, human population growth and resource consumption, land-use change and sprawl, climate warming, pollution (air, land, and water), extinction and biodiversity loss, invasive species, tropical deforestation, and environmental protection. Does not count toward the Biology major. 6 credits cr., MS, WinterP. Camill

ENTS 190. Technology in American History Cross-listed with HIST 190. . What is technology? Why study its history? Is technology fundamentally different in modern times than it was in earlier periods of human history? How does technological change occur? Is technology out of control or is it subject to human shaping and direction? This course will investigate such questions using examples from throughout human history and from several different civilizations. 6 credits cr., HU, Not offered in 2003-2004.

ENTS 195. American Environmental History Cross-listed with HIST 195. An introduction to the study of environmental history and an examination of several significant elements in the history of human interaction with the natural environment on the North American continent. These will include such subjects as fire, agriculture, river management, urban development, wilderness, and species extinction. Between humans and nature there is a constant tension, because humans are the only species with the power to alter their environment significantly. The course will examine salient instances of that tension, from the efforts of pre-historical populations to manipulate their environment to the growth of the modern environmental movement. 6 credits cr., HU, WinterR. Bonner

ENTS 210. Geomorphology Cross-listed with GEOL 210. . Study of the geological processes and factors which influence the origin and development of the surficial features of the earth. Laboratories and field trips included. Prerequisite: One introductory geology course (110 or 120), or consent of the instructor. 6 credits cr., MS, FallS. Mitchell

ENTS 221. Ecosystem Ecology Cross-listed with BIOL 221. This course examines major ecosystems on Earth, including terrestrial, wetland, lake, river, estuarine, and marine systems. Topics include the two major themes of energy flow and production and decomposition, microbial ecology and nutrient transformations, element cycles, ecosystems as a component of the Earth System, and global change. Current applied issues are emphasized as case studies, including clear cutting, rising atmospheric CO2, eutrophication of aquatic systems, acid rain, wetland delineation, and biodiversity effects on ecosystems. Prerequisites: Biology 123 and 124 or Biology 125 and 126, or Geology 110, or Chemistry 123 or 128. Concurrent registration in Biology 222 is required. Formerly Biology 356. 6 credits cr., MS, FallP. Camill

ENTS 222. Ecosystem Ecology Laboratory Cross-listed with BIOL 222. Formerly Biology 357. 2 credits cr., ND, FallP. Camill

ENTS 225. American Environmental Thought Cross-listed with POSC 257. The development of American thinking about nature and humanity's relationship to it covering from the 19th century to the present. Representative figures include Henry David Thoreau, John Muir, Aldo Leopold, Rachel Carson, and Barry Commoner. 6 credits cr., SS, WinterK. Smith

ENTS 227. History of the American West Cross-listed with HIST 227. . This course treats the history of a distinctive region, the arid section of the United States between the 100th Meridian and the Sierra Nevada, during the 19th and 20th centuries. We will study cultural interactions among the indigenous populations and the Euro-American immigrants, the development in the area of institutions and economic systems characteristic of European civilization, and the political and environmental consequences of those developments. 6 credits cr., HU, Not offered in 2003-2004.

ENTS 228. Eco-House Design and Construction Exploration of a design for a small “foot print,” energy efficient, cost effective, and aesthetically pleasing student housing. Course goal is to learn about good design and plan for construction. Seminar format will be used along with demonstrations, field trips, guest speakers, and practical work on initial phases of construction. Lab required. NDENTS 228 does count toward the total of six courses required to obtain an ENTS concentration. However, this class does not satisfy one of the four ENTS distribution categories that must be covered in pursuit of the required six-course total. 6 cr., ND, SpringG. Wagenbach

ENTS 229. Science, Authority, and the Conscience in German Literature Cross-listed with GERM 229. An examination of the literary portrayal of the personal and societal responsibilities connected with gathering and applying (primarily scientific) knowledge. Questions to be addressed include: In what ways does knowledge liberate, threaten, and/or obligate us? Who controls the pursuit of knowledge and its applications? What is the role for individual and societal conscience? The settings and authors range from the Renaissance world of Goethe's Faust and Brecht's Galileo to the McCarthy era in the United States (Kipphardt), a post-WWII Swiss sanatorium (Dürrenmatt), and the intra- and inter-border dilemmas in the erstwhile East Germany (Wolf, Maron). In translation. 6 credits cr., AL, Not offered in 2003-2004.

ENTS 232. The Forest in German Literature and Culture Cross-listed with GERM 232. We will examine stories, fairy tales, poetry, art, music, and other cultural documents to understand the forest as an important natural and symbolic phenomenon in the relationship of humans to nature in German-speaking societies. Over-arching themes include the rise of environmental sensibility, alienation through technology, and responses to environmental threats. In translation. 6 credits cr., AL, SpringJ. Klassen

ENTS 233. Southern Literature Cross-listed with ENGL 234. A study of the southern literary imagination from the Civil War to the present, with particular emphasis on the Southern Literary Renaissance in the early 20th century. We will examine the cultural iconography of the South, reading poetry, fiction, and drama that explores southern writers' engagement with race, history, gender and "place." Authors read will include Faulkner, Flannery O'Connor, Robert Penn Warren, Zora Neale Hurston, Tennessee Williams, Eudora Welty, and Cormac McCarthy. We will also watch a few films in connection with the course, including Gone with the Wind. Group IV. 6 credits cr., AL, SpringE. McKinsey

ENTS 234. Ecology, Economy, and Culture Cross-listed with SOAN 234,LTAM 234. . This course examines the ways in which economic goods are embedded in social relations. When does a thing become a commodity? What relationships exist between culture and ecology? Formulating an anthropological perspective for the interpretation of "economic facts," we will examine simularities and differences among hunter-gatherers, horticulturalists, and peasants. We will also discuss the interpretation of traders in the brokering of culture, asymmetrical articulation of local and transnational economies, gender bias in classical exchange theory, Mauss on gift-giving and Marx on "commodity fetishism." Theoretical material will be illustrated with ethnographic examples from Africa, Asia, Oceania, and the Americas. 6 credits cr., SS, Not offered in 2003-2004.

ENTS 235. Aesthetics Cross-listed with PHIL 234. Various issues in aesthetics: the definition of art, the nature of the aesthetic, the description, interpretation, and evaluation of aesthetic objects. A special topic of concern for this year will be the aesthetics of nature. Readings will be drawn primarily from the works of philosophers and from case materials. 6 credits cr., HU, WinterG. Iseminger

ENTS 236. American Nature Writing Cross-listed with ENGL 236. . A study of the environmental imagination in American literature. We will explore the relationship between literature and the natural sciences and examine questions of style, narrative, and representation in the light of larger social, ethical, and political concerns about the environment. Authors read will include Thoreau, Muir, Mary Austin, Jeffers, Abbey, Snyder, and Terry Tempest Williams. Students will write a creative Natural History essay as part of the course requirements. Group IV. 6 credits cr., AL, FallM. Kowalewski

ENTS 237. American Indian Literature Cross-listed with ENGL 237. Study and discussion of Native American literature from its graphic and oral roots to contemporary memoir, fiction, and poetry. 20th century authors read will include Charles Eastman, James Welch, N. Scott Momaday, Louise Erdrich, Joy Harjo, Susan Power, LeAnne Howe, Leslie Marmon Silko, and Sherman Alexie. Topics to be discussed will include the importance of place, spiritual life, nature and the "supernatural," and diverse representations of historical events, community, and individual and tribal identity. The course will also critique the depiction of Native Americans by Euro-Americans in popular media. Group IV. 6 credits cr., AL, Not offered in 2003-2004.

ENTS 238. Marine Biology Program: Physical And Cultural Environment of New Zealand and Australia The geologic and natural history of the landscape will be explored by examining how New Zealand and Australia were settled by early and later settlers. Study will focus on how the physical landscape has been changed through agriculture and the importation of non-native species, as well as the unique social and political climates of two countries which share a history of colonization. The course will use readings, writing, meetings with visiting lectures, and visits to cultural centers. 2 credits cr., S/CR/NC, MS, WinterG. Wagenbach

ENTS 239. Plant Biology Cross-listed with BIOL 236. An exploration of structure-function relationships in plants. This course is framed in the context of advances in evolution and genomics, which offer insight into physiological, developmental, morphological, and anatomical adaptations to diverse environments. The biology behind current issues, including genetically modified organisms, will be investigated. Emphasis is placed on experimental approaches to the studies of plants. Prerequisites: Biology 123 and 124 or Biology 125 and 126. 6 credits cr., MS, Not offered in 2003-2004.

ENTS 242. Environmental Ethics Cross-listed with PHIL 242. What is our proper moral stance toward the natural environment? Toward individual non-human animals in that environment? Toward other species of living beings? Toward the biotic community as a whole? The class will aim not so much at definite solutions to particular environmental problems as at an increased philosophical sophistication in framing and supporting answers to these and related questions about our environment and our place in it. 6 credits cr., HU, FallD. Jamieson

ENTS 243. Animals: Mind and Morals Cross-listed with PHIL 243. . Human identity is in part constituted in opposition to the idea of the animal. In this class we will discuss how views about the relationships of humans to animals have played out in philosophy of mind, ethics, and environmental policy. Among the questions we will explore are the following: Do animals have minds? How seriously should we take the interests of individual animals in our decision-making? How should the interests of animals be weighed against various environmental goods such as the conservation of rare plants? 6 credits cr., HU, Not offered in 2003-2004.

ENTS 244. Biodiversity Conservation, Culture, and Development Cross-listed with SOAN 244. How can the need for intensive human social and economic development be reconciled with the conservation of biodiversity? This course explores the wide range of actions that people take on a local, national, and international level to address this question. We will use political ecology and conservation biology as theoretical frameworks to examine the role of traditional and indigenous approaches to biodiversity conservation as well as contemporary debates about integrated conservation development across a spectrum of cultures in North America, Africa, Latin America, and Asia. Prerequisite: Sociology/Anthropology 110, 111, or permission of instructor. 6 credits cr., SS, SpringB. Nagel, T. Nega

ENTS 245. Comparative Environmental Politics and Policy Cross-listed with POSC 245. The study of environmental politics tends to concentrate either on developments within the United States or developments at the international level. Very few courses examine environmental policymaking across different political systems. As growing tensions over international environmental issues illustrate, however, individual countries take very different approaches to defining environmental problems and have different ways of addressing and trying to find solutions to these problems. We will explicitly compare different national approaches to environmental politics and policymaking. In so doing, we will explore the impact of institutions, culture, economic interests and the historic development of national environmental movements on these political processes. 6 credits cr., SS, FallK. Kollman

ENTS 252. Aquatic Biology Cross-listed with BIOL 252. A detailed investigation of aquatic organisms, both plant and animal, in relation to their physical, chemical and biological environment. Lake, river and marsh will be studied as independent and interdependent systems, with the effects on man's use and manipulation investigated where appropriate. The latter part of the course will deal with analysis and evaluation of current hypotheses on population growth, fluctuation and distribution based on field data collected in the laboratory. Prerequisites: Biology 123 and 124 or Biology 125 and 126. 6 credits cr., MS, Not offered in 2003-2004.

ENTS 253. Aquatic Biology Laboratory Cross-listed with BIOL 253. An investigation of a local aquatic system and marsh community. Sampling techniques and data analysis are the main focus of the laboratory. Concurrent registration in Biology 252 required. 2 credits cr., ND, Not offered in 2003-2004.

ENTS 258. Geology of Soils Cross-listed with GEOL 258. . The study of soil formation, physical and chemical properties of soils especially as related to geomorphology and land use. Laboratories and field trips will emphasize how to describe and interpret soils. Prerequisite: One introductory geology course (110 or 120). 6 credits cr., MS, Not offered in 2003-2004.

ENTS 260. Topics in Hispanic Literature: Forces of Nature Refer to SPAN 260 for description. In Spanish. 6 credits cr., AL,RAD, SpringB. Boling

ENTS 262. Environmental Policy and Politics Cross-listed with POSC 262. . Study of U.S. federal environmental and natural resource policies since the 1960s with particular emphasis on the regulation of air and water pollution, hazardous and toxic wastes, and public land management. Focus on how the various institutions of American government deal with environmental issues, the role of environmental and other interest groups, and proposals for improving the efficiency and effectiveness of regulatory policies. 6 credits cr., SS, Not offered in 2003-2004.

ENTS 265. Environmental Justice From Nigeria to North Carolina concerns about environmental justice have been raised in recent years. We will analyze these concerns, drawing on a wide variety of sources that concern the nature of justice and the character of environmental benefits and harms. We will be especially interested in issues at the intersection of race, sprawl, and environmental degradation, especially as they arise in the Twin Cities Metro area. Students will be expected to develop and analyze a case study. 6 credits cr., HU, Not offered in 2003-2004.

ENTS 268. International Environmental Politics and Policy Cross-listed with POSC 268. . An introduction to the efforts of the international community to develop policy, agreements, and institutions to protect regional and global environments. Topics include theories of international cooperation and regime formation; treaty negotiation processes; emerging principles of international environmental policy, international organizations such as the United Nations Environmental Programme as well as the role of private actors nongovernmental organizations and multinational corporations. Issues to be studied include global climate change, ozone protection, trade and environment, and sustainable development. 6 credits cr., SS, Not offered in 2003-2004.

ENTS 270. Remote Sensing and GIS Cross-listed with GEOL 270. . This course will cover the use of the electromagnetic spectrum (especially visible, infrared and radar wavelengths) to sense features of the earth and planets. We will survey available image types and learn to process and interpret remotely-sensed images. We will also learn theory and practice of geographic information systems. Laboratories included. Prerequisite: One introductory geology course (110 or 120); junior or senior standing in science major or permission of instructor. 6 credits cr., MS, Not offered in 2003-2004.

ENTS 271. Economics of Natural Resources and the Environment Cross-listed with ECON 271. . This course focuses on environmental economics, energy economics, and on the relationship between them. Economic incentives for pollution abatement, the industrial organization of energy production, optimal depletion rates of energy sources, and the environmental and economic consequences of alternate energy sources will be analyzed. Prerequisite: Economics 111. 6 credits cr., SS, Not offered in 2003-2004.

ENTS 273. Water and Western Economic Development Cross-listed with ECON 273. . This course will examine a number of important aspects of water as a legal/political/economic factor in the development of the western United States. The topics will include western water law, the evolution of water supply institutions, state and local water planning, the role of the federal government, and a number of current water problems, including surface and groundwater pollution, impediments to market transfers of water, and state/regional/international conflicts over water. Prerequisites: Economics 110 and 111. 6 credits cr., SS, WinterM. Kanazawa

ENTS 289. Climate and Society The close connection between climate and food security has been apparent since Biblical times. With the advent of science and technology, climate is no longer the old enemy, at least in much of the developed world. On the contrary, climate itself has become a subject of concern and protection as the evidence for anthropogenic climate change has continued to grow. However, for much of the developing world, climate is still the old enemy. We will discuss various theoretical questions about how human agency mediates between climatic events and food security through the exploration of various case studies. 6 credits cr., HU, Not offered in 2003-2004.

ENTS 298. Ethics and Values Colloquium This class explores specific problems related to environmental or technological change, through discussion of a common reading and/or a group project. The class meets several times during the term for discussion, and each student is required to attend several other relevant events on campus or in the community. A short, integrative essay or final project report will be required at the end of the term. Open only to juniors and seniors. 1 credit cr., S/CR/NC, ND, Fall,Winter,SpringM. Savina, D. Jamieson

ENTS 305. Topics in American Environmental History Cross-listed with HIST 305. The course will be offered each year, with subject matter changing year by year. In 2004 the subject will be "Water in American History." Oceans, rivers, lakes, canals, creeks, transport, locks, dams, levees, power, irrigation, recreation, washing, drinking, sewage: we will look at water law and water practice, aiming to construct a whole vision of what water has done for us and to us, and what we have done with and to water in the last 200 years. There will be opportunity for primary research on a wide variety of water problems. Prerequisites: One of the following courses: History 195, History 227, ENTS 110, Economics 273, Political Science 257, Geology 120; or permission of the instructor. 6 credits cr., HU, SpringR. Bonner

ENTS 312. Actors and Issues in Contemporary Third World "Development" Cross-listed with SOAN 312,LTAM 312. . This course focuses on the processes known as "development," the roles of various social actors in these processes, and the social, environmental, and human rights implications of these processes. We discuss the concept of development, the construction of an ideology of development, and the various theoretical perspectives on development within the fields of sociology and anthropology. Specific issues that we examine include: the political economy of agrarian change; gender issues in development; international development actors and institutions, and their roles in shaping the social and environmental impacts of development; the role of social movements and grassroots organizations in contesting development activities and in shaping new models and meanings of development; and strategies for sustainable, democratic development locally, nationally, and internationally. 6 credits cr., SS, Not offered in 2003-2004.

ENTS 318. The American Farm* Cross-listed with POSC 318. A study of the American agrarian tradition from the founding to the present, examining the historical, economic, ecological and political context in which ideas about farming and farm life have evolved. We will explore the historical relationship between agrarianism and related and opposing ideologies, such as Populism, liberalism, environmentalism and feminism, and consider its contemporary relevance and vitality. 6 credits cr., SS, Not offered in 2003-2004.

ENTS 328. Environmental Analysis Cross-listed with CHEM 328. . In this course, we will study the chemistry of molecules in the air, water, and soil. Emphasis will be placed on understanding the chemistry in the natural (unpolluted) environment, and the changes which occur due to human activity and pollution. In addition, we will explore the methods which are used to measure pollutants in the environment and their applicability, as well as regulatory issues of relevance to the topics studies. Prerequisites: Chemistry 230 or 233 or consent of the instructor. 6 credits cr., MS, SpringD. Gross

ENTS 329. Environmental Analysis Laboratory Cross-listed with CHEM 329. . Credit for the laboratory portion of Chemistry 328. Corequisite: Chemistry 328. 2 credits cr., ND, SpringD. Gross

ENTS 330. Literature of the American West Cross-listed with ENGL 330. . Wallace Stegner once described the West as "the geography of hope" in the American imagination. Despite various dystopian urban pressures, the region still conjures up images of wide vistas and sunburned optimism. We will explore this paradox by examining both popular mythic conceptions of the West (primarily in film) and more searching literary treatments of the same area. We will explore how writers such as Twain, Cather, Stegner, Castillo, and Cormac McCarthy have dealt with the geographical diversity and multiethnic history of the West. Films will include The Searchers, The Ballad of Gregorio Cortez, Unforgiven, and Lone Star. Group IV. 6 credits cr., AL, Not offered in 2003-2004.

ENTS 340. Hydrology Cross-listed with GEOL 340. . A seminar on major principles of ground and surface water hydrology and their application to contemporary hydrologic problems. The course will draw considerably on student-directed investigation of critical areas of study in hydrology. Prerequisites: Geology 210 or junior/senior standing in one of the physical sciences. 6 credits cr., ND, Not offered in 2003-2004.

ENTS 348. Paleoecology Cross-listed with BIOL 348,GEOL 348. In this seminar, students examine current primary literature in paleoclimatology and paleoecology to understand climate and biosphere changes over Earth's history, with emphasis on the last 18,000 years. Topics include glacial cycles, ocean circulation, vegetation migration, tree ring analysis, paleoclimatic proxies, and the methodology of conducting paleoecological studies. In-class research includes coring a lake and analyzing fossil pollen and charcoal, and reconstructing aridity and precipitation using tree rings. Formerly Biology 374. Prerequisites: Biology 123 and 124 or Biology 125 and 126 or Geology 110. Recommended courses: exposure to some community and ecosystem ecology, sedimentary geology, tectonics, or geochemistry. 6 credits cr., MS, Not offered in 2003-2004.

ENTS 349. Paleoecology Laboratory Cross-listed with BIOL 349,GEOL 349. 2 credits cr., ND, Not offered in 2003-2004.

ENTS 359. Plant Physiological Ecology Cross-listed with BIOL 359. This course examines plant physiological mechanisms to explain ecological patterns. Topics include physiological tolerances and species distributions, nutrient uptake and allocation, water and nutrient use efficiency, C3, C4 and CAM photosynthesis, carbon allocation, acclimation, responses to light, UV, and CO2, plant competition, alpine and arctic treelines, and adaptations in North American plant communities. Emphasis is placed on testing hypotheses and investigative field studies. Prerequisites: Biology 123 and 124 or Biology 125 and 126. Recommended courses: Biology 352, Mathematics 215, Psychology 124 or equivalent exposure to statistical analysis. Concurrent registration in Biology 360 is required. 6 credits cr., MS, Offered in alternate years. SpringP. Camill

ENTS 360. Plant Physiological Ecology Lab Cross-listed with BIOL 360. 2 credits cr., ND, Offered in alternate years. SpringP. Camill

ENTS 365. Global Biogeochemistry Cross-listed with CHEM 365. . An Earth-system approach using the different perspectives of the chemical, physical, biological and earth sciences is used to study the interactions, transformations, and movement of specific chemical forms on a global scale. In studying the cycling of matter and energy between the land, oceans, and atmosphere, important global environmental issues may be more fully understood. Prerequisites: Chemistry 123 or 128 and one or more of the following: Chemistry 343, Biology 221, Geology 210 or 220, or consent of the instructor. 6 credits cr., MS, Not offered in 2003-2004.

ENTS 370. Special Topics: Wilderness In this course we will discuss questions such as the following: What is wilderness? Why is it valuable? How valuable is it compared to other goods? What is the legal status of wilderness in America? What is the relation between wilderness areas, parks and other federally protected lands? What is the history of wilderness protection in America? Should we designate more wilderness area? If so why? 6 credits cr., ND, WinterD. Jamieson

ENTS 371. Geochemistry of Natural Waters Cross-listed with GEOL 370. The main goal of this course is to introduce and tie together the several diverse disciplines that must be brought to bear on hydrogeochemical problems today. This course will explore: principles of geochemistry, applications of chemical thermodynamics to geologic problems, minerals solubility's, stability diagrams, chemical aspects of sedimentary rocks, geochemical tracers, radiogenic isotopes and principles of stable isotope fractionation. Laboratories included. Prerequisite: Chemistry 123 or instructor's consent. 6 credits cr., ND, WinterB. Haileab

ENTS 375. Ocean and Atmosphere Dynamics Cross-listed with GEOL 375. An exploration of the origin and evolution of Earth's surficial fluid layers with special emphasis on the recent dynamics of the oceans and atmospheres and their role in the global climate system. We will utilize abundant data on the spatial and temporal variations in the chemistry and physical state of the oceans and atmospheres to characterize the dynamics of these fluids. An important goal of the class will be to understand the connections between the oceans and atmosphere. Laboratories included. Prerequisites: One introductory geology course (110 or 120) and consent of the instructor. Introductory classes in Physics and Chemistry are recommended. 6 credits cr., MS, Not offered in 2003-2004.

ENTS 386. California Program: The Literature of California Cross-listed with ENGL 386,AMST 386. An intensive study of writing and film that explores California both as a place (or rather, a mosaic of places) and as a continuing metaphor­whether of promise or disintegration­for the rest of the country. Authors read will include Jack London, John Muir, Raymond Chandler, Nathanael West, Robinson Jeffers, John Steinbeck, Jack Kerouac, Joan Didion, Gary Snyder, and Maxine Hong Kingston. Films will include Sunset Boulevard, Chinatown, The Grapes of Wrath, Zoot Suit, L.A. Confidential, and Blade Runner. 6 credits cr., AL, Not offered in 2003-2004.

ENTS 398. Senior Colloquium Independent or group research, education projects, internships, nature writing, or other culminating experiences for the Environmental and Technology Studies concentration. Each Environmental and Technology Studies concentrator will register for three credits of Environmental and Technology Studies 398 during the junior or senior year. Projects must be approved by the instructor. Projects will be presented in public. 3 or 6 credits cr., S/CR/NC, ND, Fall,Winter,SpringM. Savina, D. Jamieson