You are here: Campus >Registrar's Office > Academic Catalog 2004-2005 > Courses > History

History (HIST)

Chair: Associate Professor Adeeb Khalid

Emeritus Professor: Robert E. Bonner

Benedict Distinguished Visiting Professor: Martin Allen Klein

Professors: Clifford E. Clark, Jr., Kirk Jeffrey, Diethelm Prowe, Harry McKinley Williams

Associate Professors: Annette Igra, Adeeb Khalid, Jamie Monson

Assistant Professors: Andrew B. Fisher, Victoria Morse, William North, Susannah R. Ottaway, Parna Sengupta, SeungJoo Yoon, Serena R. Zabin

Requirements for a Major:

A total of 66 credits from courses taken in the history department. First year seminars (History 110s) and the comprehensive exercise both count toward the total number of credits. Certain courses offered outside the history department may count toward the major; consult the department chair for specific information. Courses in ancient history are taught in the Classics department.

Credit toward the major will also be awarded for a 4 or 5 on the Advanced Placement examination in American or European History, and for a 5, 6, or 7 on higher-level International Baccalaureate examination in European History. IB credit in other fields determined by department on case-by-case basis.

A student must take courses in at least three of the following eight fields: Africa, East Asia, South Asia, Latin America, Middle East/Central Asia, Europe to 1450, Europe Since 1450, and the United States. The department expects that a student majoring in History will complete four courses (24 credits) in his or her primary field and two courses (12 credits) in each of two secondary fields. At least one of the student's three fields must be non-western history­East Asia, South Asia, Africa, Latin America, and Middle East/Central Asia­and one of the fields must be in western history (Europe before 1450, Europe After 1450, United States including African-American history). In consultation with faculty, students may also propose a self-designed thematic field as their primary field (e.g., Gender and History, Colonialism). Interested students should consult the department for more information. The History major must complete a research seminar (History 395), normally in the primary field, the History Colloquium (History 298), and the senior integrative exercise (History 400).

Courses numbered below 200 are open to first year students. First year students may not register in courses numbered 200 and above without the permission of the instructor. It is recommended that students planning to major in history take History 110 and one or two other courses during their first year. History majors who are interested in study and research in a major library should consider the Newberry Library Seminar program. (See the index) See History Department Web site at http://webapps.acs.carleton.edu/curricular/history.

History Courses

HIST 110. The Age of Elizabeth Her subjects remembered her as Good Queen Bess, and biographers have sung the praises of Gloriana, but what is our current understanding of Elizabeth I of England? This course will examine recent works on Elizabeth's family and personal life, as well as histories of the political and religious events of the Tudor Age. In the process we will be seeking not merely to understand how historians have studied Elizabeth, but also to learn about how historians practice their craft. 6 credits cr., HU, FallS. Ottaway

HIST 110. The Pacific War This course examines some of the crucial and complex decisions that American military and political leaders faced during the war with Japan, 1941-45. The class will focus on the decision to intern Japanese nationals and Japanese Americans who lived on the west coast (1942). Students will be assigned roles of historical figures and will re-enact crucial policy meetings. 6 credits cr., HU, FallK. Jeffrey

HIST 110. Conquest and Survival in Indigenous Mexico The sixteenth century Spanish conquest of the native "empires" of Mexico and its long-term consequences. How disruptive was the conquest for indigenous societies? Did the downfall of indigenous empires and city-states signal the demise of indigenous culture? We will examine and discuss the views of the combatants themselves and later interpretations of historians. 6 credits cr., HU,RAD, FallA. Fisher

HIST 110. The Russian Revolutions of 1917 An examination of the Russian revolutions of 1917 for a variety of intellectual and political viewpoints using both eyewitnesses and scholarly account. 6 credits cr., HU, FallA. Khalid

HIST 110. German Revolutions of 1848 An exploration of the German Revolution of 1848 from a broad range of nineteenth century intellectual perspectives­liberalism, conservatism, Romanticism, Marxism­and through contemporary analyses and socioeconomic change. 6 credits cr., HU, FallD. Prowe

HIST 110. Drunks and Teetotalers: Alcohol and American Society From its earliest days as a nation, the use and abuse of alcohol in the U.S. has been hotly debated. This course will examine historians' attempts to understand alcohol's powerful impact on American politics, society, and social reform. Using original source materials from the times, this course will focus on colonial rebellions, the temperance movement, immigration and the rise of saloons and saloon politics, the debate over prohibition, and the contemporary reforms of Alcoholics Anonymous, and MADD (Mothers Against Drunk Drivers). 6 credits cr., HU, FallC. Clark

HIST 110. Black Slaves, White Masters: Historians and Slavery This seminar explores the place of slavery in American historiography in the half-century following U.B. Phillips's American Negro Slavery (1918). It probes the complexities of the master-slave relationship as well as integrates the methods and skills of the historian regarding questions of culture, gender, economics, and resistance. 6 credits cr., HU, FallH. Williams

HIST 110. The Chinese Revolution of 1949 For the last half century the communist regime in China has made an indelible mark on the society comprising a quarter of the world's population. This seminar will examine various interpretations of different aspects and phases of Chinese life between the 1920s and 1990s. The emphasis will be on historical analysis of documentary sources. Students are introduced to materials in translation on the Chinese Revolution consisting of government publications, biographies memoirs, personal letters, journalistic reports, travelogues, and novels. Topics include political ideology, class and gender, nationalism, agricultural development, and mobilization of intellectuals. 6 credits cr., HU, FallS. Yoon

HIST 120. Rethinking the American Experience: American Social History, 1607-1865 A survey of the American experience from before Christopher Columbus’ arrival through the Civil War. Some of the topics we will cover include: contact between Native and European cultures; the development of the thirteen mainland British colonies; British, French, and Spanish imperial conflicts over the Americas; slavery; the American Revolution; religious awakenings; antebellum politics; and the Civil War. 6 credits cr., HU, WinterS. Zabin

HIST 121. Rethinking the American Experience, American Social History, 1865-1945 Reconstruction and the creation of a new system of racial inequality after the Civil War; industrialization, the rise of the modern business corporation, and shifts in the American class system; progressive reformers and the roots of modern liberalism; World War I and the cultural conflicts of the 1920s; the Great Depression and the New Deal; World War II and its consequences. 6 credits cr., HU, SpringK. Jeffrey

HIST 137. Before Europe: The Early Medieval World, 250-c. 1050 This course examines the formation of western Christendom from its origins in the Christian Roman Empire to its consolidation in the eleventh century. As we move from Merovingian Gaul, Lombard Italy, and Anglo-Saxon England to the Carolingian Empire and its successor kingdoms in Germany, France, and Italy, we will examine such issues as the cultural and political legacy of the Roman and Carolingian worlds; the nature and forms of secular and sacred power; gender roles and relations; ethnic and social identity; and the forms, patterns and meaning of communication (political, economic, ritual, literary, religious) both inside and outside early medieval Europe. 6 credits cr., HU, Not offered in 2004-2005.

HIST 138. The Making of Europe What are the origins of what we call "Europe?" How did this corner of the Eurasian continent come to play a predominant role in world history? What forces worked to create or to undermine a recognizably "European" culture? While cultural developments and new institutions offered powerful sources of shared experience and practice, national states and self-conscious localisms introduced new lines of fragmentation. Through lectures and discussion of a wide variety of primary sources from the period this class will examine these competing tendencies as they shaped the history of Europe's peoples during the later Middle Ages and the early Renaissance. 6 credits cr., HU, SpringV. Morse

HIST 139. Foundations of Modern Europe A narrative and survey of the early modern period (fifteenth through eighteenth centuries). The course examines the Renaissance, Reformation, Contact with the Americas, the Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment. We compare the development of states and societies across Western Europe, with particularly close examination of the history of Spain. 6 credits cr., HU, Not offered in 2004-2005.

HIST 140. Modern Europe 1789-1914 An introduction in the age of political and social revolutions. Emphasis is given to the impact of industrialization, the rise of national consciousness, and the search for progress through the great liberal and socialist movements, and ultimately the drive for global domination and development, students are invited but not required to take HIST 141 as a follow-up to this course. 6 credits cr., HU, WinterD. Prowe

HIST 141. Europe in the Twentieth Century A survey of the major political, socio-economic, and intellectual developments of twentieth century Europe. Special emphasis will be placed on the rise of urban masses and private economic power and the attempts to integrate these new forces into a stable political system. 6 credits cr., HU, Not offered in 2004-2005.

HIST 150. Japan Before 1868 An introduction to the history of Japan from its pre-historical past to the fall of the Tokugawa order in 1868. It examines the ways in which the Japanese civilization has been shaped by its political institutions, foreign relations, religious developments, social forms, and literary achievements. Topics include the sources and legitimization of ancient political power; aristocracy in medieval times; the popularization of various sects of Buddhism; the rise of the warrior class; agrarian society and peasant rebellions; urban lives of artisans, merchants, and entertainers; and the world of popular literature and arts. 6 credits cr., HU,RAD, Not offered in 2004-2005.

HIST 151. History of Modern Japan This course explores the modern transformation of Japanese society, politics, economy, and culture from the Meiji Restoration of 1868 to the present. It is designed to provide students with an opportunity to explore basic issues and problems relating to modern Japanese history and international relations. Topics include the intellectual crisis of the late Tokugawa period, the Meiji Constitution, the development of an imperial democracy, class and gender, the rise of Japanese fascism, the Pacific War, and postwar developments. 6 credits cr., HU, FallS. Yoon

HIST 152. History of Imperial China An introduction to the history of China from its beginnings to the end of the last dynasty in 1911, providing an overview of traditional Chinese thought, culture, institutions, and society. Students examine the development of philosophy and religion, achievements in art and literature, and social and economic change. This course also considers foreign conquest dynasties, Chinese expansion into Inner Asia, and China's relations with the West. 6 credits cr., HU,RAD, WinterS. Yoon

HIST 153. History of Modern China This course, a continuation of History 152 ("History of Imperial China"), offers a critical survey of the modern transformation of politics, economy, society, and culture in Chinese history from the eighteenth century to the present. Topics include neo-Confucianism, the bureaucracy, the repudiation of civil society, the interaction with the West, peasant rebellions, nationalism, party politics, the dynamics of Communist rule, and alternative Chinese societies both inside and outside Mainland China. 6 credits cr., HU, Not offered in 2004-2005.

HIST 156. History of Modern Korea An historical survey on the development of Korean society and culture from the fifteenth century to the present. Students will analyze various aspects of Korean life such as autocracy and bureaucracy, family and education, peasantry and rural life, commerce and industry, Yangban literary enterprises, and religious orientations, both elite and popular. In addition, sections will also be devoted to a discussion of Korea's interactions with its neighbors, including China, Inner Asia, Japan, Europe, and America. North Korea, for example, will be examined in terms of colonialism and post-colonialism as well as Cold War contexts 6 credits cr., HU, Not offered in 2004-2005.

HIST 160. History of Classical India This course will look at classical Indian civilization by examining the interconnectedness of its political and social institutions, religions, and material life. We begin with the Indus Valley civilization (2500 BC) and end with the Turkish Sultanate in Northern India (1525 AD). Ancient India has recently become the object of intense political debate; we will consider the implications of current debates and the challenges and methods of reconstructing India's history. 6 credits cr., HU, WinterP. Sengupta

HIST 161. History of Modern India A survey of the modern history of the Indian sub-continent from the establishment of the Mughal Court in North India (1525 AD) to the present including the Indian Ocean trade, the Southern independent kingdoms, British colonial rule, nationalism and post-colonial South Asia. Students will be asked to consider the differences between the early modern, colonial, and national states and empires on the subcontinent. 6 credits cr., HU,RAD, SpringP. Sengupta

HIST 169. Colonial Latin America 1492-1810 How did peoples from the Americas, the Iberian Peninsula, and Africa contribute to the creation of new colonial societies in Latin America and the Caribbean? The course examines the bewildering spectrum of indigenous societies Europeans and Africans encountered in the Americas, then turns to the introduction and proliferation of Hispanic institutions and culture, the development of mature colonial societies, and the increasing tensions and internal contradictions that plagued the region by the late eighteenth century. It asks how the colonized population managed to survive, adapt, and resist imperial pressures and examines the creation of new collective identities. 6 credits cr., HU,RAD, FallA. Fisher

HIST 170. Modern Latin America 1810-Present This course focuses on the legacy of colonial rule and asks how nascent nation-states dealt with new challenges of political legitimacy, economic development, and the rights of citizens. Case studies from the experiences of individual nations will highlight concerns still pertinent today: the ongoing struggle to extend meaningful political participation and the benefits of economic growth to the majority of the region's inhabitants, popular struggles for political, economic, and cultural rights, and the emergence of a civic society. 6 credits cr., HU,RAD, WinterA. Fisher

HIST 172. Introduction to Andean Social History, This course serves as an introductory survey of the social transformation of the Andean region of South America from the rise of the Inca state to the modern era. Emphasis will be placed on the role of the region's peasant communities in state development, colonial rule, agrarian rebellion, and the advent of capitalism. Although seeking to offer a comprehensive view of the region's history, the course will focus primarily on the sixteenth through nineteenth centuries. 6 credits cr., HU,RAD, Not offered in 2004-2005.

HIST 180. An Historical Survey of East Africa Linkages to the trade networks of the Indian Ocean and to the African interior provide excellent material for the study of the impact of long-distance trade on African social, political and economic development from the turn of the millennium to the present. Using case studies and primary documents, this course will survey the history of Eastern and Northeastern Africa from 1000 BC to the present. 6 credits cr., HU,RAD, Not offered in 2004-2005.

HIST 181. Western African Societies in Historical Perspective This course will examine the political and economic history of West Africa with a focus on long-distance trade (including the Atlantic slave trade) and political centralization. 6 credits cr., HU, FallM. Klein

HIST 182. A Survey of Southern African History This course will review the history of southern Africa from the Late Neolithic period to the twentieth century. The development of a multiracial society; the impact of the mineral/industrial revolution in the nineteenth century; and the growth of African resistance and nationalism up to the present will be the focal points. 6 credits cr., HU, Not offered in 2004-2005.

HIST 183. Farm and Forest: African Environmental History We will explore the complex interaction between the African physical world or "nature" (plants, soils, water, climate) and "culture" or human society over time, from the pre-colonial through the colonial period to the present. We also seek to understand the meanings (including cultural and symbolic meanings) associated with the African natural world, both for African societies and for non-Africans who have lived, worked, or been engaged with the continent. We will delve into controversies about land use, population growth, wildlife conservation, desertification and other topics. Each student will gain insight into a particular issue or case study through an independent research project. 6 credits cr., HU,RAD, Not offered in 2004-2005.

HIST 195. American Environmental History An introduction to the study of environmental history and an examination of several significant elements in the history of human interaction with the natural environment on the North American continent. These will include such subjects as fire, agriculture, river management, urban development, wilderness, and species extinction. Between humans and nature there is a constant tension, because humans are the only species with the power to alter their environment significantly. The course will examine salient instances of that tension, from the efforts of pre-historical populations to manipulate their environment to the growth of the modern environmental movement. 6 credits cr., HU, WinterR. Bonner

HIST 199. Foreign Language Option This course offers students with proficiency in Greek the opportunity to work with extracts from histories, letters, laws, hagiography, and other genres from the Middle and Late Byzantine periods (ca. 800-1450) in the original language. Students will also explore aspects of Byzantine manuscript and book production, palaeography, and literary history through readings and work with facsimiles and photographs. Classes will consist of translation and discussion of Greek texts, discussion of the historical issues that they raise, and mini-lectures. Prerequisite: Completion of a 200-level Greek course. 2 credits cr., S/CR/NC, ND, Not offered in 2004-2005.

HIST 204. Crusade, Contact and Exchange in the Medieval Mediterranean The theory that the focus of affairs in Europe turned northwards after the Muslim conquests of North Africa and Spain has been highly influential in shaping courses on medieval Europe. More recently, however, attention has focused on the rich culture of contact among the peoples of the Mediterranean throughout the medieval period. Through lectures and critical discussion of primary sources, this course will explore the many faces of this contact, including trade, warfare, political ties, missions, and artistic and intellectual influences. Our primary focus will be on the Christian European experience, but we will also study Jewish, Muslim and Byzantine sources. 6 credits cr., HU, Not offered in 2004-2005.

HIST 210. Studies in Traditional Societies: Bandits, Outlaws and Other Rebels: A Comparative History Are bandits and outlaws "Primitive Rebels?" Images of the bandit-hero abound in history and folklore, from Robin Hood, Blackbeard, Jesse James and Bonnie and Clyde. In this course, we will examine criminality as a form of resistance in the history of selected societies around the world. Using both theoretical texts and examples from case studies, we will discuss whether smuggling, poaching, riots and plunder can be considered rebellious acts. 6 credits cr., HU, Not offered in 2004-2005.

HIST 211. Colonial North America An intensive exploration of particular topics in early American history in its context as part of an Atlantic world. Topics will include voluntary and involuntary migration from Europe and Africa, personal, political, and military relationships between Europeans and Native Americans, the pattern of colonial settlement and politics, concepts of family and community, strategies of cultural adaptation and resistance, slavery, religion, the making of racial, rank, and gender ideologies, and the development of British and American identities. 6 credits cr., HU, Not offered in 2004-2005.

HIST 212. The American Revolution This class will examine the American Revolution as both a process and a phenomenon. It will consider the relationship of the American Revolution to social, cultural, economic, political, and ideological change in the lives of Americans from the founding fathers to the disenfranchised, focusing on the period 1750-1800. The central question of the course is this: how revolutionary was the Revolution? Students without a solid grounding in early American history should read Edmund S. Morgan, The Birth of the Republic (Chicago: 1993), before the first class. 6 credits cr., HU, Not offered in 2004-2005.

HIST 213. The Early American Republic This course will examine the social, political and cultural history of the period 1783-1830 with special consideration of the framing and ratification of the Constitution and the defining of the "United States." Historians contend that the period covered by this course is the key era of social transformation in American history. To assess this hypothesis, we will examine changes in race, gender, and class relations within the context of economic and geographical expansion and religious revitalization. We will explore paradoxes of American democracy and citizenship as they developed in the early Republic. Previous knowledge of American history will be assumed. 6 credits cr., HU, Not offered in 2004-2005.

HIST 214. The Civil War Era, 1846-1877 This course will examine the American Civil War as a defining moment in this country's history. We will study the years leading up to the war as well as the Reconstruction period following it, and trace such themes as the definitions of citizenship to freedom; the role of the federal government and race relations. 6 credits cr., HU, FallK. Jeffrey

HIST 218. History, Memory, and the Vietnam War What is the difference between history and memory of past events? Do members of different generations remember historical events differently? In this course we will first examine the political, diplomatic, and military events of the Vietnam War, then look at oral histories and memoirs as historical sources about the war. Students will then put their knowledge about oral history into practice by taking oral histories from elderly residents of Northfield. 6 credits cr., HU, Not offered in 2004-2005.

HIST 220. African American History I The transition of the slave from an African to an African-American either directly or indirectly through the institution of slavery until 1865. Special attention will be given to individuals, organizations, and philosophies proposing solutions to the African- and Euro-American dilemma. Previous knowledge of American history is desirable. 6 credits cr., HU,RAD, SpringH. Williams

HIST 221. African American History II The transition from slavery to freedom; the post-Reconstruction erosion of civil rights and the ascendancy of Booker T. Washington; protest organizations and mass migration before and during World War I; the postwar resurgence of black nationalism; African Americans in the Great Depression and World War II; roots of the modern Civil Rights movement. 6 credits cr., HU, FallH. Williams

HIST 222. U.S. Women's History to 1877 Gender, race, and class shaped women's participation in the arenas of work, family life, culture, and politics in the United States from the colonial period to the late nineteenth century. We will examine diverse women's experiences of colonization, industrialization, slavery and Reconstruction, religion, sexuality and reproduction, and social reform. Readings will include both primary and secondary sources, as well as historiographic articles outlining major frameworks and debates in the field of women's history. 6 credits cr., HU,RAD, WinterA. Igra

HIST 223. U.S. Women's History Since 1877 In the twentieth century women participated in the redefinition of politics and the state, sexuality and family life, and work and leisure as the United States became a modern, largely urban society. We will explore how the dimensions of race, class, ethnicity, and sexuality shaped diverse women's experiences of these historical changes. Topics will include: immigration, the expansion of the welfare system and the consumer economy, labor force segmentation and the world wars, and women's activism in civil rights, labor, peace and feminist movements. 6 credits cr., HU,RAD, SpringA. Igra

HIST 226. U.S. Consumer Culture In the period after 1880, the growth of a mass consumer society recast issues of identity, gender, race, class, family, and political life. We will explore the development of consumer culture through such topics as advertising and mass media, the body and sexuality, consumerist politics in the labor movement, and the response to the Americanization of consumption abroad. We will read contemporary critics such as Thorstein Veblen, as well as historians engaged in weighing the possibilities of abundance against the growth of corporate power. 6 credits cr., HU, FallA. Igra

HIST 227. History of the American West This course treats the history of a distinctive region, the arid section of the United States between the 100th Meridian and the Sierra Nevada, during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. We will study cultural interactions among the indigenous populations and the Euro-American immigrants, the development in the area of institutions and economic systems characteristic of European civilization, and the political and environmental consequences of those developments. 6 credits cr., HU, Not offered in 2004-2005.

HIST 229. Gender and Work in U.S. History Historically work has been a central location for the constitution of gender identities for both men and women; at the same time, cultural notions of gender have shaped the labor market. We will investigate the roles of race, class, and ethnicity in shaping multiple sexual divisions of labor and the ways in which terms such as skill, bread­winning and work itself were gendered. Topics will include domestic labor, slavery, industrialization, labor market segmentation, protective legislation, and the labor movement. 6 credits cr., HU,RAD, Not offered in 2004-2005.

HIST 232. The Renaissance Through lectures and careful reading and discussion of primary sources and secondary essays, we will enter the creative, turbulent world of Renaissance Europe to assess continuities with and changes from the "medieval" world and to examine the differences between the northern and southern Renaissances. We will listen to contemporaries discuss the meaning of being human and ideal forms of civil society and government; the nature of God and mankind's duties toward the divine; the family and gender roles; definitions of beauty and the goals of artistic achievement; accumulation of wealth; and exploration of new worlds and encounters with other peoples. 6 credits cr., HU, FallV. Morse

HIST 233. Cultures of Empire: Byzantium, 710-1453 Heir to the Roman Empire, Byzantium proved to be one of the most enduring and fascinating polities of the medieval world. Through written and visual evidence, we will examine the central features of Byzantine culture from the period of Iconoclasm to the Empire's fall to the Ottoman Turks in 1453, concentrating on the nature and function of imperial rule; Byzantine aesthetics and religiosity; Byzantium's relations with the Latin West and Islam; and the changing nature of the Byzantine thought world. No prerequisites, but Classics 229 would be useful background. 6 credits cr., HU,RAD, SpringW. North

HIST 234. France in the Making, 987-1460 This course will examine the political and social transformations and cultural developments that conspired to make the kingdom of France one of the most influential and dynamic polities in the medieval world. Among the topics to be addressed: the ideals and practice of medieval governance; the formation of "French" national identity; France as a center of European intellectual and cultural life; forms of religious life, dissent, and persecution (the Albigensian Crusade, treatment of the Jews, and Trial of the Templars); and the ideals and realities of social relations (courtly romance, the rise of the merchant class, the status of women). 6 credits cr., HU, Not offered in 2004-2005.

HIST 236. Courtly Queens to Revolutionary Heroines: European Women 1100-1800 Did women have a Renaissance? Were women increasingly relegated to a separate sphere from men: "domesticated" into the household? Or, on the contrary, is the history of European women characterized by fundamental continuities? This course seeks to answer these questions through an exploration of women's place in the family and economy, laws and cultural assumptions about women, and women's role in religion. Throughout the term, we will be focusing not only on writings about women, but primarily on sources written by women themselves, as we seek a fuller understanding of the nature of European women's lives before the modern era. 6 credits cr., HU, WinterV. Morse, S. Ottaway

HIST 237. The Enlightenment This course focuses on the texts of Enlightenment thinkers, including Locke, Montesquieu, Voltaire, Diderot, Rousseau, Kant and Mesmer. Emphasis will be on French thinkers and the effect of the Enlightenment on French society. The course covers the impact of the Enlightenment on science, religion, politics and the position of women. Students will have the opportunity to read the philosophies in French. 6 credits cr., HU, SpringS. Ottaway

HIST 238. Topics in Medieval History: Church, Papacy and Empire Over the course of the late eleventh century, the foundations of medieval society began to shake as monks and clerics, kings and princes, lay men and women, challenged the traditional order of European society, demanding purity, freedom, and justice for their church and the reform of institutions grown corrupt. Yet the traditional order had its defenders, too. In this course we will examine their struggles­verbal and physical­as they debate such issues as clerical marriage and purity, institutional corruption, the relationship of Church and King, the meaning of canon law, the concept of just war, and the power of the pope within the Church. 3 credits cr., HU, WinterW. North

HIST 238. The World of Bede This course will examine the works and world of the Venerable Bede (c. 673-731), one of the great Christian thinkers and historians of the Middle Ages and a key witness to the history of early medieval Ireland and Anglo-Saxon England. Through close study of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People and other contemporary sources, we shall address such issues as Christian vs. Germanic rulership; the nature of religious conversion in early medieval societies; monasticism and conceptions of sanctity; Ireland and England as outposts of classical and Christian culture; and the problems of historical thought and writing in the early Middle Ages. 3 credits cr., HU, WinterW. North

HIST 240. History of Russia to 1917 A survey of selected topics in Russian history including the emergence of Kievan Rus, the period of Mongol domination, the rise of Muscovy, Westernization under Peter the Great, and Russia's emergence as a major European power. We will pay special attention to social and cultural issues. 6 credits cr., HU, Not offered in 2004-2005.

HIST 241. History of Russia Since 1917 A continuation of History 240, this course focuses on the dilemmas of modernization and industrialization faced by both the Late Imperial and Soviet regimes in Russia after the Great Reforms of the 1860s. We will also deal with the social, cultural, and political responses to the regimes. 6 credits cr., HU, WinterA. Khalid

HIST 243. The Peasants are Revolting! Society and Politics in the Making of Modern France Political propaganda of the French Revolutionary period tells a simple story of downtrodden peasants exploited by callous nobles, but what exactly was the relationship between the political transformations of France from the Renaissance through the French Revolution and the social, religious, and cultural tensions that characterized the era? This course explores the connections and conflicts between popular and elite culture as we survey French history from the sixteenth through early nineteenth centuries, making comparisons to social and political developments in other European countries along the way. 6 credits cr., HU, Not offered in 2004-2005.

HIST 244. History of European Diplomacy A study of modern European diplomacy from the seventeenth to the twentieth century. Special attention will be given to the evolution of diplomatic principles, concepts and methods. 6 credits cr., HU, Not offered in 2004-2005.

HIST 245. Ireland: The Origin of the Troubles The religious and political tensions and violence that have characterized modern Irish history have deep roots in centuries of troubled relations between Ireland and England. This course examines Irish history with a special focus on Anglo-Irish relations from Tudor colonization through the Great Hunger of the nineteenth century. We will also be examining the very different ways in which Irish history is told by nationalist and revisionist scholars. 6 credits cr., HU, Not offered in 2004-2005.

HIST 249. The New Central Europe in Historical Perspective An examination of the new Central Europe in historical perspective. We will explore the evolution of state and civil society from the early nineteenth century to the present in the multicultural/multinational regions of present-day Czechia, Slovakia, Poland, Hungary, as well as eastern Germany and Austria. Much of the course will focus on the common experiences of authoritarianism, anti-Seminitsm, fascism/nazism, and especially the Communist totalitarian/post-totalitarian era and its dissolution. 6 credits cr., HU, WinterD. Prowe

HIST 253. Bureaucracy, Law, and Religion in East Asia One tends to interpret East Asian polity in terms of rule by person rather than rule by law and of the unity between politics and religion. Students will examine the validity of these traditional conceptualizations through an analysis of the intricate interactions between bureaucratic behaviors, legal parameters, and religious orientations as evolved in the East Asian historical societies from its beginnings to the present. Students will discuss the relationships between autocracy and bureaucracy, church and state, aristocracy and literati ideals, eunuch prerogatives, samurai ethics, and yangban protocols, with a focus on various bureaucratic configurations (public, private, ecclesiastical, parallel, and interstitial). 6 credits cr., HU, SpringS. Yoon

HIST 258. Foreign Relations of East Asia in Modern Times This course explores the history of foreign relations in East Asia, with special attention given to its cultural underpinnings. It covers the seventeenth century to the present, the period during which the Chinese, Koreans, and Japanese became integrated into the modern world. Students will first examine the distinguishing characteristics of multilateral exchanges in the context of empires, kingdoms, modern states, and Western Powers. The course then attempts to define a system of regional order in theoretical terms and, by extension, the role of East Asia in the world. Topics include the collapse of the tributary system, colonialism, nationalism, and post-colonialism. Some previous work on East Asian history is recommended. 6 credits cr., HU, WinterS. Yoon

HIST 259. Women in South Asia: Histories, Narratives, and Representation The objective of this course is to survey the historical institutions, practices and traditions that defined the position of women in India. We will examine the laws and religious traditions related to women in South Asia including marriage, inheritance, sati and purdah. We will also read a variety of women's writings including the poetry of buddhist nuns and medieval women saints, as well as stories and memoirs from the colonial and post-colonial period. The purpose of the course is to understand women in India as both the object and subject of history. 6 credits cr., HU,RAD, Not offered in 2004-2005.

HIST 260. The Making of the Modern Middle East Topics include: state and society, the military and bureaucracy, religious minorities (Jews and Christians), and women in premodern Muslim societies; the encounter with modernity. 6 credits cr., HU, Not offered in 2004-2005.

HIST 261. The Modern Middle East A study of the major political and social developments in the Middle East since World War I. Topics discussed: the decline of the Ottoman Empire and the emergence of nation-states; the impact of Western imperialism; the domination of military regimes; "Islamic fundamentalism;" women and gender in contemporary Muslim societies. 6 credits cr., HU, WinterA. Khalid

HIST 262. Post-colonial South Asia, 1947--Present This course will examine the questions and issues that faced post-independence India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. We will examine both the similarities and differences in how different nations dealt with the imprint of colonialism, the struggle for democracy, the relationship between religion and politics, women's movements; ecological movements, demands for regional autonomy and globalization. We will use a wide range of primary and secondary sources as well as theoretical texts to illuminate the specificities of post-colonial modernity. 6 credits cr., HU, WinterP. Sengupta

HIST 263. Inventing the Nation This course will explore theories of nation-building, nationalism, and anti-colonial struggle in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Using the examples of Britain and India, we will study the "invention" of the nation through images and text, particularly the centrality of imperialism and colonialism to the process of nation building. 6 credits cr., HU, Not offered in 2004-2005.

HIST 265. Empires of the Steppe This course provides an introduction to the history of Inner Asia, the vast region that bridges the civilizations of China, the Middle East, and Europe, but which itself has been the center of empires that have shaped and reshaped the history of the Old World. Beginning with the ecological imperatives that shape life in Inner Asia, we will survey the history of the region and its interactions with its neighbors, with an emphasis on cultural and political developments from the earliest times to the present. 6 credits cr., HU, Not offered in 2004-2005.

HIST 272. The Emergence of Modern Mexico This course will explore the challenges that nation-builders in Mexico encountered in their attempt to forge and maintain an independent nation-state after achieving independence from Spain in 1821. An important theme of the course will be how national leaders and popular groups came to define Mexican national identity, particularly during and after the Mexican Revolution (1910-1920). The themes of the course should help frame similar inquiries about other post-colonial situations in Latin America and elsewhere. Prerequisite: History 169 or 170 or consent of the instructor. 6 credits cr., HU,RAD, SpringA. Fisher

HIST 276. African Slavery in Latin America: From the Middle Passage to Abolition The course will examine Latin American slavery in a wide geographical context and ask how the study of slavery has evolved over the last several decades. It will cover areas of the region where slavery was the dominant institution of local society and areas where slavery played a more marginal role. Students will compare how scholars have addressed certain issues and questions over time (various labor regimes, slave resistance and rebellion, maroon communities, manumission and free people in slave societies, etc.) by reading older and more recent works in tandem. Prerequisite: History 169 or 170 or consent of the instructor. 6 credits cr., HU,RAD, Not offered in 2004-2005.

HIST 278. Religion and Identity in Latin American History This course traces the relationship between religious belief and collective identity in Latin America. Thematic in approach, case studies will highlight the range of cultural responses and sources of social conflict associated with religious change that are emblematic of the region's historical development. Depending upon the year it is offered, coverage may include the "conversion" of indigenous societies to Catholicism, millenarian movements,the religious beliefs of African slaves and their descendants, and the rise of Protestantism in contemporary Latin America. Some background knowledge of Latin American history is recommended. 6 credits cr., HU,RAD, WinterA. Fisher

HIST 279. American Intellectual History A study of selected moments in the history of ideas from Puritanism to the 1960s. The major focus will be on the classic writing of William Bradford, Anne Hutchinson, Thomas Jefferson, Henry David Thoreau, Alexis de Tocqueville, William James, Charlotte Perkins Gilman, and others. 6 credits cr., HU, Not offered in 2004-2005.

HIST 284. Colonial West Africa This seminar will explore the history of West African societies from 1885 to independence, with a focus on the impact of European colonialism. 6 credits cr., HU, WinterM. Klein

HIST 298. Junior-year History Colloquium In the junior year, majors must take six-credit reading and discussion course taught each year by different members of the department faculty. The general purpose of History 298 is to help students reach a more sophisticated understanding of the nature of history as a discipline and of the approaches and methods of historians. A major who is considering off-campus study in the junior year should consult with their advisor on when to take History 298. 6 credits cr., ND, Fall,WinterS. Ottaway, H. Williams

HIST 305. Topics in American Environmental History: American Public Lands Policy The course will be offered each year, with subject matter changing year by year. In 2005 the subject will be "American Public Lands Policy." For the first hundred years of the Republic, America's public lands existed to be transferred into private hands to encourage enterprise, raise money, reward service, or pad the pockets of well-placed people. Since 1891 public lands have been held in trust and managed for the greater good of the whole people, or something like that. Early or late, whether we are talking about Homestead Acts or any of the modern creations­Forest Service, Park Service, Bureau of Land Management­that stand between "the people" and their land, the management of this vast public resource has been at the heart of the American environment history. Prerequisites: History 120, 121, 195, 227 or ENTS 110. 6 credits cr., HU, SpringR. Bonner

HIST 322. The Civil Rights Movement in America It will be the task of this seminar to explore the discourse of civil rights reform in U.S. history from the standpoint of activists, organizations, and histories of domestic civil rights politics. The impact of Cold War foreign affairs on civil rights is discussed. The seminar is also an occasion to study the 1954 Brown decision and its fifty-year aftermath. 6 credits cr., HU, WinterH. Williams

HIST 324. The Concord Intellectuals The social and intellectual history of the American Renaissance with focus on selected works of Emerson, Thoreau, Amos Bronson Alcott, and Margaret Fuller. Special emphasis will be placed on the one common denominator uniting these intellectuals: their devotion to the possibilities of democracy. Prerequisite: History 120 or consent of the instructor. 6 credits cr., HU, SpringH. Williams

HIST 331. Controversial Histories: Ideological Conflict and Consensus in the Pre-Modern World This seminar explores the history of how people in the pre-modern world discussed, debated and decided the issues, ideals, and policies that shaped their lives, communities, and world. Particular attention will be paid to the role of institutions and individuals, networks, the form and functions of polemical discourse, and the dynamics of group formation and sigmatization in the historical unfolding of conflict and consensus. Theoretical readings and case studies of conflicts from late antique, medieval, and early modern periods will provide the common readings for the seminar. Students may take the course as either a 331 or 395. 6 credits cr., HU, Not offered in 2004-2005.

HIST 345. Atlantic Revolutions, France and America An examination of the recent literature on the French and American Revolutions to establish a basis for a comparative approach to both revolutions. Our approach will include social, political, intellectual and cultural perspectives on a variety of subjects illuminating the reciprocity between the revolutions. The course will not concern itself with a detailed narrative of either revolution so some solid knowledge of one or both of these revolutions is assumed. This will be a reading intensive course heavily dependent on class discussion. Written work will consist of one short critical review at the mid-term and a final, more extensive analytic paper. Permission of the instructors is required. 6 credits cr., HU, Not offered in 2004-2005.

HIST 360. Muslims and Modernity Through readings in primary sources in translation, we will discuss the major intellectual and cultural movements that have influenced Muslim thinkers from the nineteenth centuron. Topics include modernism, nationalism, socialism, and fundamentalism. Prerequisite: at least one prior course in the history of the Middle East or Central Asia (History 260, 261 or 265) or Islam (Religion 122, 123, 235, 263, 264). 6 credits cr., HU,RAD, SpringA. Khalid

HIST 381. History, Memory and Black Atlantic: Ghana and the United States This course is an interdisciplinary, comparative, and international seminar. It asks: Did Ghanaians participate in the Atlantic slave trade as equal partners, or were they the victims of European power and greed? How have Ghanaians and black Americans remembered and recorded the Atlantic slave trade, colonialism and independence? Was Nkrumah's real mentor Garvey or duBois? Why during the Nkrumah years was Ghana the African American Camelot? Permission of the instructor is required. 6 credits cr., HU, Not offered in 2004-2005.

HIST 382. History, Memory and Black Atlantic: On-Site in Ghana and Revisted The first part of the course consists of a two-week field trip in late November-early December to Ghana. The field trip begins in Accra, continues to Kumasi, and ends in Cape Coast. The seminar will conclude on campus, meeting once a week for ten weeks to enable students to complete and give oral presentations on topics chosen during the fall term and researched during the two-week field trip. Prerequisite: History/African American Studies 381 and permission of the instructor. 6 credits cr., HU, Not offered in 2004-2005.

HIST 395. Imagining the Nation in Latin America This research seminar will examine the construction of nationhood in modern Latin American history and the subsequent negotiation over the meaning of the nation among elite and popular sectors of society. The first half of the course will be devoted to the study of historical scholarship and excerpts of foundational texts on Latin American nationalism. In the second half of the course, students will prepare and present research papers of article length (25-30 pages) related to the courses theme. HU 6 cr., HU, SpringA. Fischer

HIST 395. Fascism An historical analysis of the twentieth century phenomenon of fascism in Germany, France and Italy, with special emphasis on the sources, methods, and practice of National Socialism in Germany. A two-credit reading course during the summer break, set up in consultation with the instructor at the end of the spring term, is required. History 141 is recommended, but not required, as useful background. Limited to juniors and seniors. 6 credits (2 credit summer rea cr., HU, FallD. Prowe

HIST 395. Feminist Movements Feminist activism has taken a wide variety of forms in a range of historical and geographical contexts. We will begin with readings designed to deepen our understanding of feminist movements and of history writing. As a research seminar, this course is designed to facilitate the writing of an article-length (approx. 25-30 page) research paper based on primary sources. Students will form a mutually supportive working group by sharing intellectual interests and written work with one another. 6 credits cr., HU, FallA. Igra

HIST 395. Revolutions and Rebellions in European History Every European country has experienced revolutionary transformations in its history­from the watershed of the Protestant Reformation through political events like the French Revolution. The first half of this course will be spent examining some general theories of revolutions and specific aspects of revolution like crowd actions. In the second half of the course, students will prepare research papers on a particular European revolution. 6 credits cr., HU, SpringS. Ottaway

HIST 395. Comparative Slavery This research seminar will look at the experience of slavery in comparative historical perspective. Students will write research papers on a topic of their own choosing related to the themes of the course. 6 credits cr., HU, WinterM. Klein

HIST 395. Imperial America, 1876-1904 As Americans muscled their way onto the world stage in the 1890s, they faced a series of conflicts­with foreign nations resistant to their imperialist aims, with native peoples' resistance in the American west and later in the Philippines, with recent immigrants and their outlandish customs, with labor upset by the new rigors of industrialism, and with working class men and women's fascination with the new popular culture of saloons, dance halls, and professional sports. Beginning with an overview of late nineteenth century America, students will choose a topic from this period and write a 20 to 30 page research paper and make an oral presentation to the class. 6 credits cr., HU, SpringC. Clark

HIST 400. Integrative Exercise Required of all seniors majoring in History. Students approved to write a thesis should register for section 1 (Thesis). Those approved to write an essay should register for section 2 (Essay). 6 credits cr., S/NC, ND, WinterC. Clark, S. Otttaway

Other Courses Pertinent to History:

CLAS 227 Greek History: The Greek World From the Rise of the City-State to the Rise of the Hellenistic Kingdoms

CLAS 228 Roman History, Republic and Principate

CLAS 229 The Later Roman Empire, Byzantium and Islam