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Latin American Studies (LTAM)

Director: Associate Professor Jerome M. Levi

Committee Members: Becky J. Boling, Jorge Brioso, José Cerna-Bazán, Jeane Hunter DeLaney, María E. Doleman, Humberto R. Huergo, Silvia L. López, Alfred P. Montero, Beverly Nagel, Diane Pearsall

The Latin American Studies Program provides a framework for studying the diverse societies of Latin America. With its cultural mosaic shaped by the meeting of Native American, European, African, and Asian peoples, and its profound geographic, social, and economic variations, Latin America presents rich opportunities for interdisciplinary and cross-cultural study. By drawing upon the perspectives and methodologies of several disciplines, students are challenged to pursue a deeper understanding of the cultures, institutions, and experiences of Latin Americans. The program provides a forum for examining the intersection of issues of politics, economic development, ethnicity, gender, religion, and cultural expression.

Requirements for a Major:

Students take a minimum of sixty-six credits in approved courses for the major, including five required courses and the integrative exercise (see list below). No more than four courses (twenty-four credits) in any one discipline may apply to the major. A maximum of 27 credits from programs abroad may be counted for elective credits.

Majors must demonstrate competence in Spanish by completing Spanish 205 or by examination.

A sophomore who wishes to major in Latin American Studies should, with the help of a faculty advisor, plan his or her program for the major, and submit it in writing for consideration and approval by the Latin American Studies Committee.

If possible, majors should complete the required courses, except the senior seminar and integrative exercise, by the end of their junior year. During their senior year, majors are required to participate in a designated senior seminar and to complete the integrative exercise.

Majors are encouraged to study on the Carleton Morelia Program in Mexico, the Associated Colleges of the Midwest Programs in Costa Rica, or another of the approved programs in Latin American countries. (The Office of Off-Campus Studies has information on these and other study opportunities.)

Required Courses:

HIST 170: Modern Latin America or

POSC 221: Latin American Politics

ECON 240: Economics of Developing Countries or

SOAN 312: Actors and Issues in Contemporary Third World "Development"

Two upper level (300) Latin American Literature courses

LTAM 395: Senior Seminar

LTAM 400: Integrative Exercise


Five additional courses (30 credits) are required. They may be selected from the following courses or in some cases, courses taken on foreign study programs may apply. No more than two of the electives may be comparative or Latino in focus. These courses are indicated by an asterisk. In the comparative courses, students are required to focus their major term paper or projects on Latin America.

Latin American Studies Courses

LTAM 130. Population and Food in the Global System Cross-listed with ENTS 130,SOAN 130. . This course focuses on issues of population growth, hunger, and world food supply. Topics to be considered include: dynamics of population growth and demographic change; food production systems and sustainable development in the Third World; socio-political and ecological causes of famine; and patterns of world food distribution. Special attention will be given to policies aimed at controlling population and increasing food production, and why they succeed or fail. No prerequisites. 6 credits cr., SS, Not offered in 2002-2003.

LTAM 170. Modern Latin America Cross-listed with HIST 170. An introduction to Latin American history with emphasis on the post-1750 period. Beginning with a discussion of the legacies of Iberian colonialism, we will trace the development of major Latin American nations as they have wrestled with the problems of political instability and economic dependency. Attention will also be paid to major intellectual developments and the distinctive cultural patterns of Latin American societies. 6 credits cr., HU, SpringJ. DeLaney

LTAM 207. Exploring Hispanic Culture Cross-listed with SPAN 207. . Designed for the person who wants to develop greater fluency in speaking, writing, and reading Spanish in the context of a broad introduction to Hispanic culture. Short stories, plays, poems, films, and short novels are read with the goal of enhancing awareness of Hispanic diversity and stimulating classroom discussion. Prerequisite: Spanish 204 or proficiency. 6 credits cr., RAD,ND, SpringB. Boling

LTAM 221. Latin American Politics Cross-listed with POSC 221. Comparative study of political institutions and conflicts in selected Latin American countries. Attention is focused on general problems and patterns of development, with some emphasis on U.S.-Latin American relations. 6 credits cr., SS, WinterP. Dosh

LTAM 227. Liberation Theologies Cross-listed with RELG 227. An introduction to Black Theology, U.S. Hispanic Theology, Latin American Liberation Theology, and Feminist Theology through writings of various contemporary thinkers. Attention will be directed to the social settings out of which these thinkers have emerged, their critiques of "traditional" theologies, and the new vision of Christian life they are developing. Previous study of Christianity is recommended but not required. 6 credits cr., HU, Not offered in 2002-2003.

LTAM 233. The Global Resurgence of Democracy Cross-listed with POSC 233. An introduction to the comparative study of democracy and its alternatives in the twentieth century. The course will assess the fortunes of democracy in developed and lesser developed capitalist and post-communist countries in the twentieth century. What factors explain the rise and fall of democracy in these cases? How do authoritarian regimes emerge, function, and decompose? What are the political, economic, social and psychological effects on societies that survive authoritarianism and make transitions to democracy? This course is particularly useful in preparing for the comps exam or writing a comps paper in comparative politics. 6 credits cr., SS, SpringP. Dosh

LTAM 234. Ecology, Economy, and Culture Cross-listed with ENTS 234,SOAN 234. This course examines the ways in which economic goods are embedded in social relations. When does a thing become a commodity? What relationships exist between culture and ecology? Formulating an anthropological perspective for the interpretation of "economic facts," we will examine simularities and differences among hunter-gatherers, horticulturalists, and peasants. We will also discuss the interpretation of traders in the brokering of culture, asymmetrical articulation of local and transnational economies, gender bias in classical exchange theory, Mauss on gift-giving and Marx on "commodity fetishism." Theoretical material will be illustrated with ethnographic examples from Africa, Asia, Oceania, and the Americas. 6 credits cr., SS, SpringJ. Levi

LTAM 239. Technological Progress and Development Cross-listed with ECON 241. The course will examine the role of technological progress in the development of human civilization in agrarian economies, in traditional industrial societies and in what has been called the new economy. Education and health are among the topics to be examined as important determinants of a country's ability to invent and adopt new technologies. Social and distributional consequences of technological progress will also be assessed. 6 credits cr., SS, SpringT. Khitarishvili

LTAM 240. Economics of Developing Countries Cross-listed with ECON 240. A study of the modernization process in less developed countries and of various approaches to it. The nature and determinants of development and underdevelopment are emphasized and contemporary domestic and international problems and policies are evaluated, from economic, political, social and human perspectives. Topics discussed include: desirability and disadvantages of development; population patterns and pressures; labor force quality; role of women; entrepreneurship; the informal sector; agricultural productivity and land reform; savings, taxes, capital formation and the dual economy; foreign aid, trade, investment, and multinationals; and case studies of countries and of alternative policies. 6 credits cr., SS, WinterT. Khitarishvili

LTAM 242. Introduction to Latin American Literature Cross-listed with SPAN 242. An introductory course to reading major texts in Spanish provides an historical survey of the literary movements within Latin American literature from the pre-Hispanic to the contemporary period. Recommended as a foundation course for further study. Not open to seniors. Prerequisite: Spanish 204 or proficiency. 6 credits cr., AL,RAD, WinterS. López

LTAM 244. Music of the Caribbean Cross-listed with MUSC 243. An introduction to the variety of traditional and popular music in the Caribbean, with particular attention to African-derived genres. Topics will include music of Afro-Christian cults such as Shango, Vodoun, and Rastafari, and popular forms such as calypso, merengue, soca, and zouk. Roughly 25% of the course will be devoted to the study of Jamaican ska, rock steady, and reggae. Prerequisite: Previous Carleton music course or permission of the instructor. 6 credits cr., AL, Not offered in 2002-2003.

LTAM 245. Hybrid Cultures: Introduction to U.S. Latino Literature Cross-listed with SPAN 245. The course will focus on the problem of identity in the writings of the four major groups of Latinos in the U.S.: Mexican Americans, Cuban Americans, Dominican-Americans, and Nuyoricans. It will address the diversity of problems that surface depending on whether the writers are immigrants, first generation English speakers, native to the Southwest but marginalized from American culture, urban dwellers or rural pobladores, men or women, gay or straight. Since this course is offered in the Spanish section, an emphasis is placed on the problem of language (bilingualism and translation), its relation to a general American identity (American defined here as belonging to the Americas, not only the U.S.), and more broadly to what we have to understand as hybrid cultures. Conducted in English. 6 credits cr., AL,RAD, SpringS. López

LTAM 246. Morelia Program: Introduction to Mexican Literature: The Mexican Short Story Cross-listed with SPAN 246. A survey of the twentieth-century Mexican short story. This course begins with the narrative of the Mexican revolution, and then moves on to examine some key moments in Mexican literature and culture up to the present. Authors read include Mariano Azuela, Arreola, Rulfo, Elena Garro, Rosario Castellanos, and others. Prerequisite: Spanish 204 or proficency. 6 credits cr., AL, WinterJ. Cerna-Bazán

LTAM 248. Morelia Program: Drama and Performance in Latin America Cross-listed with SPAN 248. Study of contemporary Latin American Theater as a field of experimentation. The course intends to familiarize the student with major trends in theater from Expressionism to Teatro colectivo. The discussions of representative modern plays reveals their multiple nature as spectacle and literature. For this reason, another facet of this study will be the actual theatrical experience. Depending on the season, students will have ample opportunity to attend performances of several plays in Morelia, Mexico. 6 credits cr., AL,RAD, Not offered in 2002-2003.

LTAM 250. Ethnography of Latin America Cross-listed with SOAN 250. This course explores the historical development and contemporary experience of selected peoples and cultures of Latin America. We will examine the historical and structural processes that have shaped contact among indigenous, European, and African peoples in Latin America during Conquest and the colonial period, under conditions of global economic expansion and state formation, and in present day urban centers and extractive/agricultural "frontiers." Special attention will be given to local-level transformations and resistance. Examples will be drawn principally from Mayan, Afro-Brazilian, Aymara-Quechua, and mestizo cultures. 6 credits cr., SS,RAD, FallB. Nagel

LTAM 251. Community Development, Cultural Empowerment and Social Change in Guatemala Cross-listed with SOAN 251. The first part of this course consists of a two-week field trip to Guatemala in early December 2002. The field trip will begin in Guatemala City, and continue to the Guatemala highlands and Lake Atitlan region. The seminar will focus on the role of community groups, local governments, and non-governmental organizations in promoting cultural empowerment and a more equitable and sustainable path of economic and social development. During winter term 2003 on campus, the seminar will meet once a week, enabling students to complete research and give oral presentations on topics chosen during the fall term and researched during the December field trip. 6 credits cr., SS,RAD, WinterB. Nagel

LTAM 252. Telling Stories: The Short Story in Latin America Cross-listed with SPAN 252. We will study collections of short stories by well-known Latin American authors such as Juan Rulfo, Cristina Peri Rossi, Isabel Allende, Julio Cortázar, Jorge Luis Borges, and Gabriel García Márquez. How does the short story differ from other narratives? What possibilities of form and content does the short story provide? We will explore how this genre represents contemporary issues in Latin America even as it gives shape to the desire to tell a good story. We will tell and write our own short stories to better understand the genre. Prerequisite: Spanish 204 or proficiency. 6 credits cr., AL,RAD, Not offered in 2002-2003.

LTAM 255. Women Dramatists in Latin America: Staging Conflicts Cross-listed with SPAN 255,WGST 255. This course will examine contemporary plays written by Latin American and U.S. Latina women from a woman centered perspective. Issues will range from women and political repression to a critique of gender roles. As we read the plays, we will consider both the literary qualities of dramatic texts and the semiotics of staging and its potential for public advocacy. Dramatists that may be included are Luisa Josefina Hernández, Elena Garro, Griselda Gambaro, Sabina Berman, Maruxa Vilalta, Marcela del Río, Albalucía Angel, Aida Bortnik and U.S. Latina playwrights María Irene Fornes and Margarita Tavera Rivera. Prerequisite: Spanish 204 or proficiency. 6 credits cr., AL,RAD, FallB. Boling

LTAM 259. Comparative Issues in Native North America Cross-listed with SOAN 259. This course examines the cultural and historical situation of indigenous groups in the United States, Mexico, and Canada to develop a comparative perspective for understanding native peoples in North America. How have indigenous peoples variously coped with continuity and change? What strategies have they employed in pursuit of political sovereignty, economic survival, and cultural vitality? In answering these questions, we will explore the politics of representation regarding "the Indian" as a symbol in national consciousness; the negotiation of identity in inter ethnic contexts; patterns of resistance; the impact of European powers and state agendas; and the resurgence of tradition. 6 credits cr., SS, Not offered in 2002-2003.

LTAM 260. The Artist and the City Cross-listed with SPAN 260. An examination of the role of the modern city in Spanish and Latin American literature from the end of the XIX century until the present. The course is organized around two central questions: how has the modern city shaped our sensibility and what has been literature's response to the loss of meaning and the rationalization of life brought about by modernity? Authors studied include Pérez Galdós, Marsé, Martí, Jiménez, Borges, Moreno Villa, Lorca and Paz. Prerequisite: Spanish 204 or proficiency. 6 credits cr., AL, Not offered in 2002-2003.

LTAM 272. Mexico in Historical Perspective Cross-listed with HIST 272. The evolution of a bi-cultural society. Studies of the origins of indigenous civilizations, Spanish-Indian relations in the colonial period, independence and underdevelopment in the nineteenth century, the revolution of 1910-1920, and the subsequent interaction of radical reform, industrialization, and an authoritarian state. The fate of a primarily Indian peasantry in an industrializing and urbanizing world is a concern throughout the course. 6 credits cr., HU, Not offered in 2002-2003.

LTAM 274. Brazil from Colonial to Modern Times Cross-listed with HIST 274. A study of the evolution of Brazilian society from its origins as an export colony based on black slave labor to the twentieth century drive toward industrialization. Topics to be examined include race relations, cultural and economic nationalism, the military, liberation theology, and the transition to democracy. A concern throughout will be the relationship between elites and the masses, and how popular religious and cultural movements have often served as a way for the latter to challenge the status quo. 6 credits cr., HU, Not offered in 2002-2003.

LTAM 275. Twentieth Century Cuba Cross-listed with HIST 275. If, as Ernesto "CHE" Guevara once remarked, "Revolutions are made of passions," it is equally true they provoke them. Since the victory of Fidel Castro's guerrilla army over forty years ago, Cuba's revolution continues to generate controversy and to inflame the passions of both friends and foes. What is the real story behind the Cuban revolution, and what will the future hold for the Western Hemisphere's sole socialist country? This course will offer some insight by examining the historical conditions leading up to Castro's victory, the early decades of the socialist regime, and recent changes as Cuba struggles to survive in the post-Soviet era. 6 credits cr., HU, FallJ. DeLaney

LTAM 302. Anthropology and Indigenous Rights Cross-listed with SOAN 302. This seminar examines the relationship between culture and human rights from an anthropological perspective. By asking "who are indigenous peoples?" and "what specific rights do they have?" this course introduces students to a comparative framework for understanding cultural rights discourse. Given the history of intolerance to difference, the seminar demonstrates the need to explore the determinants of violence, ethnocide, and exploitation routinely committed against the world's most marginalized peoples. At the same time, it also asks about the limits of tolerance, if human rights abuses are perpetrated under the banner of cultural pluralism. Students will analyze case studies drawn from Africa, Asia, and the Americas, as well as issues that cross-cut these regions Prerequisite: Sociology/Anthropology 110, 111 or permision of the instructor; upper division coursework in anthropology, sociology, history or philosophy recommended. 6 credits cr., SS, SpringJ. Levi

LTAM 312. Actors and Issues in Contemporary Third World "Development" Cross-listed with ENTS 312,SOAN 312. This course focuses on the processes known as "development," the roles of various social actors in these processes, and the social, environmental, and human rights implications of these processes. We discuss the concept of development, the construction of an ideology of development, and the various theoretical perspectives on development within the fields of sociology and anthropology. Specific issues that we examine include: the political economy of agrarian change; gender issues in development; international development actors and institutions, and their roles in shaping the social and environmental impacts of development; the role of social movements and grassroots organizations in contesting development activities and in shaping new models and meanings of development; and strategies for sustainable, democratic development locally, nationally, and internationally. 6 credits cr., SS, WinterB. Nagel

LTAM 322. Political Economy of Latin America* Cross-listed with POSC 322. . A research seminar that focuses on politics and economic development in Latin American nations. Topics change annually and include: revolution, dependent development, democracy, etc. 6 credits cr., SS, Not offered in 2002-2003.

LTAM 326. Writers in Exile Cross-listed with SPAN 326. . Two countries and four writers will be the protagonists of our course: Guillermo Cabrera Infante, a refugee from the Cuban revolution living in London while trying to recover his lost city Habana through his writing; Reinaldo Arenas, another Cuban refugee dying of AIDS in New York while writing about his illness and exile; Spanish novelist Jorge Semprún, a deportee and survivor of a concentration camp established in Paris and writing in French; and Juan Goytisolo, a Spanish expatriated in Morocco, writing in Spanish and Arabic about his own country and the Muslim world. Prerequisite: Spanish 205 or equivalent. 6 credits cr., AL, FallJ. Brioso

LTAM 331. Urban Politics in Latin America* Cross-listed with POSC 331. . Democratic elections have finally begun to penetrate metropolitan Latin America, offering the urban poor new avenues for demand making. In this research seminar, we will explore how the changing rules of political competition affect urban struggles for land, racial equality, and municipal representation. Focus on mayoral elections, squatter politics, and social movements in several major cities. For students with previous coursework in Latin American or urban politics. 6 credits cr., SS, SpringP. Dosh

LTAM 334. Texts and Nations: Nineteenth-Century Latin America Cross-listed with SPAN 334. This course will focus on the literature written in the period following Latin American independence in the nineteenth century all the way to the Mexican revolution. The central organizing concept will be that of the nation as an imagined community that is created discursively and is intimately bound to the functioning of the state, the creation of a national identity, and ultimately the invention of the people (with all its gender and ethnic inflections). We will examine closely different kinds of primary texts: fiction, essays, poetry, newspaper articles, manifestoes. All primary and theoretical texts will be in Spanish. Selections from: Sarmiento, Bello, Echeverría, Hernández, Martí, Darío, del Casal, Rodó, Gómez de Avellaneda, Matto de Turner, Machado de Assis. Prerequisite: Spanish 204 or proficiency. 6 credits cr., AL,RAD, Not offered in 2002-2003.

LTAM 336. Genealogies of the Modern: Turn of the Century Latin America Cross-listed with SPAN 336. In this course we will examine what the literary tradition has come to name "modernismo." We will cover the period between 1870 and 1910. We will study it in the context of the experience of modernity, that is the configuration of emergent cities, urban culture, mass media, technological innovation and the modernization of the figure of the writer. Particular attention will be given to the understanding of the modern in a non-European context and its relation to what we know today as modern Latin American identity. Selections from: Martí, Darío, Rodó, González Prada, Gutiérrez Nájera, Lugones, Agustini. Prerequisite: Spanish 204 or proficiency. 6 credits cr., AL,RAD, FallS. López

LTAM 338. Spanish Images of the Indian in Spanish American Literature Cross-listed with SPAN 338. After a historical survey of the relationship between national projects of social organization and the indigenous populations of the area, this course focuses on Indigenismo as a set of social discourses attempting to represent "the Indian", and on key works by Icaza (Ecuador), Asturias (Guatemala), Arguedas (Peru), and Castellanos (Mexico). While considering the specific literary quality of this writing, we will contrast its representation of "the Indian" with indigenous self-representation in oral-popular tradition and through intellectuals like Domitila Barrios, Rigoberta Menchú, Bernabe Condori and others, to better understand the relationship between official culture and its Other. Prerequisite: Spanish 204 or proficiency. 6 credits cr., AL, Not offered in 2002-2003.

LTAM 340. Latin American Prose: Dictatorships and Revolution in the Latin American Narrative Cross-listed with SPAN 340. This course briefly examines the origins and development of the Latin American narrative and then focuses on the literary reaction to dictatorship and revolution. It stresses a critical reading and discussion of major works by Azuela, Castellanos, and Fuentes (Mexico), Asturias (Guatemala), and Allende (Chile). The emphasis is on Mexico and the literary interpretation of the Revolution of 1910 and the society that grew out of it. Prerequisite: a 240 level literature course is strongly recommended. 6 credits cr., AL, Not offered in 2002-2003.

LTAM 344. Women Writers in Latin America: Challenging Gender and Genre Cross-listed with SPAN 344,WGST 344. The course will study texts (written by women) that deal critically with issues of gender, challenging implicit and explicit patriarchal values. Emphasis will also be placed on how these women have experimented with narrative and poetic genres to express their personal concerns and to deconstruct orthodox structures. Authors usually included: Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, Storni, Agustini, Castellanos, Poniatowska, Molloy, Valenzuela, Ferré, Garro, Peri Rossi, Allende. Prerequisite: Spanish 240 or a 300 level literature course is recommended. 6 credits cr., AL,RAD, WinterB. Boling

LTAM 348. New Trends in Latin American Poetry, 1950-2000 Cross-listed with SPAN 348. Spanish American poets have brought to the text the interplay of writing with orality, popular culture, and other social discourses and semiotic systems. This course will examine poetic experimentation during the last decades of the twentieth century in relation to a cultural universe dominated by visual and aural images (both traditional and modern) as well as by the new technologies of information. Authors read include Nicanor Parra, Enrique Lihn, Ernesto Cardenal, Rodolfo Hinostroza, Antonio Cisneros, José Emilio Pacheco, and Raúl Zurita. Prerequisite: Spanish 205 or equivalent. 6 credits cr., AL,RAD, SpringJ. Cerna-Bazán

LTAM 350. Recent Trends in Latin American Narrative: Pop Culture and Testimony Cross-listed with SPAN 350. Postboom narratives question the nature of telling stories, from Rigoberta Menchú's testimony to Tomás Eloy Martínez's novelistic history of Eva Perón's embalmed body. Galeano, Alegría, Puig, Vega, and Esquivel combine fiction and reportage or recontextualize the romance and detective novels. Emerging with these narratives is the ecological novel which refashions the standard Latin American theme of "civilización y barbarie." What makes these texts literature? How has the craft of author changed, and what constitutes a postmodern narrative discourse? Prerequisite: Spanish 240 or a 300 level literature course is recommended. 6 credits cr., AL,RAD, Not offered in 2002-2003.

LTAM 360. Topics in Hispanic Literature: Difference, Identity and Representation in Latin America Cross-listed with SPAN 360. Identity diversification is an ongoing process in Latin America, resulting from conflictive interactions between heterogeneous social groups, among which power is unevenly distributed. This course examines the ways in which literature incorporates specific manifestations of ethnic, racial, sexual, and gender difference against the background of territorial-geological, cultural, political and economic fragmentation of this region in the period 1950-2000. To examine specific forms of literary experimentation, narrative and poetry will be considered in relation to oral tradition, popular music, film, video and other cultural artifacts produced in such a heterogeneous context. Focus on Peruvian and Colombian literatures and cultures. Prerequisite: Spanish 204 or proficiency. 6 credits cr., AL,RAD, Not offered in 2002-2003.

LTAM 386. Comparing Mexico and China* Cross-listed with POSC 386. . This course will look at consequences of economic globalization in two very different countries—China and Mexico. Students will debate propositions from literature on globalization, study real-world applications, and prepare for on-site research during December. The course will focus upon impacts of economic change on political liberalization, the role of government in regulating social/economic dislocation, and importance of international institutions (e.g., NAFTA, WTO) in shaping local responses. During the off-campus component, students will collect data and make observations in China or Mexico. During the winter, students will prepare a research paper and a group presentation organized as a consulting project. 6 credits cr., SS, Not offered in 2002-2003.

LTAM 395. Ethnography of Reproduction Cross-listed with WGST 395,SOAN 395. This seminar explores the meanings of reproductive beliefs and practices in comparative perspective. It focuses on (but is not limited to) ethnographic examples from the U.S./Canada and England and from sub-Saharan Africa (societies with relatively low fertility and high utilization of technology and a set of societies with mostly high fertility and low utilization of technology). Topics examined include fertility and birth, fertility rites, new reproductive technologies, abortion, population control, infertility, child survival and child loss. Prerequisites: Sociology/Anthropology 110 or 111; 226, 260, 262 or 130 is recommended; or permission of the instructor. 6 credits cr., SS, SpringP. Feldman-Savelsberg

LTAM 395. Idioms of Inequality: Ethnicity, Gender, and Exchange in Latin America Cross-listed with WGST 395,SOAN 395. Focusing on Indian as well as Hispanic cultures in Mexico, Central, and South America, this course will analyze the ways in which identity is processed through symbols of difference. It seeks to understand how ethnicity, gender, and exchange sometimes operate as means for achieving solidarity and complementarity, yet at other times function as the quintessential sources for inequality. Drawing ethnographic materials from Latin America, this course examines the meaning and significance of culturally variable expressions of inequality as modulated through critical social relations. An emphasis will be placed on highlighting salient theoretical debates through the interpretation of both classic and contemporary ethnographies. Prerequisites: Sociology/Anthropology 110, 111, upper division coursework in Latin American Studies, or permission of the instructor. 6 credits cr., SS, FallJ. Levi

LTAM 400. Integrative Exercise Satisfactory completion of the major includes the writing of a thesis which attempts to integrate at least two of the various disciplines studied. A proposal must be submitted for approval early in the fall term of the senior year. The thesis in its final form is due no later than the end of the first week of spring term. An oral defense of the thesis is required. 6 credits cr., S/NC, ND, Fall,Winter,SpringStaff