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History (HIST)

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The History major introduces students to major civilizations of the past while it develops skills of research, analysis and expression that are essential to students in the Liberal Arts environment. History majors learn not only what happened in the past, but also how to explain significant elements of continuity and how to analyze moments of profound rupture. Thus a History major develops a deep appreciation for the durable phenomena of world cultures (the persistence of poverty, the transcendence of genius, the corruption of political power), as well as a keen analytical framework for understanding transformative moments in time (the American, Mexican and French Revolutions, the Civil Rights Movement, etc.)

In view of the variety of departmental offerings, History majors are allowed to design their own mix of courses. The department offers guidelines, attentive advising, and carefully selected requirements to ensure coherence in the student's growing mastery of the discipline. Still, much of the choice on specific courses is left up to the individual student. The student's pathway through the major should reflect his or her particular interests, abilities and career plans.

See History Department Web site:

Requirements for a Major

The major requires a total of 72 credits from courses taken in the history department. History 100's and the comprehensive exercise count toward the total number of credits. Courses in ancient history are taught in the Classics department and count toward the history major. Certain courses offered outside the history department also count toward the major; these courses are specified in the course catalog.

Primary Field

Courses must be taken in at least three of the following eight fields: 1) United States, 2) Ancient and Medieval, 3) Early Modern and Modern Europe, 4) the Middle East and Asia, 5) Africa and Its Diaspora, 6) Latin America, 7) the Atlantic World and 8) Environment and Health. Students choosing fields 1-4 as their primary field will take four courses; those choosing 5-8 may take four courses in that field, or take three courses in the field and one additional course that is of relevance to the field. This additional course will be chosen in consultation with the adviser.

Self-designed Thematic Field Option

In consultation with the faculty, students may also propose a self-designed thematic field as their primary field (e.g., Gender and History, Colonialism, Environmental History, Communism, Economic History). Interested students should consult the department chair for further details and procedures.

History 200 Sophomore Workshops

Working with evidence is what allows historians to encounter past societies and people. What kind of evidence we have and our approaches to interpreting it shape the questions we can ask and the interpretations we can offer. This series of courses geared toward sophomores will provide interested students with hands-on experience in working with various kinds of evidence and learning about the process of writing histories. The History Department introduced one new sophomore workshop in 2014-2015: History 200 The Chinese Cultural Revolution, 1966-76, Professor Seungjoo Yoon.

Additional Requirements

In addition to four courses in a primary field, all majors must also take at least two courses in each of two secondary fields. The History major must complete a research seminar (History 395), the History Colloquium (History 298) and Advanced Historical Writing (History 398). Students prepare for the senior integrative exercise by submitting an acceptable proposal, normally in fall term of the senior year and writing a senior thesis (History 400), normally in the winter term of the senior year. See History Comps Web page.

It is recommended that students planning to major in history take a History 100 seminar and one or two other courses during their first year. History majors who are interested in study and research in a major library should consider the Newberry Library Seminar program. Two off-campus programs in History are offered in 2015-2016, spring break at the Grand Canyon and spring term in Turkey. Other additional off-campus programs and graduate studies programs and information can be found in the History department lounge and on the History Department Off-Campus Programs and the Off-Campus Studies office web pages.

Courses from other departments

(may be included in the seventy-two credits total and count towards fields).

AMST 115 Introduction to American Studies

CLAS 122 Archaeology of the Mediterranrean Prehistory

CLAS 227 Greek History

CLAS 228 Roman Republic

CLAS 230 The World of Alexander

CLAS 231 The Roman Principate

ECON 232 American Economic History

ECON 233 European Economic History

ECON 250 History of Economic Ideas

ECON 277 Economic History of the Financial Crises

EDUC 245 History of American School Reform

LTAM 270 Chile's September 11th: History and Memory Since the Coup

POSC 245 Politics in the Middle East

RELG 140 Religion and American Culture

Please ask the history department chair or your adviser about any courses in African/African American Studies, American Studies, Asian Studies, Classics, Cross Cultural Studies, Economics, Education, European Studies, Environmental and Technology Studies, Latin American Studies, Religion, Women's and Gender Studies, or other special courses offered by an historian in another department if you wish to apply them toward the history major.

History Courses

HIST 100. Confucius and His Critics An introduction to the study of historical biography. Instead of what we heard or think about Confucius, we will examine what his contemporaries, both his supporters and critics, thought he was. Students will scrutinize various sources gleaned from archaeology, heroic narratives, and court debates, as well as the Analects to write their own biography of Confucius based on a particular historical context that created a persistent constitutional agenda in early China. Students will justify why they would call such a finding, in hindsight, "Confucian" in its formative days. Themes can be drawn from aspects of ritual, bureaucracy, speech and writing. 6 cr., AI, WR1, IS, FallS. Yoon

HIST 100. American Antebellum Slavery: History and Historians This seminar focuses on the nature of the antebellum slave experience as one of the great debates in American historiography. The course begins with Ulrich Bonnell Phillips's controversial 1918 interpretation and moves to selected major revisionist studies from the late 1950s through the 1990s that incorporate fresh scholarship on women, culture, and economics. There is emphasis on sharpening critical thinking and writing skills. 6 cr., AI, WR1, IDS, FallH. Williams

HIST 100. U.S.-Latin American Relations: A View from the South "Colossus of the North" or "Good Neighbor?" While many of its citizens believe the United States wields a benign or positive effect on the world, the intent and consequences of its actions in Latin American history paints a decidedly more mixed picture. This course explores the history of hemispheric relations in the Americas with an emphasis on the twentieth century and the Cold War era. National case studies will be used to highlight key political, economic, and social developments. Latin American critiques of U.S. involvement in the region will also be examined. 6 cr., AI, WR1, IS, FallA. Fisher

HIST 100. The Age of Elizabeth Her subjects remembered her as Good Queen Bess, and biographers have sung the praises of Gloriana, but what is our current understanding of Elizabeth I of England? This course will examine recent works on Elizabeth's family and personal life, as well as histories of the political and religious events of the Tudor Age. In the process we will be seeking not merely to understand how historians have studied Elizabeth, but also to learn about how historians practice their craft.  6 cr., AI, WR1, FallS. Ottaway

HIST 100. American Farms and Food What's for dinner? The answers to that question--and others like it--have never been more complicated or consequential than they are today. Behind a glance into the refrigerator or the shelves of any supermarket lie a myriad of concerns, ideas, and cultural developments that touch on everything from health and nutrition to taste, tradition, identity, time, cost, and environmental stewardship. This seminar will consider the evolution of these interconnected issues in American history, giving particular attention to the rise, inner workings, and effects of the agro-industrial food system and to contemporary movements that seek a new path forward. 6 cr., WR; AI, WR1, IDS, FallG. Vrtis

HIST 100. Drunks and Teetotalers: Alcohol and American Society From colonial times on, the use and abuse of alcohol in the United States has been hotly debated. This course examines historians' attempts to understand alcohol's powerful impact on American politics, society, social reform, and the history of medicine. Using original source materials, this course will focus on the temperance movement, the rise of saloons and saloon politics, the debate over prohibition, and the contemporary debates about substance abuse, Alcoholics Anonymous, and MADD (Mothers Against Drunk Drivers). 6 cr., AI, WR1, IDS, FallC. Clark

HIST 120. Rethinking the American Experience: American History, 1607-1865 A survey of the American experience from before Christopher Columbus' arrival through the Civil War. Some of the topics we will cover include: contact between Native and European cultures; the development of the thirteen mainland British colonies; British, French, and Spanish imperial conflicts over the Americas; slavery; the American Revolution; religious awakenings; antebellum politics; and the Civil War. 6 cr., HI, IDS, QRE, Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 121. Rethinking the American Experience: American Social History, 1865-1945 This course offers a survey of the American experience from the end of the Civil War through World War II. Although we will cover a large number of major historical developments--including Reconstruction, the Progressive movement, World War I, the Great Depression, the New Deal and World War II--the course will seek to emphasize the various beliefs, values, and understanding that informed Americans' choices throughout these periods. In countless ways, the legacy of their lives continues to shape ours today, and so we will seek to understand the connections (and sometimes the disconnections) between Americans past and present. 6 cr., HI, IDS, FallH. Williams

HIST 122. U.S. Women's History to 1877 Gender, race, and class shaped women's participation in the arenas of work, family life, culture, and politics in the United States from the colonial period to the late nineteenth century. We will examine diverse women's experiences of colonization, industrialization, slavery and Reconstruction, religion, sexuality and reproduction, and social reform. Readings will include both primary and secondary sources, as well as historiographic articles outlining major frameworks and debates in the field of women's history. 6 cr., HI, IDS, FallA. Igra

HIST 123. U.S. Women's History Since 1877 In the twentieth century women participated in the redefinition of politics and the state, sexuality and family life, and work and leisure as the United States became a modern, largely urban society. We will explore how the dimensions of race, class, ethnicity, and sexuality shaped diverse women's experiences of these historical changes. Topics will include: immigration, the expansion of the welfare system and the consumer economy, labor force segmentation and the world wars, and women's activism in civil rights, labor, peace and feminist movements. 6 cr., HI, IDS, WinterA. Igra

HIST 125. African American History I This survey begins with the pre-enslavement history of African Americans in West Africa. It proceeds to the transition of the slave from an African to an African American either directly or indirectly through the institution of slavery until 1865. Special attention will be given to black female activists, organizations, and philosophies proposing solutions to the African-American and Euro-American dilemma in the antebellum period. 6 cr., HI, WR2, IDS, Offered in alternate years. SpringH. Williams

HIST 126. African American History II The transition from slavery to freedom; the post-Reconstruction erosion of civil rights and the ascendancy of Booker T. Washington; protest organizations and mass migration before and during World War I; the postwar resurgence of black nationalism; African Americans in the Great Depression and World War II; roots of the modern Civil Rights movement, and black female activism. 6 cr., HI, WR2, IDS, Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 130. The History of Political Thought, 300-1600: Power, Authority, and Imagination The period between 300-1600 witnessed extensive and dynamic experimentation in political thought. The nascent and fluid polities and institutions of the period created a laboratory in which thinkers grappled with fundamental political issues: the nature and function of sovereignty and consensual rule; proper social order; and the nature and rule of law. Thinkers also debated the relative importance of reason, religion, tradition, and experience as sources of legitimate power and authority. Through a series of rich case studies, this course will explore the principles and preoccupations that shaped the political and institutional orders on the eve of the modern State. 6 cr., HI, WR2, IS, Offered in alternate years. SpringW. North

HIST 131. Saints, Sinners, and Philosophers in Late Antiquity In Late Antiquity, pagans and Christians asked with particular intensity: How should I live? Those answering these questions successfully could become figures of authority and influence in their worlds. In this course we will explore what roles education; gender; discipline of the mind and body; physical location and social status; and acts of power played in the making of an exemplary life. Was the best life to be achieved through material renunciation, psychological transformation, or both? What institutional forms fostered such a life? We will ask these and other questions of a wide array of primary sources while employing the insights of modern scholarship. 6 cr., HI, WR2, IS, Offered in alternate years. Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 133. Crisis, Creativity, and Transformation in Late Antiquity This course investigates the dramatic transformations that shaped the eastern Mediterranean world and surrounding regions between ca. 250-850 CE. We will focus in particular on how people in late antiquity used environmental, institutional, socio-economic, and cultural resources to address an ongoing series of changes and challenges in their worlds. It also examines these responses from multiple perspectives: winners and losers, elites and non-elites, people of different ethnicities and cultures, urban and rural populations, and diverse religious groups and sects within these groups. The emergence and implications of Christianity and Islam as major organizing identities will also be explored. 6 cr., HI, WR2, IS, Offered in alternate years. Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 137. Early Medieval Worlds Through the intensive exploration of a variety of distinct "worlds" in the early Middle Ages, this course offers an introduction to formative political, social, religious, and cultural developments in Europe between c.450 and c.1050. We will pay special attention to the structures, ideologies, practices, and social dynamics that shaped and energized communities large and small and will develop skills in the historical interpretation of various kinds of primary sources. The development of a student-designed public exhibition on "Word and Image in the Middle Ages" is an essential element of the course and includes outreach projects in the public schools. 6 cr., HI, WR2, IS, Offered in alternate years. Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 138. Crusades, Mission, and the Expansion of Europe This course examines the complex and sometimes contradictory roles of crusade and mission in the gradual expansion of Europe (eleventh -fifteenth century) into the eastern Mediterranean, the Iberian peninsula, the Baltic, and even Central Asia. We will examine questions like: What did "crusade" or "mission" mean? How did people respond to, resist, or co-opt these enterprises? Did crusade and mission expand Europeans' knowledge of other cultures? In addition to critical analysis of primary sources and current scholarship, the course will offer opportunities to share knowledge with a broader public. 6 cr., HI, WR2, IS, Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 139. Foundations of Modern Europe A narrative and survey of the early modern period (fifteenth through eighteenth centuries). The course examines the Renaissance, Reformation, Contact with the Americas, the Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment. We compare the development of states and societies across Western Europe, with particularly close examination of the history of Spain. 6 cr., HI, WR2, IS, Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 140. The Age of Revolutions: Modern Europe, 1789-1914 This course traces the evolution of Europe from the French Revolution to the outbreak of World War I, and examines some of the political, social, economic, intellectual, and cultural forces that have shaped and reshaped European society. We will cover the growth of modern nation-states, the industrial revolution and its effects on society, changes in the family and gender roles, and the evolution of modern consciousness in the arts, literature, and philosophy. The course will strive to look at both Western and Eastern Europe, and will conclude with a close examination of the causes of the First World War. 6 cr., HI, IS, Offered in alternate years. Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 141. Europe in the Twentieth Century This course explores developments in European history in a global context from the final decade of the nineteenth century through to the present. We will focus on the impact of nationalism, war, and revolution on the everyday experiences of women and men, and also look more broadly on the chaotic economic, political, social, and cultural life of the period. Of particular interest will be the rise of fascism and communism, and the challenge to Western-style liberal democracy, followed by the Cold War and communism’s collapse near the end of the century. 6 cr., HI, IS, Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 151. History of Modern Japan This course explores the modern transformation of Japanese society, politics, economy and culture from the Meiji Restoration of 1868 to the present. It is designed to provide students with an opportunity to explore basic issues and problems relating to modern Japanese history and international relations. Topics include the intellectual crisis of the late Tokugawa period, the Meiji Constitution, the development of an interior democracy, class and gender, the rise of Japanese fascism, the Pacific War, and postwar developments. 6 cr., HI, IS, Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 153. History of Modern China This course offers a critical survey of the modern transformation of the trajectory of China's recent past spanning from the eighteenth century through the present. Students will analyze deep structural issues that cut across political narratives of Chinese elites. Themes for discussion will include the debates on Chinese "capitalism," new religious currents as a form of legitimation (e.g., Tibetan Buddhism), bureaucratic behaviors, cultural refinements, peasant and sectarian rebellions, the interaction with the West, the (non-)existence of civil society, nationalism, party politics, the dynamics of Communist rule, and alternative Chinese societies both inside and outside of Mainland China. 6 cr., WR; HI, WR2, IS, SpringS. Yoon

HIST 156. History of Modern Korea A comparative historical survey on the development of Korean society and culture from the nineteenth century to the present. Key themes include colonialism and war, economic growth, political transformation, socio-cultural changes, and historical memory. Issues involving divided Korea will be examined in the contexts of post-colonialism and Cold War. Students are also expected to develop skills to analyze key historical moments from relevant primary sources against broader historiographical contexts. 6 cr., HI, IS, Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 158. Cold War in East Asia How is the Cold War in East Asia related to the global Cold War? Many argue that Cold War came prematurely in East Asia and outlasts the collapse of the Berlin Wall. Students will examine evolving patterns of the region's engagement with global dimensions of war, diplomacy, and trade and conduct a case study (e.g., Roosevelt on China, Stalin on North Korea, Kennedy on Japan, Khrushchev and Nixon on China, or Bush on North Korea). Themes may be drawn from sports and pop culture or urban renewal projects in terms of post-colonial nation building, market fundamentalism, and new empire formation. 6 cr., HI, IS, Offered in alternate years. WinterS. Yoon

HIST 161. History of Modern India, c. 1700-1947 A survey of the modern history of the Indian sub-continent from the establishment of the Mughal Court in North India (1525 AD) until the formation of the Republic of India (1947 AD), including the regional states, the British East India Company, British colonial rule and the rise of nationalism. Students will be asked to consider the differences between the early modern and colonial periods, and the empires of the subcontinent. 6 cr., HI, IS, SpringAmna Khalid

HIST 162. Politics and Public Culture in Modern South Asia This course examines the intersection of politics and culture in the public sphere in South Asia. We will look at the impact of British colonial rule, social hierarchies and caste, gender and the public sphere, race, religion and secularism. We'll also examine movements for independence, including Gandhian nationalism, left- and right-wing movements, and religious nationalism. Lastly, we will look at contemporary issues of popular culture, identity, gender, social justice, and militarism in the age of globalization. In addition to scholarly books and articles, course material includes music, poetry, journalism, popular Bollywood cinema and "art films." 6 cr., HI, IS, FallB. Larocque

HIST 165. From Young Turks to Arab Revolutions: A Cultural History of the Modern Middle East This course provides a basic introduction to the history of the wider Muslim world from the eighteenth century to the present. We will discuss the cultural and religious diversity of the Muslim world and its varied interactions with modernity. We will find that the history of the Muslim world is inextricably linked to that of its neighbors, and we will encounter colonialism, anti-colonialism, nationalism, and socialism, as well as a variety of different Islamic movements. 6 cr., HI, IS, Offered in alternate years. Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 167. History of Modern South Asia 1947-Onward This course examines the history of South Asia from 1947 to the present. We will explore forms of government, types of economies, and art and culture, and examine the role of religions in South Asian societies, including Islam, Hinduism, and Buddhism. We will consider the following countries: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. Topics covered will include political violence and non-violence, the rise of communalism, conceptions of masculinity and femininity, caste class, uses of national history. 6 cr., HI, WR2, IS, Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 169. Colonial Latin America 1492-1810 How did peoples from the Americas, the Iberian Peninsula, and Africa contribute to the creation of new colonial societies in Latin America and the Caribbean? The course examines the bewildering spectrum of indigenous societies Europeans and Africans encountered in the Americas, then turns to the introduction and proliferation of Hispanic institutions and culture, the development of mature colonial societies, and the increasing tensions and internal contradictions that plagued the region by the late eighteenth century. It asks how the colonized population managed to survive, adapt, and resist imperial pressures and examines the creation of new collective identities. 6 cr., HI, IS, Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 170. Modern Latin America 1810-Present This course focuses on the legacy of colonial rule and asks how nascent nation-states dealt with new challenges of political legitimacy, economic development, and the rights of citizens. Case studies from the experiences of individual nations will highlight concerns still pertinent today: the ongoing struggle to extend meaningful political participation and the benefits of economic growth to the majority of the region's inhabitants, popular struggles for political, economic, and cultural rights, and the emergence of a civic society. 6 cr., HI, IS, WinterA. Fisher

HIST 181. West Africa in the Era of the Slave Trade The medieval Islamic and the European (or Atlantic) slave trades have had a tremendous influence on the history of Africa and the African Diaspora. This course offers an introduction to the history of West African peoples via their involvement in both of these trades from the fifteenth to the nineteenth century. More specifically, students will explore the demography, the economics, the social structure, and the ideologies of slavery. They also will learn the repercussions of these trades for men's and women's lives, for the expansion of coastal and hinterland kingdoms, and for the development of religious practices and networks. 6 cr., HI, IS, Offered in alternate years. SpringT. Willis

HIST 182. Living in the Colonial Context: Africa, 1850-1950 This course considers major actors and developments in sub-Saharan Africa from the mid-nineteenth through the mid-twentieth centuries. With a critical awareness of the ways that Africa's past has been narrated, it balances coverage of the state and economy with attention to daily life, families, and popular culture. The majority of the reading assignments are drawn from contemporary documents, commentaries, interviews, and memoirs. These are supplemented by works produced by historians. Students will analyze change, question perspectives, and imagine life during the age of European imperialism. Written assignments include a book review, examinations, and identifying and editing a primary source text. 6 cr., HI, IS, Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 183. History of Early West Africa This course surveys the history of West Africa during the pre-colonial period from 790 to 1590. It chronicles the rise and fall of the kingdoms of Ancient Ghana, Mali, and Songhai. We will examine the transition from decentralized to centralized societies, the relations between nomadic and settler groups, the institution of divine kingship, the emergence of new ruling dynasties, the consolidation of trade networks, and the development of the classical Islamic world. Students will learn how scholars have used archeological evidence, African oral traditions, and the writings of Muslim travelers to reconstruct this important era of West African history. 6 cr., HI, IS, Offered in alternate years. Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 184. Colonial West Africa This course surveys the history of West Africa during the colonial period, 1860-1960. It offers an introduction to the roles that Islam and Christianity played in establishing and maintaining colonial rule. It looks at the role of colonialism in shaping African ethnic identities and introducing new gender roles. In addition, we will examine the transition from slave labor to wage labor, and its role in exacerbating gender, generation, and class divisions among West Africans. The course also highlights some of the ritual traditions and cultural movements that flourished in response to colonial rule. 6 cr., HI, IS, Offered in alternate years. WinterT. Willis

HIST 200. History Workshop: The Chinese Cultural Revolution, 1966-76 In the recent past the youthful radical movement in Communist China has made an indelible mark on the society comprising a quarter of the world's population. In 1966 the student radicals known as Red Guards launched a series of destructive campaigns against the Communist Party with the Maoist cue to "Bombard the Headquarters!" How could a Leninist party find itself the victim of its own supreme leader? Students will examine tabloids, wall posters, pamphlets, cartoons, memoirs, reportage literature, play scripts, films, as well as party documents to explore theories on personality formation, class consciousness, legitimation of violence, and operations of memory. 6 cr., HI, WR2, IS, Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 200. History Workshop: The Russian Revolution How do historians use evidence and how do they use it to construct their histories? In this seminar, which targets sophomores with a strong interest in history, students will explore these questions through a hands-on study of the Russian Revolution of 1917, one of the seminal events of the twentieth century and one of the most contentious. By working on research projects making intensive use of primary sources, students will ask questions not just about revolutionary change, but also about the nature of power and legitimacy, about what holds societies together and what leads to their dissolution. Above all, however, they will get to experience first hand the challenges and delights of using evidence and constructing arguments about the past. 6 cr., HI, WR2, IS, Offered in alternate years. Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 201. Rome Program: Community and Communication in Medieval Italy, CE 300-1150 Through site visits, on-site projects, and readings, this course explores the ways in which late antique and medieval Italy sought to communicate political, religious, and civic messages through combinations of words, images, objects, and structures. What are the "arts of power and piety" and when and why are they used? How do people use spaces and images to educate, to challenge, to honor, to remember, or to forget? How can materials create and transmit meaning and order? How do people combine creativity and tradition to maintain and enrich the worlds they inhabit? 6 cr., HI, IS, Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 202. Iconoclasm in the Early Middle Ages What roles do images play in society? What are these images thought to be and to do? Why, at particular moments, have certain groups attempted to do away with images either completely or in specific settings? How do images create and threaten communities and power structures, and how is the management of the visual integrated with and shaped by other values, structures, and objectives? This course will examine these questions by looking in depth at the theory and practice of iconoclasm in Byzantium, early Islam, and the early medieval West. 3 cr., HI, IS, Offered in alternate years. Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 203. Papacy, Church and Empire in the Age of Reform Over the course of the eleventh century, monks and clerics, kings and princes, lay men and women, challenged the traditional order of European society, demanding purity, freedom, and justice for their church and the reform of institutions grown corrupt. Yet the traditional order had its defenders, too. In this course we will examine their intellectual and political struggles as they debate such issues as clerical marriage and purity, institutional corruption, the relationship of Church and King, the meaning of canon law, the concept of just war, and the power of the pope within the Church. 3 cr., HI, IS, Offered in alternate years. Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 204. Jews, Christians and Muslims in the Medieval Mediterranean The Mediterranean was a dynamic hub of cultural exchange in the Middle Ages. We will draw on Jewish, Muslim, and Latin Christian sources to explore this contact from 1050-1492 and the role of the sea itself in joining and separating the peoples who surrounded it. What did it mean to be a Muslim pilgrim in Christian-held Palestine? A Jewish vizier serving a Muslim ruler in Spain? A Christian courtier courting martyrdom in North Africa? We will explore lives led between coexistence and violence, intellectual and legal structures that helped to negotiate difference, and the textures of daily life. 6 cr., HI, WR2, IS, Offered in alternate years. Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 205. American Environmental History Environmental concerns, conflicts, and change mark the course of American history, from the distant colonial past to our own day. This course will consider the nature of these eco-cultural developments, focusing on the complicated ways that human thought and perception, culture and society, and natural processes and biota have all combined to forge Americans' changing relationship with the natural world. Topics will include Native American subsistence strategies, Euroamerican settlement, industrialization, urbanization, consumption, and the environmental movement. As we explore these issues, one of our overarching goals will be to develop an historical context for thinking deeply about contemporary environmental dilemmas. 6 cr., HI, IDS, FallG. Vrtis

HIST 206. Eternal City in Time: Structure, Change, and Identity This course will explore the lived experience of the city of Rome in the twelfth-sixteenth centuries. We will study buildings, urban forms, surviving artifacts, and textual and other visual evidence to understand how politics, power, and religion (both Christianity and Judaism) mapped onto city spaces. How did urban challenges and opportunities shape daily life? How did the memory of the past influence the present? How did the rural world affect the city and vice versa? Students will work on projects closely tied to the urban fabric. Prerequisite: Enrollment in OCS program. 6 cr., HI, IS, Offered in alternate years. Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 207. Roman Journal: The Traveler as Witness This course examines travel as an occasion for investigation, encounter, and reflection and as an opportunity to document and communicate these observations of people and place. Through readings drawn from a range of disciplines and genres, site visits, and ongoing discussion, we will examine the traveler as witness, observer, and recorder, and the implications of genre for travel writing. We will also examine the nature of public memory and commemoration and the role of travelers as audiences for sites of memory. As part of the course, students will maintain their own travel journals and contribute to the Program Blog. Prerequisite: Enrollment in OCS program. 3 cr., HI, IS, Offered in alternate years. Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 208. The Atlantic World: Columbus to the Age of Revolutions, 1492-1792 In the late fifteenth century, the Atlantic ocean became a vast highway linking Spain, France, Britain, and the Netherlands to the Americas and Africa. This course will examine the lives of the men and women who inhabited this new world from the time of Columbus to the eighteenth-century revolutions in Haiti and North America. We will focus on the links between continents rather than the geographic segments. Topics will include the destruction and reconfiguration of indigenous societies; slavery and other forms of servitude; religion; war; and the construction of ideas of empire. Students considering a concentration in Atlantic History are particularly encouraged to enroll. Emphasis on primary sources. 6 cr., HI, IS, Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 211. More than Pilgrims: Colonial British America An intensive exploration of particular topics in early American history in its context as part of an Atlantic world. Topics will include voluntary and involuntary migration from Europe and Africa, personal, political, and military relationships between Europeans and Native Americans, the pattern of colonial settlement and politics, concepts of family and community, strategies of cultural adaptation and resistance, slavery, religion, the making of racial, rank, and gender ideologies, and the development of British and American identities. 6 cr., HI, IDS, Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 212. The Era of the American Revolution This class will examine the American Revolution as both a process and a phenomenon. It will consider the relationship of the American Revolution to social, cultural, economic, political, and ideological change in the lives of Americans from the founding fathers to the disenfranchised, focusing on the period 1750-1800. The central question of the course is this: how revolutionary was the Revolution? 6 cr., HI, IDS, Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 213. The Age of Jefferson This course will examine the social, political and cultural history of the period 1783-1830 with special consideration of the framing and ratification of the Constitution and the defining of the "United States." Historians contend that the period covered by this course is the key era of social transformation in American history. To assess this hypothesis, we will examine changes in race, gender, and class relations within the context of economic and geographical expansion and religious revitalization. We will explore paradoxes of American democracy and citizenship as they developed in the early Republic. Previous knowledge of American history will be assumed. 6 cr., HI, IDS, Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 214. Rethinking the American Civil War The Civil War, in which more than 620,000 died, was a cataclysmic event that reshaped American life. Using both original sources and the most recent scholarship, we will explore the causes, leadership, battles, and consequences of the war for ordinary Americans. Topics include the war's impact on men, women, slavery, legal rights, the economy, the confederacy, the presidency, and American memory. Special attention will be paid to Civil War photography, the problems of mapping the conflict, and the attempt to understand the war through modern movies and documentaries, including those of Ken Burns. 6 cr., HI, WR2, IDS, FallC. Clark

HIST 215. Carleton in the Archives: Studies in Institutional Memory and Culture Ours is a world of institutions--schools, corporations, non-profits, government agencies--that shape the way we act, think, and remember. The memory [and amnesia] of institutions themselves, the records they keep and throw away, and the way these repositories are organized and used are crucial elements in their function and survival. How do institutions remember? What is the relationship between "official" and "individual" memory in the making of an institutional world? How do past and present connect? We will explore this and related questions through readings, discussion, and a hands-on project based upon material in Carleton's own archives. 6 cr., HI, IDS, SpringW. North

HIST 216. History Beyond the Walls This course will examine the world of history outside the walls of academia. Looking at secondary-school education, museums, and public policy, we will explore the ways in which both general and specialized publics learn and think about history. A central component of the course will be a civic engagement project mentoring sixth grade students at the Northfield Middle School as they research and produce projects for Minnesota History Day. Prerequisite: One History course, first year students require instructor permission. 6 cr., HI, WR2, IDS, Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 219. Is Obama Black?: American Mixed Race History This course explores the historical political, social, philosophical, and cultural problems related to mixed-race identity since the late nineteenth century, with emphasis on the U.S. government's 2000 decision allowing Americans to define their racial makeup as one race or more. Life stories, literature, and film investigate identity formation, stratification based on race, and the particular ways mixed-raced people articulate their identities in various contexts. Final projects beyond black and white mixed-race people encouraged. 6 cr., WR; HI, WR2, IDS, Offered in alternate years. SpringH. Williams

HIST 226. U.S. Consumer Culture In the period after 1880, the growth of a mass consumer society recast issues of identity, gender, race, class, family, and political life. We will explore the development of consumer culture through such topics as advertising and mass media, the body and sexuality, consumerist politics in the labor movement, and the response to the Americanization of consumption abroad. We will read contemporary critics such as Thorstein Veblen, as well as historians engaged in weighing the possibilities of abundance against the growth of corporate power. 6 cr., HI, WR2, IDS, Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 227. The American West Somewhere on the sunset-side of the Mississippi River, the American West begins. It is a region steeped in nostalgia and freighted with stories and longings that Americans have now cherished for many generations. It is also a place as complex and tangled in dynamic cultural, political, and environmental forces as any place on earth. Among the themes we will focus on are relationships among Native American and Euro-American peoples, the transition from imperial frontier to American territory, the shaping power of economic and cultural initiatives, and the centrality of nature and environmental change in forging our western past and present. 6 cr., HI, IDS, Offered in alternate years. Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 228. History of U.S. Civil Rights and Black Power This course treats the struggle for racial justice from World War II through the 1960s. Histories, journalism, music, and visual media illustrate black and white elites and grassroots people allied in this momentous epoch that ranges from a southern integrationist vision to northern Black Power militancy. The segregationist response to black freedom completes the study. 6 cr., HI, WR2, IDS, Offered in alternate years. Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 229. Working with Gender in U.S. History Historically work has been a central location for the constitution of gender identities for both men and women; at the same time, cultural notions of gender have shaped the labor market. We will investigate the roles of race, class, and ethnicity in shaping multiple sexual divisions of labor and the ways in which terms such as skill, bread-winning and work itself were gendered. Topics will include domestic labor, slavery, industrialization, labor market segmentation, protective legislation, and the labor movement. 6 cr., HI, IDS, Offered in alternate years. SpringA. Igra

HIST 231. Mapping the World Before Mercator This course will explore early maps primarily in medieval and early modern Europe. After an introduction to the rhetoric of maps and world cartography, we will examine the functions and forms of medieval European and Islamic maps and then look closely at the continuities and transformations in map-making during the period of European exploration. The focus of the course will be on understanding each map within its own cultural context and how maps can be used to answer historical questions. We will work closely with the maps in Gould Library Special Collections to expand campus awareness of the collection. 6 cr., HI, WR2, IS, QRE, Offered in alternate years. Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 232. Renaissance Worlds in France and Italy Enthusiasm, artistry, invention, exploration.... How do these notions of Renaissance culture play out in sources from the period? Using a range of evidence (historical, literary, and visual) from Italy and France in the fourteenth-sixteenth centuries we will explore selected issues of the period, including debates about the meaning of being human and ideal forms of government and education; the nature of God and mankind's duties toward the divine; the family and gender roles; definitions of beauty and the goals of artistic achievement; accumulation of wealth; and exploration of new worlds and encounters with other peoples. 6 cr., HI, WR2, IS, Offered in alternate years. FallV. Morse

HIST 233. Cultures of Empire: Byzantium, 843-1453 Heir to the Roman Empire, Byzantium is one of the most enduring and fascinating polities of the medieval world. Through a wide variety of written and visual evidence, we will examine key features of Byzantine history and culture such as the nature of imperial rule; piety and religious controversy; Byzantium's evolving relations with the Latin West, Armenia, the Slavic North, and the Dar al-Islam (the Abbasids and Seljuk and Ottoman Turks); economic life; and Byzantine social relations. Extra time may be required for group projects. Prerequisite: No prerequisites, but History 137, 138, or 204 will be helpful. 6 cr., HI, WR2, IS, Offered in alternate years. FallW. North

HIST 234. Papacy, Church, and Empire in the Middle Ages This course explores the dynamic interactions between three distinct centers of authority and power: the Roman papacy, the Church, and the heir to the legacies of Rome, the Holy Roman Empire from the tenth through thirteenth centuries. Among other topics to be covered: the rise of canon and Roman law; new religious orders; changing models of sanctity; the Church and local and 'national' identity; and the development of the papacy as a powerful, but controversial, European institution. The course will also consider the Holy Roman Empire as a cultural zone in which Church and Empire play vital roles as patrons and subjects. 6 cr., HI, IS, Offered in alternate years. SpringW North

HIST 235. Bringing the English Past to (Virtual) Life This course will explore the history of England from the time of the Tudors through the Industrial Revolution, with a particular focus on the history of poverty and social welfare. We will use new technologies to develop innovative ways to teach and learn about the past. Using a specially designed digital archive, students will construct life stories of paupers, politicians and intellectuals. One day per week, the class will work in a computer lab constructing 3-Dimensional, virtual institutions and designing computer game scenarios that utilize their research to recreate the lived experience of the poor. 6 cr., ARP, IS, WinterA. Mason, S. Ottaway

HIST 236. Women's Lives in Pre-Modern Europe Did women have a Renaissance? Were women increasingly relegated to a separate sphere from men: "domesticated" into the household? Or, on the contrary, is the history of European women characterized by fundamental continuities? This course seeks to answer these questions through an exploration of women's place in the family and economy, laws and cultural assumptions about women, and women's role in religion. Throughout the term, we will be focusing not only on writings about women, but primarily on sources written by women themselves, as we seek a fuller understanding of the nature of European women's lives before the modern era. 6 cr., HI, WR2, IS, Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 237. The Enlightenment This course focuses on the texts of Enlightenment thinkers, including Locke, Montesquieu, Voltaire, Diderot, Rousseau, Kant and Mesmer. Emphasis will be on French thinkers and the effect of the Enlightenment on French society. The course covers the impact of the Enlightenment on science, religion, politics and the position of women. Students will have the opportunity to read the philosophies in French. 6 cr., HI, WR2, IS, SpringS. Ottaway

HIST 238. The Viking World In the popular imagination, Vikings are horn-helmeted, blood-thirsty pirates who raped and pillaged their way across medieval Europe. But the Norse did much more than loot, rape, and pillage; they cowed kings and fought for emperors, explored uncharted waters and settled the North Atlantic, and established new trade routes that revived European urban life. In this course, we will separate fact from fiction by critically examining primary source documents alongside archaeological, linguistic and place-name evidence. Students will share their insights with each other and the world through two major collaborative digital humanities projects over the course of the term. 6 cr., HI, IS, Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 239. Health and Welfare in Industrializing Britain Historians disagree about the timing, causes and effects of the Industrial Revolution, but no one disputes that there were massive changes in England's population, economy and society from the seventeenth to the nineteenth century. In this course, we examine those transformations with a focus on the ways that social and economic changes related to social welfare policies, the health of the people, and the environment. 6 cr., HI, WR2, IS, QRE, Offered in alternate years. Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 240. Tsars and Serfs, Cossacks and Revolutionaries: The Empire that was Russia Nicholas II, the last Tsar-Emperor of Russia, ruled over an empire that stretched from the Baltic to the Pacific. Territorial expansion over three-and-a-half centuries had brought under Russian rule a vast empire of immense diversity. The empire's subjects spoke a myriad languages, belonged to numerous religious communities, and related to the state in a wide variety of ways. Its artists produced some of the greatest literature and music of the nineteenth century and it offered fertile ground for ideologies of both conservative imperialism and radical revolution. This course surveys the panorama of this empire from its inception in the sixteenth century to its demise in the flames of World War I. Among the key analytical questions addressed are the following: How did the Russian Empire manage its diversity? How does Russia compare with other colonial empires? What understandings of political order legitimized it and how were they challenged? 6 cr., HI, IS, Offered in alternate years. FallAdeeb Khalid

HIST 241. Russia through Wars and Revolutions The lands of the Russian empire underwent massive transformations in the tumultuous decades that separated the accession of Nicholas II (1894) from the death of Stalin (1953). This course will explore many of these changes, with special attention paid to the social and political impact of wars (the Russo-Japanese War, World War I, the Civil War, and the Great Patriotic War) and revolutions (of 1905 and 1917), the ideological conflicts they engendered, and the comparative historical context in which they transpired. 6 cr., HI, IS, WinterAdeeb Khalid

HIST 242. Communism, Cold War, Collapse: Russia Since Stalin In this course we will explore the history of Russia and other former Soviet states in the period after the death of Stalin, exploring the workings of the communist system and the challenges it faced internally and internationally. We will investigate the nature of the late Soviet state and look at the different trajectories Russia and other post-Soviet states have followed since the end of the Soviet Union. 6 cr., HI, IS, Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 243. The Peasants are Revolting! Society and Politics in the Making of Modern France Political propaganda of the French Revolutionary period tells a simple story of downtrodden peasants exploited by callous nobles, but what exactly was the relationship between the political transformations of France from the Renaissance through the French Revolution and the social, religious, and cultural tensions that characterized the era? This course explores the connections and conflicts between popular and elite culture as we survey French history from the sixteenth through early nineteenth centuries, making comparisons to social and political developments in other European countries along the way. 6 cr., HI, WR2, IS, Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 245. Ireland: Land, Conflict and Memory This course explores the history of Ireland from Medieval times through the Great Famine, ending with a look at the Partition of Ireland in 1920. We examine themes of religious and cultural conflict and explore a series of English political and military interventions. Throughout the course, we will analyze views of the Irish landscape, landholding patterns, and health and welfare issues. Finally, we explore the contested nature of history and memory as the class discusses monuments and memory production in Irish public spaces. 6 cr., HI, WR2, IS, QRE, Offered in alternate years. FallS. Ottaway

HIST 246. The Material World of the Anglo-Saxons This course explores the world of Anglo-Saxon England from Rome's decline through the Norman Conquest (c.400-1066) through the lens of material culture. These six centuries witnessed dramatic transformations, including changing environmental conditions, ethnic migrations, the coming of Christianity, waning Roman influence, the rise of kingdoms, and the emergence of new agricultural and economic regimes. We will look beyond the kings and priests at the top of society by analyzing objects people made and used, buildings they built, and human remains they buried alongside primary and secondary written sources. Students will gain experience in how to write history from "things." 6 cr., HI, IS, WinterA. Mason

HIST 247. The First World War as Global Phenomenon On this centenary of the First World War, the course will explore the global context for this cataclysmic event, which provides the hinge from the nineteenth century into the twentieth. We will spend considerable time on the build-up to and causes of the conflict, with particular emphasis on the new imperialism, race-based ideologies, and the complex international struggles for global power. In addition to the fighting, we will devote a significant portion of the course to the home front and changes in society and culture during and after the war. 6 cr., HI, IS, Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 248. Berlin Program: A German Crucible of European and Global Culture Berlin is the center of a transnational space that is German, European and global. This course will examine Berlin's complicated history and culture through its monuments, museums, and other sites of commemoration. Using Berlin as our text, we will gain insights into the significant historical events that shaped the society and culture of Germany's capital city. On visits to nearby cities, such as Prague and Warsaw, we will also discuss developments in Germany and Europe more generally. Prerequisite: Enrollment in OCS program. 6 cr., HI, IS, FallD. Tompkins

HIST 249. Two Centuries of Tumult: Modern Central Europe An examination of the political, social, and cultural history of Central Europe from 1848 to the present day. We will explore the evolution of state and civil society in the multicultural/multinational regions of the present-day Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Hungary, as well as eastern Germany and Austria. Much of the course will focus on the common experiences of authoritarianism, anti-Semitism, fascism/Nazism, and especially the Communist era and its dissolution. 6 cr., HI, IS, Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 250. Modern Germany This course offers a comprehensive examination of German history in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. We will look at the German-speaking peoples of Central Europe through the prism of politics, society, culture, and the economy. Through a range of readings, we will grapple with the many complex and contentious issues that have made German history such an interesting area of intellectual inquiry. 6 cr., HI, IS, Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 251. History of Chinese Capitalism Is the twenty-first-century world economy that of China's? Were the last two centuries an aberration in the longstanding patterns of economic development in China? This course surveys current trends in scholarship on the economic, business, and financial history of China in its recent past. In terms of approaches, we will examine the exchanges between the "optimist" and "pessimist" perspectives before we consider the "Great Divergence" debate that cut across China and Europe. Thematically, we will cover China's early integration with world markets, technological lock-in, joint stock enterprise, as well as the evolving interplays between agricultural productivity, ecology, and demography. 6 cr., HI, WR2, IS, Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 254. Colonialism in East Asia This course explores the colonialisms in East Asia, both internal and external. Students examine Chinese, Inner Asian, Japanese, and European colonialisms from the seventeenth century to the present. Geographically, students cover borderlands of East Asian empires (Tibet, Xinjiang, Mongolia, Manchuria, Fujian, Yunnan, Canton, Vietnam, Taiwan, Korea, Okinawa, and Hokkaido). Methodologically, students eschew power-politics and historical studies of "frontier" regions in order to analyze everyday aspects of colonial arrangements and communities in different historical moments from the bottom up. Topics include ethnic identities, racial discourses, colonial settlements, opium regimes, violence and memory (e.g. Nanjing massacre), and forced labor migrations (e.g. comfort women). 6 cr., HI, WR2, IS, FallS. Yoon

HIST 255. Rumors, Gossip, and News in East Asia What is news? How do rumors and gossips shape news in modern China, Japan, and Korea? Is the press one of the sociocultural bases within civil society that shapes opinion in the public sphere in East Asia? Students will examine how press-like activities reshape oral communication networks and printing culture and isolate how the public is redefined in times of war and revolutions. Drawing sources from a combination of poems, private letters, maps, pamphlets, handbills, local gazetteers, rumor mills, pictorials, and cartoons, students will map communication circuits that linked authors, journalists, shippers, booksellers, itinerant storytellers, gossipers, listeners, and active readers. 6 cr., HI, WR2, IS, Offered in alternate years. Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 256. History of Urban China Who initiated the circulation of new ideas and novel communicative behaviors in urban China? Is there anything Chinese about the "public" forged in Chinese cities? This course adopts a comparative and integrative approach to examine the studies of major ritual centers (e.g., Beijing), market towns, and foreign concessions (e.g., Shanghai). Thematically, students will analyze the ongoing tension between time and place as expressed in the conflict between China's colonial past and its search for national identity. 6 cr., HI, WR2, IS, Offered in alternate years. Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 257. Urban History in Beijing and Beyond Program: History of Urban China and Korea In this course students will develop a mode of historical thinking with which to historicize the urban planning traditions as competing powers sought to transform both physical and human landscapes over time. Students will analyze the material topologies and epistemological underpinnings of particular aspects of the cities in question as they appear in sample primary sources. For example, in Mongolian Beijing, students will scrutinize excerpts from a historical fiction based on imaginary dialogues between Kublai Khan and Marco Polo and before visiting colonial Seoul, students will compare different plans prepared by the Germans, Japanese, and Korean designers. 6 cr., HI, IS, Offered in alternate years. Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 258. Cold War in East Asia How is the Cold War in East Asia related to the global Cold War? Many argue that Cold War came prematurely in East Asia and outlasts the collapse of the Berlin Wall. Students will examine evolving patterns of the region's engagement with global dimensions of war, diplomacy, and trade and conduct a case study (e.g., Roosevelt on China, Stalin on North Korea, Kennedy on Japan, Khrushchev and Nixon on China, or Bush on North Korea). Themes can be drawn from sports and pop culture or urban renewal projects in terms of postcolonial nation building, market fundamentalism, and new empire formation.  6 cr., HI, WR2, IS, Offered in alternate years. Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 259. Women in South Asia: Histories, Narratives and Representation The objective of this course is to survey the historical institutions, practices and traditions that defined the position of women in India. We will examine the laws and religious traditions related to women in South Asia including marriage, inheritance, sati and purdah. We will also consider the role and position of European women in India. Readings will include stories and memoirs from the colonial and post-colonial period. Representations of both European and Indian women in Indian and European cinema will also be examined. The purpose of the course is to understand women in India as both the object and subject of history. 6 cr., HI, IS, WinterAmna Khalid

HIST 260. The Making of the Modern Middle East A survey of major political and social developments from the fifteenth century to the beginning of World War I. Topics include: state and society, the military and bureaucracy, religious minorities (Jews and Christians), and women in premodern Muslim societies; the encounter with modernity. 6 cr., HI, IS, Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 261. Turkey Prog: Nations, Islams, and Modernities: Trnsfrmtn of the Ottoman Empire-Making of Middle East An overview of the period since 1774 to the present through an analysis of the interplay of various currents of Islam, nationhood, and modernity. We will have the advantage of studying this material in Istanbul, where many of these changes transpired, and we will make full use of the opportunities afforded by our location and incorporate visits to historical sites and museums into the structure of the class. We will focus on the multiple and contested meanings of "nation," "Islam," and "modernity," and trace how political space itself was redefined in the transition from empire to national statehood. 6 cr., HI, IS, SpringAdeeb Khalid

HIST 262. Public Health: History, Policy, and Practice This course will examine the rise of the institution of public health in the modern period. Locating public health within the social history of medicine we will consider how concepts of health and disease have changed over time and how the modern state's concern with the health of its population cannot be separated from its need to survey, police, and discipline the public. Topics covered will include miasma, contagion, quarantine, vaccination and the connection between European imperialism and the institutionalization of public health in colonial contexts. We will also consider how certain epidemics became the major drivers for public health. 6 cr., HI, Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 263. Plagues of Empire The globalization of disease is often seen as a recent phenomenon aided by high-speed communication and travel. This course examines the history of the spread of infectious diseases by exploring the connection between disease, medicine and European imperial expansion. We consider the ways in which European expansion from 1500 onwards changed the disease landscape of the world and how pre-existing diseases in the tropics shaped and thwarted imperial ambitions. We will also question how far Western medicine can be seen as a benefit by examining its role in facilitating colonial expansion and constructing racial and gender difference. 6 cr., HI, IS, SpringAmna Khalid

HIST 264. Turkey Program: The Politics of Gender in the Modern Middle East This course will analyze the multiple intersections of gender with nation, Islam, and modernity in the Muslim world, with Turkey as the key example. The focus will be on the multiplicity of the intersections, so that different political situations produce markedly different configurations. The structure of the course will be historical but with a strong theoretical component. Prerequisite: Enrollment in OCS program. 6 cr., HI, IS, SpringLocal Faculty

HIST 265. Central Asia in the Modern Age Central Asia--the region encompassing the post-Soviet states of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, and the Xinjiang region of the People's Republic of China--is often considered one of the most exotic in the world, but it has experienced all the excesses of the modern age. After a basic introduction to the long-term history of the steppe, this course will concentrate on exploring the history of the region since its conquest by the Russian and Chinese empires. We will discuss the interaction of external and local forces as we explore transformations in the realms of politics, society, culture, and religion. 6 cr., HI, IS, Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 266. History of Islam in South Asia While Islam is often associated primarily with the Arab world, eighty percent of the world--Muslim population resides elsewhere. The countries of South Asia--particularly India, Pakistan and Bangladesh--are collectively home to the largest number of Muslims. We will explore the expansion of Islam into South Asia, and look at specifically Indian forms of Islam. Our topics will include Muslim relations with non-Muslim communities, the Mughal Empire, colonial rule, gender and Islam, non-violent Islamic movements, Islamic art and architecture, jihad in history, Sufism, and Islamic notions of justice. Our class materials will include scholarly writings, poetry, music, slides, and film. 6 cr., HI, FallB. Larocque

HIST 267. Muslims and Modernity Through readings in primary sources in translation, we will discuss the major intellectual and cultural movements that have influenced Muslim thinkers from the nineteenth century on. Topics include modernism, nationalism, socialism, and fundamentalism. 6 cr., HI, WR2, IS, Offered in alternate years. Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 269. Turkey Program: Istanbul: Imperial Past, Global Present Byzantium, Constantinople, Istanbul--The City was the cosmopolitan capital of major world empires for sixteen centuries until 1923, when it became a provincial city in a national republic. Since 1980, however, Istanbul has risen as a global megalopolis. Today's Istanbul is the crossroads of Europe and the Middle East, of the Mediterranean and Central Asia, the hub of one of the world's great airlines. Its expansion has led to great innovations in urban planning and design as well as to intense debate over their course. This course will try to convey a sense of the place--of the past of the city and its vibrant present. Students will visit the great historical sites of the city, go on walking tours of its different neighborhoods, and meet with community groups representing different constituencies to get a sense of current debates about the future of the city. Prerequisite: Enrollment in OCS program. 3 cr., HI, IS, SpringAdeeb Khalid

HIST 271. Political Violence and Human Rights in Latin America Rooted in earlier social struggles and influenced by the advent of the Cold War, political violence and war pervaded the Latin American landscape throughout the latter half of the twentieth century. This violence impacted political horizons, social relations, cultural representations, and the very memory of those who lived through this era. This course explores three different genres of violence through in-depth case studies: Southern Cone dirty wars (Argentina); Central American civil wars (Guatemala) and Andean civil wars (Peru). Writing assignments will involve multiple forms of analysis, while challenging students to think comparatively about the different case studies. 6 cr., HI, WR2, IS, Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 272. The Mexican Revolution: History, Myth and Art As the twentieth century's first major social revolution, the Mexican Revolution represents a watershed moment in Latin American history. This course examines the origins of the conflict and its key domestic and international dimensions. It also explores how a collective memory of the Revolution was crafted and contested by the post-revolutionary state, artists, intellectuals, and peasants through the means of photography, murals, education, popular protest, commemorations, and shrines. Emphasis will be placed on agrarian leader and rebel chieftain Emiliano Zapata as both historical figure and myth. 6 cr., HI, WR2, IS, Offered in alternate years. Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 273. Go-Betweens and Rebels in the Andean World This course examines the dynamics of imperial rule in the vertical world of the Andes from the time of the Inca, through Spanish rule, and beyond. Of particular interest will be the myriad roles played by indigenous intermediaries who bridged the social, political and cultural gap between their communities and the state. While critical for maintaining the imperial order, these individuals also served as a galvanizing source of popular resistance against the state. Emphasis will be placed on the reading of translated primary sources written by a diverse group of Andean cultural intermediaries and rebels. 6 cr., HI, WR2, IS, Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 274. Drugs, Violence & Rebellion in Mexico: From the Dirty War to the Drug War Since 2006, some 100,000 lives have been lost as a result of the Mexican government's decision to unleash its army against the powerful cartels supplying the United States with marijuana, cocaine, heroin, and crystal methamphetamine. This course situates the bloodshed within a broader historical and transnational context. It traces the conflict's roots to a longer struggle against Mexico's authoritarian political culture and the state's repression of dissent, including a little known "dirty war" that raged during the 1960s-1970s. It also examines evolving attitudes toward drugs, the emergence of a narco culture in Mexico, and grassroots movements against the violence. 6 cr., WR; HI, WR2, IS, Offered in alternate years. SpringA. Fisher

HIST 276. The African Diaspora in Latin America A study of the participation of peoples of African descent in the creation of Latin American societies and culture. After an examination of the Atlantic slave trade, the course will survey the institution of African slavery in colonial societies with particular attention given to urban versus rural slavery, slave resistance and rebellion, maroon communities, gender relations, manumission, and cultural continuities and innovations. The course concludes with a consideration of the experiences of freed peoples in post-abolition societies and the historical legacy of slavery. Some background knowledge of Latin American history is recommended. 6 cr., HI, IS, QRE, Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 278. The Spanish Inquisition The Inquisition was the Spanish crown's principal tool for combating heterodoxy and deviance. This course examines the Tribunal's campaigns to eradicate religious, cultural, racial, sexual, and political sources of contagion in both Spain and the New World. Through the prism of its sources, including the interrogations and confessions of the accused, we will study the Inquisition's prosecution of a range of alleged crimes, including relapsed conversion (of Jews, Muslims and Indians), witchcraft, diabolism, homosexuality, and female mysticism. Particular care will be given to the methodological challenges involved in using inquisition sources for the study of popular culture and religion. 6 cr., HI, IS, Offered in alternate years. Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 280. African in the Arab World This course examines African people's existence as religious, political, and military leaders, and as slaves and poets in Arab societies from ancient to modern times. It also interrogates the experiences of men as eunuchs, and of women as concubines and wives. Beginning with the pre-Islamic era, it highlights the movement of Africans from the Sahara Desert to the Nile valley, from the Red Sea to the Indian Ocean. It traces the experiences of peoples whose dark skin became equated with slave status (and the legacy of slavery) even as they became loyal followers of Islam in the Arab world. 6 cr., HI, WR2, IS, Offered in alternate years. WinterT. Willis

HIST 281. War in Modern Africa This course examines the Nigerian Civil War, also known as the Biafra War, 1967-1970, and its implications for post-colonial Nigerian and African history. Clashes between two ethnic groups, the Igbo and the Hausa, culminated in a failed attempt by the Igbo-dominated south to secede from the nation of Nigeria and establish Biafra as an independent country. What role did colonialism play in igniting and fueling the tensions that culminated in the war? What was the role of the media in the war? What light does the Biafra War shed on modern conflict in Africa? 6 cr., HI, IS, Offered in alternate years. Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 284. Crafting a History of Africa Since Independence The course begins as Europe's African empire unraveled, and ends with a look toward the future. Students engage in this history while joining the professor in the project of compiling a textbook collection of primary sources. The course is organized thematically into units. Each begins with research on and critical discussion of a broad topic considered within specific historical contexts. Students will identify, edit, and comment on primary sources that represent these major developments and themes. The class will assemble their collection into a narrative collage consisting of official documents, political commentaries, interviews, memoirs, transcripts, and visual records. 6 cr., HI, IS, Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 285. Museums, Monuments, and Memory "History" is not just the name of a department at Carleton College; "History-making" is an activity engaged in by everybody, everyday. We watch historical movies, listen to political leaders invoking history in making policy, tour historic sites and museums, etc. We listen to our elders tell us stories about their lives, and we tell ourselves stories that place our experiences into the historical continuum. This course ranges widely over the varied and sometimes risky terrain of contemporary history-making in Minnesota and beyond to examine preservation organizations, museums, archives, oral history projects, documentary films, historic sites, schools, theater, TV, and cyberspace. 3 cr., HI, IDS, Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 286. Africans in the Arab World: On Site and Revisited This course is the second part of a two-term sequence. It begins with a two-week December-break trip to Dubai, UAE, to visit museums, mosques, other heritage sites, universities, media outlets, and markets. It promotes dialogue with Afro-Arab women around the historical constructions of gender, race, and ethnicity in heritage sites, Islam, Arab media, academic institutions, and popular culture. Ultimately, students will ponder Afro-Arab women's voice and visibility beyond the home in this Arab society. Then upon return to Carleton, students will reflect upon their experiences in the UAE, analyze their data, and present it in oral, written, and visual formats. Prerequisite: History 280. 6 cr., HI, IS, Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 298. Junior-year History Colloquium In the junior year, majors must take six-credit reading and discussion course taught each year by different members of the department faculty. The general purpose of History 298 is to help students reach a more sophisticated understanding of the nature of history as a discipline and of the approaches and methods of historians. A major who is considering off-campus study in the junior year should consult with their adviser on when to take History 298. 6 cr., HI, Fall,WinterA. Fisher, W. North

HIST 306. American Wilderness This course is part of the off-campus spring break program, involving two-linked courses in winter and spring. To many Americans, wild lands are among the nation's most treasured places. Yosemite, Yellowstone, the Grand Canyon, Joshua Tree--the names alone evoke a sense of awe, naturalness, beauty, even love. But, where do those ideas and feelings come from, and how have they both reflected and shaped American cultural, political and environmental history over the last four centuries? These are the central issues and questions that we will pursue in this seminar. Prerequisite: History 205 or instructor permission. 6 cr., HI, WR2, IDS, Offered in alternate years. WinterG. Vrtis

HIST 307. Wilderness Field Studies: Grand Canyon This course is the second half of a two-course sequence focused on the study of wilderness in American society and culture. The course will begin with a two-week off-campus study program during spring break at the Grand Canyon, where we will learn about the natural and human history of the Grand Canyon, examine contemporary issues facing the park, meet with officials from the National Park Service and other local experts, conduct research, and experience the park though hiking and camping. The course will culminate in the spring term with the completion and presentation of a major research project. Prerequisite: History 306. 6 cr., HI, WR2, IDS, SpringG. Vrtis

HIST 308. American Cities and Nature Since the nation's founding, the percentage of Americans living in cities has risen nearly sixteenfold, from about five percent to the current seventy-nine percent. This massive change has spawned legions of others, and all of them have bearing on the complex ways that American cities and city-dwellers have shaped and reshaped the natural world. This course will consider the nature of cities in American history, giving particular attention to the dynamic linkages binding these cultural epicenters to ecological communities, environmental forces and resource flows, to eco-politics and social values, and to those seemingly far-away places we call farms and wilderness. Prerequisite: History 205 or permission of the instructor. 6 cr., WR; HI, WR2, IDS, Offered in alternate years. Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 316. History, Nature & Smartphones For the past two decades, historians have increasingly used digital tools to construct and deliver their research. This is particularly the case in public history, which aims to collaborate with public audiences in the co-construction of the past. This seminar will build on this trend, exploring the ways that Minnesota's environmental history can be imagined, understood, and expressed in the digital age. During the course, we will meet with specialists in public and digital history; we will conduct research at the Minnesota Historical Society; and we will develop several web- and smartphone-based stories for the Minnesota Environmental History Project. Prerequisite: Previous History course or instructor permission. 6 cr., HI, IDS, Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 322. Civil Rights and Black Power This seminar treats the struggle for racial justice from World War II through the 1960s. Histories, journalism, music, and visual media illustrate black and white elites and grassroots people allied in this momentous epoch that ranges from a southern integrationist vision to northern Black Power militancy. The segregationist response to black freedom completes the study. Research project on twenty-first century Minnesota hate groups. 6 cr., HI, IDS, Offered in alternate years. Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 324. The Concord Intellectuals The social and intellectual history of the American Renaissance with focus on selected works of Emerson, Thoreau, Amos Bronson Alcott, and Margaret Fuller. Special emphasis will be placed on the one common denominator uniting these intellectuals: their devotion to the possibilities of democracy. Prerequisite: HIST 120 or instructor permission. 6 cr., HI, Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 346. The Holocaust This course will grapple with the difficult and complicated phenomenon of the genocide of the Jews of Europe. We will explore anti-Semitism in its historical context, both in the German-speaking lands as well as in Europe as a whole. The experience of Jews in Nazi Germany will be an area of focus, but this class will look at European Jews more broadly, both before and during the Second World War. The question of responsibility and guilt will be applied to Germans as well as to other European societies, and an exploration of victims will extend to other affected groups. 6 cr., HI, IS, Offered in alternate years. Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 347. The Global Cold War In the aftermath of the Second World War and through the 1980s, the United States and the Soviet Union competed for world dominance. This Cold War spawned hot wars, as well as a cultural and economic struggle for influence all over the globe. This course will look at the experience of the Cold War from the perspective of its two main adversaries, the U.S. and USSR, but will also devote considerable attention to South America, Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. 6 cr., HI, IS, Offered in alternate years. Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 360. Muslims and Modernity Through readings in primary sources in translation, we will discuss the major intellectual and cultural movements that have influenced Muslim thinkers from the nineteenth century on. Topics include modernism, nationalism, socialism, and fundamentalism. Prerequisite: at least one prior course in the history of the Middle East or Central Asia or Islam. Prerequisite: At least one prior course in the history of the Middle East or Central Asia or Islam. 6 cr., HI, WR2, IS, Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 371. Feathered Serpents, Flower-Songs, and Water Mountains: In Search of the World of the Aztecs This course examines the indigenous cultures and societies of Mexico before and after the Spanish conquest. In addition to the assigned reading, students will be provided hands-on experience working with an array of sources produced by indigenous authors and artists. This rich corpus of material includes: ritual calendars, maps, songs and poems, land deeds, dynastic annals and chronicles, town council records, church murals, and wills and testaments. The college's collection of Mesoamerican codices will play a prominent role in our investigation. Students conclude the term with a presentation and write-up of a collaborative research project. 6 cr., HI, WR2, IS, Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 381. U.S. Relations with Ghana This seminar prepares students for, participation in, and reflection upon the winter-break field trip to Ghana. Assignments involve readings in history, the social sciences, and intercultural communication. Preliminary research on history or social science projects required. 6 cr., HI, IS, Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 382. U.S. Relations with Ghana: The Field Trip and Beyond The first part of the seminar is the winter break field trip to three regional capitals in Ghana. Fieldwork and experiential living starts in Accra, continues in Kumasi, and ends in Cape Coast. The seminar resumes on campus with weekly reflection meetings. Public poster sessions on fieldwork will be held in Spring term. Prerequisite: History 381 . 6 cr., HI, IS, Not offered in 2015-2016.

HIST 395. The Progressive Era? Was the Progressive Era progressive? It was a period of social reform, labor activism, and woman suffrage, but also of Jim Crow, corporate capitalism, and U.S. imperialism. These are among the topics that can be explored in research papers on this contradictory era. We will begin by reading a brief text that surveys the major subject areas and relevant historiography of the period. The course will center on the writing of a 25-30 page based on primary research, which will be read and critiqued by members of the seminar.  6 cr., HI, SpringA. Igra

HIST 395. Nations and Nationhood This research seminar will investigate the phenomenon of nationhood through history. In the first half of the course, students will be introduced to the recent literature on nationhood and nationalism. They will read both theoretical and historical works. In the second half, they will prepare and present research papers using primary sources. 6 cr., HI, WR2, IS, Offered in alternate years. FallAdeeb Khalid

HIST 395. Voyages of Understanding This seminar will focus on historical understandings of the experience of travel. We will look at motivations for travel; ideas about place, space, and geography; contacts with people of different religions, ethnicities, and cultures; the effect of travel on individual and group identity; and representations of travel, cultural contact, and geography in texts, maps, and images. Each student will conduct an original research project leading to a 25-30 page research paper.  6 cr., HI, WR2, IS, WinterV. Morse

HIST 398. Advanced Historical Writing This course is designed to support majors in developing advanced skills in historical research and writing. Through a combination of class discussion, small group work, and one-on-one interactions with the professor, majors learn the process of constructing sophisticated, well-documented, and well-written historical arguments within the context of an extended project of their own design. They also learn and practice strategies for engaging critically with contemporary scholarship and effective techniques of peer review and the oral presentation of research. Concurrent enrollment in History 400 required. By permission of the instructor only. Prerequisite: Concurrent registration in History 400. 6 cr., S/CR/NC, WR; HI, WR2, WinterA. Igra, S. Ottaway, S. Yoon

HIST 400. Integrative Exercise Required of all seniors majoring in history. Registration in this course is contingent upon prior approval of a research proposal. 6 cr., S/NC, WinterStaff