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History (HIST)

Chair: Professor Anna Rachel Igra

Professors: Clifford E. Clark, Jr., Anna Rachel Igra, Adeeb Khalid, Harry McKinley Williams

Associate Professors: Andrew B. Fisher, Victoria Morse, William North, Susannah R. Ottaway, Seungjoo Yoon, Serena R. Zabin

Assistant Professors: David G. Tompkins, George H. Vrtis, John C. (Thabiti) Willis

Mellon Post-Doctoral Fellow: Brendan LaRocque

The objectives of the History major have both a general educational aspect and an aspect that is more narrowly professional. On one level, work in the major develops skills of research, analysis, and expression; on another level, it introduces the student to some of the major civilizations that human beings have created during the past three thousand years; on still another level, majoring in History confronts students with specific problems of interpreting the past--the conflict of opinions among historians and the difficulties of reconstructing past societies from their sources.

In view of the variety of departmental offerings, no specific combination of courses can be considered the ideal program. If you choose History as a major you have, in effect, to design your own mix of courses to meet these objectives. The department offers a few guidelines, even fewer requirements, and the services of a departmental advisor. Still, most of the choice is up to you; it should reflect your particular interests and abilities, and perhaps also your career plans.

See History Department Web site.

Requirements for a Major

A total of 72 credits from courses taken in the history department. History 100's and 110's and the comprehensive exercise count toward the total number of credits. Certain courses offered outside the history department may count toward the major; consult the department chair for specific information. Courses in ancient history are also taught in the Classics department and count toward the History major.

Primary Field

Courses must be taken in at least three of the following seven fields: 1) United States, 2) Ancient and Medieval, 3) Early Modern and Modern Europe, 4) the Middle East and Asia, 5) Africa and Its Diaspora, 6) Latin America, and 7) the Atlantic World. Students choosing fields 1-4 as their primary field will take four courses; those choosing 5-7 may take four courses in that field, or take three courses in the field and one additional course that is of relevance to the field. This additional course will be chosen in consultation with the adviser.

Self-designed Thematic Field Option

In consultation with the faculty, students may also propose a self-designed thematic field as their primary field (e.g., Gender and History, Colonialism). Interested students should consult the department for further details and procedures.

Additional Requirements

In addition to four courses in a primary field, all majors must also take at least two courses in each of two secondary fields. The History major must complete a research seminar (History 395) normally in the primary field, the History Colloquium (History 298) and Advanced Historical Writing (History 398) in the winter term of the senior year. Students prepare for the senior integrative exercise by submitting an acceptable proposal (History 397), normally in fall term of the senior year and writing a thesis (History 400), normally in the winter term of the senior year. See History Comps Web page.

It is recommended that students planning to major in history take a History 100 seminar and one or two other courses during their first year. History majors who are interested in study and research in a major library should consider the Newberry Library Seminar program. Other interesting off-campus programs and graduate studies programs and information can be found in the history department lobby and at the following sites: History Department Resources page or Off-Campus Studies Office.

Courses from other departments

(may be included in the seventy-two credits total).

AMST 115 Introduction to American Studies

CLAS 227 Greek History: The Greek World From the Rise of the City-State to the Rise of the Hellenistic Kingdoms

CLAS 228 Roman History, Republic and Principate(Not offered in 2010-2011)

CLAS 229 The Later Roman Empire, Byzantium and Islam

ECON 232 American Economic History: A Cliometric Approach (Not offered in 2010-2011)

ECON 233 European Economic History

RELG 140 Religion and American Culture (Not offered in 2010-2011)

Please ask the history department chair or your adviser about any courses in African/African American Studies, American Studies, Asian Studies, Classics, Economics, Environmental and Technology Studies, Latin American Studies, Religion, Women’s and Gender Studies, or other special courses offered by an historian in another department if you wish to have these courses to apply toward the history major.

History Courses

Courses numbered below 200 are open to first year students. First year students may register in courses numbered 200 and above with a signed permission slip from the instructor.

HIST 100. Trials in Early America Women and men of all races, ethnicities, and classes passed through the courts of early America. This course will be based primarily on trial transcripts and other court papers from seventeenth- and eighteenth-century America. We will use these documents as windows onto the contemporary legal, cultural, and social issues that these trials contested. Using secondary sources, the seminar will then put these issues into the larger contexts of contact, conflict and assimilation in Dutch, Spanish and British America. 6 cr., WR; AI, WR1, FallS. Zabin

HIST 100. Black Slaves, White Masters: Historians and Slavery This seminar explores the place of slavery in American historiography in the half-century following U.B. Phillips's American Negro Slavery (1918). It probes the complexities of the master-slave relationship as well as integrates the methods and skills of the historian regarding questions of culture, gender, economics, and resistance. 6 cr., WR; AI, WR1, FallH. Williams

HIST 100. Conquest and Survival in Indigenous Mexico The sixteenth century Spanish conquest of the native "empires" of Mexico and its long-term consequences. How disruptive was the conquest for indigenous societies? Did the downfall of indigenous empires and city-states signal the demise of indigenous culture? We will examine and discuss the views of the combatants themselves and later interpretations of historians. 6 cr., WR; AI, WR1, IS, FallA. Fisher

HIST 100. Mapping the World This course will explore the history of maps in medieval and early modern Europe. After an introduction to maps as rhetorical documents, we will examine the functions and forms of medieval European and Islamic cartography. We will then look closely at the continuities and transformations in map-making during the period of the European voyages. The focus of the course will be on understanding what purposes each map served within its own cultural context and how its visual form relates to that purpose. We will work closely with the facsimile maps in Gould Library Special Collections. 6 cr., WR; AI, WR1, FallV. Morse

HIST 100. Drunks and Teetotalers: Alcohol and American Society From its earliest days as a nation, the use and abuse of alcohol in the United States has been hotly debated. This course will examine historians' attempts to understand alcohol's powerful impact on American politics, society, and social reform. Using original source materials from the times, this course will focus on colonial rebellions, the temperance movement, immigration and the rise of saloons and saloon politics, the debate over prohibition, and the contemporary reforms of Alcoholics Anonymous, and MADD (Mothers Against Drunk Drivers). 6 cr., WR; AI, WR1, FallC. Clark

HIST 100. The Gold Rush West The great western gold rushes are among the most iconic episodes in nineteenth-century American history. It takes little effort to place the name John Sutter or to find an abandoned mining camp west of the Great Plains. Behind such symbols, though, lay the transforming effects of remarkable mass migrations, of pivotal confrontations with Native peoples, of new ways of perceiving and using land, and of dynamic cultural, political and environmental forces that combined to remake the West and the nation as a whole. This seminar will examine these developments from the California experience to the Klondike. 6 cr., WR; AI, WR1, IDS, FallG. Vrtis

HIST 120. Rethinking the American Experience: American Social History, 1607-1865 A survey of the American experience from before Christopher Columbus' arrival through the Civil War. Some of the topics we will cover include: contact between Native and European cultures; the development of the thirteen mainland British colonies; British, French, and Spanish imperial conflicts over the Americas; slavery; the American Revolution; religious awakenings; antebellum politics; and the Civil War. 6 cr., HU; HI, FallC. Clark

HIST 121. Rethinking the American Experience: American Social History, 1865-1945 This course offers a survey of the American experience from the end of the Civil War through World War II. Although we will cover a large number of major historical developments--including Reconstruction, the Progressive movement, World War I, the Great Depression, the New Deal and World War II--the course will seek to emphasize the various beliefs, values, and understanding that informed Americans' choices throughout these periods. In countless ways, the legacy of their lives continues to shape ours today, and so we will seek to understand the connections (and sometimes the disconnections) between Americans past and present. 6 cr., HU; HI, SpringG. Vrtis

HIST 130. The Formation of Christian Thought This course surveys the development of Christian thought in the Latin West and Greek East from the first to the fifth centuries, the period when many of the authoritative intellectual traditions of both medieval Europe and Byzantium were created. Among the themes/problems to be explored: the contribution of late ancient philosophy to Christian thought; Christian attitudes towards non-Christian belief and culture (pagan and Jewish); the interpretation of the Bible; the development of heresy and orthodoxy; and the relationship between theology, asceticism, and the development of the church as an institution. 6 cr., HU, WR; HI, WR2, Not offered in 2010-2011.

HIST 137. Before Europe: The Early Medieval World, 250-c. 1050 This course examines the formation of western Christendom from its origins in the Christian Roman Empire to its consolidation in the eleventh century. As we move from Merovingian Gaul, Lombard Italy, and Anglo-Saxon England to the Carolingian Empire and its successor kingdoms in Germany, France, and Italy, we will examine such issues as the cultural and political legacy of the Roman and Carolingian worlds; the nature and forms of secular and sacred power; gender roles and relations; ethnic and social identity; and the forms, patterns and meaning of communication (political, economic, ritual, literary, religious) both inside and outside early medieval Europe. 6 cr., HU; HI, IS, Not offered in 2010-2011.

HIST 138. The Making of Europe What are the origins of what we call "Europe?" How did this corner of the Eurasian continent come to play a predominant role in world history? What forces worked to create or to undermine a recognizably "European" culture? While cultural developments and new institutions offered powerful sources of shared experience and practice, national states and self-conscious localisms introduced new lines of fragmentation. Through lectures and discussion of a wide variety of primary sources from the period this class will examine these competing tendencies as they shaped the history of Europe's peoples during the later Middle Ages and the early Renaissance. 6 cr., HU, WR; HI, WR2, IS, WinterV. Morse

HIST 139. Foundations of Modern Europe A narrative and survey of the early modern period (fifteenth through eighteenth centuries). The course examines the Renaissance, Reformation, Contact with the Americas, the Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment. We compare the development of states and societies across Western Europe, with particularly close examination of the history of Spain. 6 cr., HU; HI, IS, Not offered in 2010-2011.

HIST 140. Modern Europe 1789-1914 An introduction in the age of political and social revolutions. Emphasis is given to the impact of industrialization, the rise of national consciousness, and the search for progress through the great liberal and socialist movements, and ultimately the drive for global domination and development, students are invited but not required to take HIST 141 as a follow-up to this course. 6 cr., HU; HI, IS, SpringD. Tompkins

HIST 141. Europe in the Twentieth Century A survey of the major political, socio-economic, and intellectual developments of twentieth century Europe. Special emphasis will be placed on the rise of urban masses and private economic power and the attempts to integrate these new forces into a stable political system. 6 cr., HU; HI, IS, Not offered in 2010-2011.

HIST 151. History of Modern Japan This course explores the modern transformation of Japanese society, politics, economy, and culture from the Meiji Restoration of 1868 to the present. It is designed to provide students with an opportunity to explore basic issues and problems relating to modern Japanese history and international relations. Topics include the intellectual crisis of the late Tokugawa period, the Meiji Constitution, the development of an imperial democracy, class and gender, the rise of Japanese fascism, the Pacific War, and postwar developments. 6 cr., HU; HI, IS, Not offered in 2010-2011.

HIST 152. History of Imperial China An introduction to the history of China from its beginnings to the end of the last dynasty in 1911, providing an overview of traditional Chinese thought, culture, institutions, and society. Students examine the development of philosophy and religion, achievements in art and literature, and social and economic change. This course also considers foreign conquest dynasties, Chinese expansion into Inner Asia, and China's relations with the West. 6 cr., HU, RAD; HI, IS, WinterS. Yoon

HIST 153. History of Modern China This course, a continuation of History 152 (History of Imperial China), offers a critical survey of the modern transformation of politics, economy, society, and culture in Chinese history from the eighteenth century to the present. Topics include neo-Confucianism, the bureaucracy, the repudiation of civil society, the interaction with the West, peasant rebellions, nationalism, party politics, the dynamics of Communist rule, and alternative Chinese societies both inside and outside Mainland China. 6 cr., HU, RAD; HI, IS, SpringS. Yoon

HIST 160. History of Classical India This course will look at classical Indian civilization by examining the interconnectedness of its political and social institutions, religions, and material life. We begin with the Indus Valley civilization (2500 BC) and end with the Turkish Sultanate in Northern India (1525 AD). Ancient India has recently become the object of intense political debate; we will consider the implications of current debates and the challenges and methods of reconstructing India's history. 6 cr., HU; HI, IS, Not offered in 2010-2011.

HIST 161. History of Modern India A survey of the modern history of the Indian sub-continent from the establishment of the Mughal Court in North India (1525 AD) to the present including the Indian Ocean trade, the Southern independent kingdoms, British colonial rule, nationalism and post-colonial South Asia. Students will be asked to consider the differences between the early modern, colonial, and national states and empires on the subcontinent. 6 cr., HU, RAD; HI, IS, Not offered in 2010-2011.

HIST 167. History of Modern South Asia This course examines the history of South Asia from the beginning of the early modern era to the present. We will explore forms of government, types of economies, and art and culture, and examine the role of religions in South Asian societies, including Islam, Hinduism, and Buddhism. We will pay special attention to the decline of early modern indigenous empires, the expansion of European colonialism, and the development of nationalism. Topics including the role of political violence and non-violence, conceptions of masculinity and feminity, caste, class, and race will also form part of our material. 6 cr., HU; HI, IS, FallB. LaRocque

HIST 169. Colonial Latin America 1492-1810 How did peoples from the Americas, the Iberian Peninsula, and Africa contribute to the creation of new colonial societies in Latin America and the Caribbean? The course examines the bewildering spectrum of indigenous societies Europeans and Africans encountered in the Americas, then turns to the introduction and proliferation of Hispanic institutions and culture, the development of mature colonial societies, and the increasing tensions and internal contradictions that plagued the region by the late eighteenth century. It asks how the colonized population managed to survive, adapt, and resist imperial pressures and examines the creation of new collective identities. 6 cr., HU, RAD; HI, IS, Not offered in 2010-2011.

HIST 170. Modern Latin America 1810-Present This course focuses on the legacy of colonial rule and asks how nascent nation-states dealt with new challenges of political legitimacy, economic development, and the rights of citizens. Case studies from the experiences of individual nations will highlight concerns still pertinent today: the ongoing struggle to extend meaningful political participation and the benefits of economic growth to the majority of the region's inhabitants, popular struggles for political, economic, and cultural rights, and the emergence of a civic society. 6 cr., HU, RAD; HI, IS, WinterA. Fisher

HIST 180. An Historical Survey of East Africa This course will survey the history of Eastern Africa from 1000 BC to the present. Topics to be covered include the development of settled communities and states; the economic and cultural networks that have linked the Indian Ocean with the interior; the East African slave trade; comparative colonialism; anti-colonial resistance; African nationalism; and post-colonial developments. We will cover the region that today comprises the countries of Tanzania, Kenya, and Uganda. 6 cr., HU, RAD; HI, IS, Not offered in 2010-2011.

HIST 181. West Africa in the Era of the Slave Trade The medieval Islamic and the European (or Atlantic) slave trades have had a tremendous influence on the history of Africa and the African Diaspora. This course offers an introduction to the history of West African peoples via their involvement in both of these trades from the fifteenth to the nineteenth century. More specifically, students will explore the demography, the economics, the social structure, and the ideologies of slavery. They also will learn the repercussions of these trades for men's and women's lives, for the expansion of coastal and hinterland kingdoms, and for the development of religious practices and networks. 6 cr., HU, RAD; HI, IS, Offered in alternate years. FallJ. Willis

HIST 182. A Survey of Southern African History This course will review the history of southern Africa from the Late Neolithic period to the twentieth century. The development of a multiracial society; the impact of the mineral/industrial revolution in the nineteenth century; and the growth of African resistance and nationalism up to the present will be the focal points. 6 cr., HU; HI, IS, Not offered in 2010-2011.

HIST 183. History of Early West Africa This course surveys the history of West Africa during the pre-colonial period from 790 to 1590. It chronicles the rise and fall of the kingdoms of Ancient Ghana, Mali, and Songhai. We will examine the transition from decentralized to centralized societies, the relations between nomadic and settler groups, the institution of divine kingship, the emergence of new ruling dynasties, the consolidation of trade networks, and the development of the classical Islamic world. Students will learn how scholars have used archeological evidence, African oral traditions, and the writings of Muslim travelers to reconstruct this important era of West African history. 6 cr., HU, RAD; HI, IS, Offered in alternate years. WinterT. Willis

HIST 184. Colonial West Africa This course surveys the history of West Africa during the colonial period, 1860-1960. It offers an introduction to the roles that Islam and Christianity played in establishing and maintaining colonial rule. It looks at the role of colonialism in shaping African ethnic identities and introducing new gender roles. In addition, we will examine the transition from slave labor to wage labor, and its role in exacerbating gender, generation, and class divisions among West Africans. The course also highlights some of the ritual traditions and cultural movements that flourished in response to colonial rule. 6 cr., HU, RAD; HI, IS, Offered in alternate years. SpringT. Willis

HIST 195. American Environmental History This course examines the changing relationship between humankind and the natural world in the portion of North America that is now the United States. We will begin with a consideration of Native American substinence strategies and ideas about nature, and then turn to the arrival of Europeans, colonialism, industrialization, increasing urbanization, and the conservation and environmental movements, among other major eco-historical developments. As we explore these developments, we will focus on the deeper ecological implications of human activities, cultural patterns and intellectual currents. One goal of the course will be to provide an historical context for understanding contemporary environmental issues. 6 cr., HU; HI, IDS, SpringG. Vrtis

HIST 200. The Zen of Asian and Western Woodworking This course will contrast traditional Chinese and Japanese philosophies of woodworking to those used in England and the United States through readings, museum visits, and hands-on projects in the woodshop. The focus will be on the history of the design and construction of furniture using traditional hand tools. Particular attention will be paid to the impact of Ming Dynasty furniture design on the furniture constructed in colonial America. We will also explore some of the complexities of cultural borrowing and cultural difference. Students will be responsible both for writing essays and for completing several small projects made out of wood. 6 cr., HU; HI, Not offered in 2010-2011.

HIST 204. Crusade, Contact and Exchange in the Medieval Mediterranean The theory that the focus of affairs in Europe turned northwards after the Muslim conquests of North Africa and Spain has been highly influential in shaping courses on medieval Europe. More recently, however, attention has focused on the rich culture of contact among the peoples of the Mediterranean throughout the medieval period. Through lectures and critical discussion of primary sources, this course will explore the many faces of this contact, including trade, warfare, political ties, missions, and artistic and intellectual influences. Our primary focus will be on the Christian European experience, but we will also study Jewish, Muslim and Byzantine sources. 6 cr., HU, WR, RAD; HI, WR2, IS, Not offered in 2010-2011.

HIST 208. The Atlantic World: Columbus to the Age of Revolutions, 1492-1792 In the late fifteenth century, the Atlantic ocean became a vast highway linking Spain, France, Britain, and the Netherlands to the Americas and Africa. This course will examine the lives of the men and women who inhabited this new world from the time of Columbus to the eighteenth-century revolutions in Haiti and North America. We will focus on the links between continents rather than the geographic segments. Topics will include the destruction and reconfiguration of indigenous societies; slavery and other forms of servitude; religion; war; and the construction of ideas of empire. Students considering a concentration in Atlantic History are particularly encouraged to enroll. Emphasis on primary sources. 6 cr., HU; HI, IS, SpringS. Zabin

HIST 211. More than Pilgrims: Colonial British America An intensive exploration of particular topics in early American history in its context as part of an Atlantic world. Topics will include voluntary and involuntary migration from Europe and Africa, personal, political, and military relationships between Europeans and Native Americans, the pattern of colonial settlement and politics, concepts of family and community, strategies of cultural adaptation and resistance, slavery, religion, the making of racial, rank, and gender ideologies, and the development of British and American identities. 6 cr., HU; HI, IDS, WinterS. Zabin

HIST 212. The Era of the American Revolution This class will examine the American Revolution as both a process and a phenomenon. It will consider the relationship of the American Revolution to social, cultural, economic, political, and ideological change in the lives of Americans from the founding fathers to the disenfranchised, focusing on the period 1750-1800. The central question of the course is this: how revolutionary was the Revolution? 6 cr., HU; HI, SpringS. Zabin

HIST 213. The Age of Jefferson This course will examine the social, political and cultural history of the period 1783-1830 with special consideration of the framing and ratification of the Constitution and the defining of the "United States." Historians contend that the period covered by this course is the key era of social transformation in American history. To assess this hypothesis, we will examine changes in race, gender, and class relations within the context of economic and geographical expansion and religious revitalization. We will explore paradoxes of American democracy and citizenship as they developed in the early Republic. Previous knowledge of American history will be assumed. 6 cr., HU; HI, Not offered in 2010-2011.

HIST 217. From Ragtime to Football: U.S. History in the 1890s The 1890s were a period of turmoil. From the closing of the frontier west to the debates over imperialism, immigrants, ragtime music, and football, Americans tried to come to terms with the changing standards and social relationships of the modern world. Using original sources from the period, this course will explore the various debates over war, women's roles, sports, art, music, politics, and popular culture in the 1890s. 6 cr., HU, WR; HI, WR2, Not offered in 2010-2011.

HIST 220. African American History I This survey begins with the pre-enslavement history of African Americans in West Africa. It proceeds to the transition of the slave from an African to an African American either directly or indirectly through the institution of slavery until 1865. Special attention will be given to black female activists, organizations, and philosophies proposing solutions to the African-American and Euro-American dilemma in the antebellum period. 6 cr., HU, RAD; HI, Not offered in 2010-2011.

HIST 221. African American History II The transition from slavery to freedom; the post-Reconstruction erosion of civil rights and the ascendancy of Booker T. Washington; protest organizations and mass migration before and during World War I; the postwar resurgence of black nationalism; African Americans in the Great Depression and World War II; roots of the modern Civil Rights movement, and black female activism. 6 cr., HU, RAD; HI, WinterH. Williams

HIST 222. U.S. Women's History to 1877 Gender, race, and class shaped women's participation in the arenas of work, family life, culture, and politics in the United States from the colonial period to the late nineteenth century. We will examine diverse women's experiences of colonization, industrialization, slavery and Reconstruction, religion, sexuality and reproduction, and social reform. Readings will include both primary and secondary sources, as well as historiographic articles outlining major frameworks and debates in the field of women's history. 6 cr., HU, RAD; HI, IDS, FallA. Igra

HIST 223. U.S. Women's History Since 1877 In the twentieth century women participated in the redefinition of politics and the state, sexuality and family life, and work and leisure as the United States became a modern, largely urban society. We will explore how the dimensions of race, class, ethnicity, and sexuality shaped diverse women's experiences of these historical changes. Topics will include: immigration, the expansion of the welfare system and the consumer economy, labor force segmentation and the world wars, and women's activism in civil rights, labor, peace and feminist movements. 6 cr., HU, RAD; HI, IDS, WinterA. Igra

HIST 226. U.S. Consumer Culture In the period after 1880, the growth of a mass consumer society recast issues of identity, gender, race, class, family, and political life. We will explore the development of consumer culture through such topics as advertising and mass media, the body and sexuality, consumerist politics in the labor movement, and the response to the Americanization of consumption abroad. We will read contemporary critics such as Thorstein Veblen, as well as historians engaged in weighing the possibilities of abundance against the growth of corporate power. 6 cr., HU; HI, SpringA. Igra

HIST 227. The American West This course explores the history of a large and seemingly unruly swath of North America, the lands lying west of the Missouri River. For many people, the American West tends to conjure up familiar images: Indians riding hard after buffalo, wagon trains winding their way west along river valleys, bedraggled goldseekers, Custer’s last stand along the Little Bighorn, cowboys and the open range, Populist stump-speakers, hardscrabble cities, towering mountains, majestic national parks, and many more. This course will examine these images--these iconic western stories--and the complex historical developments they both represent from pre-history through the twentieth century. 6 cr., HU; HI, IDS, Not offered in 2010-2011.

HIST 228. American Indian History This course offers an introduction to the history of American Indian societies from prehistory to the end of the nineteenth century. It will focus on the major issues and events that defined and shaped Indian peoples' lives, including their deep roots in North America, the dynamics of Indian-European encounters, the impact of Euro-American expansion, the process of removal, and the programs to "Americanize" Indian peoples. Throughout the course, we will examine how Indians struggled to retain a sense of their historic cultures and political autonomy, even as they confronted and adapted to the powerful forces unleashed by Euro-American society. 6 cr., HU, RAD; HI, IDS, Not offered in 2010-2011.

HIST 229. Gender and Work in U.S. History Historically work has been a central location for the constitution of gender identities for both men and women; at the same time, cultural notions of gender have shaped the labor market. We will investigate the roles of race, class, and ethnicity in shaping multiple sexual divisions of labor and the ways in which terms such as skill, bread­winning and work itself were gendered. Topics will include domestic labor, slavery, industrialization, labor market segmentation, protective legislation, and the labor movement. 6 cr., HU, RAD; HI, IDS, Not offered in 2010-2011.

HIST 230. Institutional Structure and Culture in the Middle Ages From churches to monasteries to universities to guilds, the medieval world was full of institutions that faced hard questions: How best to structure power and authority? What is our place in the wider world? How is our collective identity and ethos achieved, maintained, or transformed? How does the institution as a material community relate to the institution’s mission and culture? What are the ideals and techniques of leadership? What do success and failure look like? Through theoretical readings and case studies, students will investigate medieval responses to these challenges, while analyzing the complex dynamics of institutional life more generally. 6 cr., HU; SI, Not offered in 2010-2011.

HIST 232. Renaissance Worlds in France and Italy Enthusiasm, artistry, invention, exploration, inquiry... How do these stereotypical notions of Renaissance culture play out in texts and images of the period? Through a range of sources (fourteenth-sixteenth centuries) we will use literary and historical approaches to explore selected issues of the period, including the nature of education and the idea of the self; women, gender and society; artistic production as a mode of knowing; and the exploration of other worlds. 6 cr., ND, WR; HI, WR2, IS, SpringV. Morse

HIST 233. Cultures of Empire: Byzantium, 710-1453 Heir to the Roman Empire, Byzantium proved to be one of the most enduring and fascinating polities of the medieval world. Through written and visual evidence, we will examine the central features of Byzantine history and culture from the period of Iconoclasm to the Empire's fall to the Ottoman Turks in 1453, concentrating on the nature and function of imperial rule; Byzantine aesthetics and religiosity; Byzantium's relations with the Latin West and Islam; and the changing nature of the Byzantine thought world. No prerequisites, but HIST 130 and/or CLAS 229 will be useful preparation. 6 cr., HU, RAD; HI, IS, FallW. North

HIST 235. Dante's Italy Italy at the end of the Middle Ages was an intricate patchwork of small states woven together by a vibrant and distinctive culture. We will examine the politics, law, economic life, culture, and spirituality of the independent city states like Florence and Milan, the Papal States (centered on Rome), and the Kingdom of Naples through texts, including selected works by Dante, buildings and city plans, and works of art. Our goal will be to develop a vivid sense of what life was like in the Italy of Dante, Boccaccio, Giotto, and Petrarch. 6 cr., HU, WR; HI, WR2, IS, Not offered in 2010-2011.

HIST 236. Women's Lives in Pre-Modern Europe Did women have a Renaissance? Were women increasingly relegated to a separate sphere from men: "domesticated" into the household? Or, on the contrary, is the history of European women characterized by fundamental continuities? This course seeks to answer these questions through an exploration of women's place in the family and economy, laws and cultural assumptions about women, and women's role in religion. Throughout the term, we will be focusing not only on writings about women, but primarily on sources written by women themselves, as we seek a fuller understanding of the nature of European women's lives before the modern era. 6 cr., HU; HI, IS, Not offered in 2010-2011.

HIST 237. The Enlightenment This course focuses on the texts of Enlightenment thinkers, including Locke, Montesquieu, Voltaire, Diderot, Rousseau, Kant and Mesmer. Emphasis will be on French thinkers and the effect of the Enlightenment on French society. The course covers the impact of the Enlightenment on science, religion, politics and the position of women. Students will have the opportunity to read the philosophies in French. 6 cr., HU, WR; HI, WR2, IS, Not offered in 2010-2011.

HIST 238. The World of Bede This course will examine the works and world of the Venerable Bede (c. 673-731), one of the great Christian thinkers and historians of the Middle Ages and a key witness to the history of early medieval Ireland and Anglo-Saxon England. Through close study of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People and other contemporary sources, we shall address such issues as Christian vs. Germanic rulership; the nature of religious conversion in early medieval societies; monasticism and conceptions of sanctity; Ireland and England as outposts of classical and Christian culture; and the problems of historical thought and writing in the early Middle Ages. 3 cr., HU; HI, IS, Not offered in 2010-2011.

HIST 238. Topics in Medieval History: Church, Papacy and Empire Over the course of the late eleventh century, the foundations of medieval society began to shake as monks and clerics, kings and princes, lay men and women, challenged the traditional order of European society, demanding purity, freedom, and justice for their church and the reform of institutions grown corrupt. Yet the traditional order had its defenders, too. In this course we will examine their intellectual and political struggles as they debate such issues as clerical marriage and purity, institutional corruption, the relationship of Church and King, the meaning of canon law, the concept of just war, and the power of the pope within the Church. 3 cr., HU; HI, IS, Not offered in 2010-2011.

HIST 239. Britain, c. 1485-1834: From Sceptred Isle to Satanic Mills This course traces the political, intellectual, economic and social history of the British Isles from the Tudor era to the Industrial Revolution. As we move from the world of Shakespeare to that of Jane Austen, we will follow changing British identities, the development of Atlantic slavery (and the subsequent move to emancipation), and revolutions in the political world. At the same time, we identify the origins and consequences of the fundamental economic and demographic changes associated with the demographic transition and industrialization. 6 cr., HU; HI, IS, Not offered in 2010-2011.

HIST 240. Imperial Russia This course provides an introduction to the Russian imperial state as it evolved over centuries. We will focus on the immense diversity of the empire and the structures of domination and legitimacy that held it together. Major topics covered include imperial ideology, serfdom, the intelligentsia, and political opposition. 6 cr., HU; HI, IS, Not offered in 2010-2011.

HIST 241. Russia through Wars and Revolutions The lands of the Russian empire underwent massive transformations in the tumultuous decades that separated the accession of Nicholas II (1894) from the death of Stalin (1953). This course will explore many of these changes, with special attention paid to the social and political impact of wars (the Russo-Japanese War, World War I, the Civil War, and the Great Patriotic War) and revolutions (of 1905 and 1917), the ideological conflicts they engendered, and the comparative historical context in which they transpired. 6 cr., HU; HI, IS, Not offered in 2010-2011.

HIST 242. Russia Since 1953 We will explore the history of Russia and other former Soviet states in the period after the death of Stalin. We will investigate the nature of the late Soviet state and explore the different trajectories Russia and other post-Soviet states have followed since the end of the Soviet Union. 6 cr., HU; HI, IS, Not offered in 2010-2011.

HIST 243. The Peasants are Revolting! Society and Politics in the Making of Modern France Political propaganda of the French Revolutionary period tells a simple story of downtrodden peasants exploited by callous nobles, but what exactly was the relationship between the political transformations of France from the Renaissance through the French Revolution and the social, religious, and cultural tensions that characterized the era? This course explores the connections and conflicts between popular and elite culture as we survey French history from the sixteenth through early nineteenth centuries, making comparisons to social and political developments in other European countries along the way. 6 cr., HU; HI, IS, Not offered in 2010-2011.

HIST 245. Ireland: The Origin of the Troubles The religious and political tensions and violence that have characterized modern Irish history have deep roots in centuries of troubled relations between Ireland and England. This course examines Irish history with a special focus on Anglo-Irish relations from Tudor colonization through the Great Hunger of the nineteenth century. We will also be examining the very different ways in which Irish history is told by nationalist and revisionist scholars. 6 cr., HU, WR; HI, WR2, IS, Not offered in 2010-2011.

HIST 248. Berlin Program: Monuments and Memory: A Cultural History of Berlin Berlin is the center of a transnational space both German-speaking and vibrantly multicultural. This course will examine Berlin’s complicated history and culture through its monuments, museums, and other sites of commemoration. Using Berlin as our text, we will gain insights into the significant historical events that shaped the society and culture of Germany’s capital city. Where relevant, we will discuss developments in Germany and Central Europe more generally, and incorporate visits to nearby cities into the course. 6 cr., HU; HI, IS, Not offered in 2010-2011.

HIST 249. Modern Central Europe An examination of the political, social, and cultural history of Central Europe from 1848 to the present day. We will explore the evolution of state and civil society in the multicultural/multinational regions of the present-day Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Hungary, as well as eastern Germany and Austria. Much of the course will focus on the common experiences of authoritarianism, anti-Semitism, fascism/Nazism, and especially the Communist era and its dissolution. 6 cr., HU; HI, IS, FallD. Tompkins

HIST 250. Modern Germany This course offers a comprehensive examination of German history in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. We will look at the German-speaking peoples of Central Europe through the prism of politics, society, culture, and the economy. Through a range of readings, we will grapple with the many complex and contentious issues that have made German history such an interesting area of intellectual inquiry. 6 cr., HU; HI, IS, SpringD. Tompkins

HIST 253. Bureaucracy, Law, and Religion in East Asia One tends to interpret East Asian polity in terms of rule by person rather than rule by law and of the unity between politics and religion. Students will examine the validity of these traditional conceptualizations through an analysis of the intricate interactions between bureaucratic behaviors, legal parameters, and religious orientations as evolved in the East Asian historical societies from its beginnings to the present. Students will discuss the relationships between autocracy and bureaucracy, church and state, aristocracy and literati ideals, eunuch prerogatives, samurai ethics, and yangban protocols, with a focus on various bureaucratic configurations (public, private, ecclesiastical, parallel, and interstitial). 6 cr., HU; HI, IS, Not offered in 2010-2011.

HIST 254. Colonialism in East Asia This course explores the colonialisms in East Asia, both internal and external. Students examine Chinese, Inner Asian, Japanese, and European colonialisms from the seventeenth century to the present. Geographically, students cover borderlands of East Asian empires (Tibet, Xinjiang, Mongolia, Manchuria, Fujian, Yunnan, Canton, Vietnam, Taiwan, Korea, Okinawa, and Hokkaido). Methodologically, students eschew power-politics and an historical studies of "frontier" regions in order to analyze everyday aspects of colonial arrangements and communities in different historical moments from the bottom up. Topics include ethnic identities, racial discourses, colonial settlements, opium regimes, violence and memory (e.g. Nanjing massacre), and forced labor migrations (e.g. comfort women). 6 cr., HU; HI, IS, WinterS. Yoon

HIST 255. Press and Culture in East Asia What are the major distribution paths through which news and opinions are disseminated? Many believe that the modern press is one of the social and cultural bases within civil society and that it is not just a medium but a shaper of opinion in the public sphere. Students will test the validity of such claims by examining how the press reshaped printing and book culture in East Asia. Students will analyze communication circuits that link authors, journalists, shippers, booksellers, itinerant storytellers, readers, and listeners. Sources will be drawn from official gazettes, newsletters, pamphlets, handbills, rumor mills, pictorials, and cartoons. 6 cr., HU; HI, IS, SpringS. Yoon

HIST 259. Women in South Asia: Histories, Narratives, and Representation The objective of this course is to survey the historical institutions, practices and traditions that defined the position of women in India. We will examine the laws and religious traditions related to women in South Asia including marriage, inheritance, sati and purdah. We will also read a variety of women's writings including the poetry of buddhist nuns and medieval women saints, as well as stories and memoirs from the colonial and post-colonial period. The purpose of the course is to understand women in India as both the object and subject of history. 6 cr., HU, RAD; HI, IS, Not offered in 2010-2011.

HIST 260. The Making of the Modern Middle East A survey of major political and social developments from the fifteenth century to the beginning of World War I. Topics include: state and society, the military and bureaucracy, religious minorities (Jews and Christians), and women in premodern Muslim societies; the encounter with modernity. 6 cr., HU; HI, IS, Not offered in 2010-2011.

HIST 262. Post-colonial South Asia, 1947-Present This course will examine the questions and issues that faced post-independence India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. We will examine both the similarities and differences in how different nations dealt with the imprint of colonialism, the struggle for democracy, the relationship between religion and politics, women's movements; ecological movements, demands for regional autonomy and globalization. We will use a wide range of primary and secondary sources as well as theoretical texts to illuminate the specificities of post-colonial modernity. 6 cr., HU; NE, Not offered in 2010-2011.

HIST 265. Central Asia in the Modern Age Central Asia--the region encompassing the post-Soviet states of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, and the Xinjiang region of the People’s Republic of China--is often considered one of the most exotic in the world, but it has experienced all the excesses of the modern age. After a basic introduction to the long-term history of the steppe, this course will concentrate on exploring the history of the region since its conquest by the Russian and Chinese empires. We will discuss the interaction of external and local forces as we explore transformations in the realms of politics, society, culture, and religion. 6 cr., HU; HI, IS, Not offered in 2010-2011.

HIST 266. History of Islam in India The countries of South Asia--particularly India, Pakistan and Bangladesh--are collectively home to the world’s largest Muslim population. This course will examine the history and significance of the expansion of Islam into the Indian subcontinent, with an emphasis on topics including poetry and art, trade, Islamic concepts of law and justice, mysticism, and popular religion. We will study the development of specifically Indian forms of Islam, with a focus on the interaction of Muslims with non-Muslim communities. We will also examine the wide variety of socio-political movements which emerged among Muslim communities in the colonial and post-colonial eras. 6 cr., HU; HI, IS, WinterB. LaRocque

HIST 272. The Emergence of Modern Mexico This course examines the origins and development of Mexican nationalism from the early nineteenth century to the present day. Central to this course will be the question of how national identity and culture was contested and negotiated across racial, class, regional and gender divides. We will also attempt to deconstruct the cultural project of "lo mexicano" most closely associated with the decades immediately following the Mexican Revolution (1910-1917). 6 cr., HU, RAD; HI, IS, SpringA. Fisher

HIST 273. Go-Betweens and Rebels in the Andean World This course examines the dynamics of imperial rule in the vertical world of the Andes from the time of the Inca, through Spanish rule, and beyond. Of particular interest will be the myriad roles played by indigenous intermediaries who bridged the social, political and cultural gap between their communities and the state. While critical for maintaining the imperial order, these individuals also served as a galvanizing source of popular resistance against the state. Emphasis will be placed on the reading of translated primary sources written by a diverse group of Andean cultural intermediaries and rebels. 6 cr., HU; HI, IS, Not offered in 2010-2011.

HIST 276. The African Diaspora in Latin America A study of the participation of peoples of African descent in the creation of Latin American societies and culture. After an examination of the Atlantic slave trade, the course will survey the institution of African slavery in colonial societies with particular attention given to urban versus rural slavery, slave resistance and rebellion, maroon communities, gender relations, manumission, and cultural continuities and innovations. The course concludes with a consideration of the experiences of freed peoples in post-abolition societies and the historical legacy of slavery. Some background knowledge of Latin American history is recommended. 6 cr., HU, RAD; HI, IS, QRE, Not offered in 2010-2011.

HIST 278. Religious Orthodoxy and Deviance in New Spain Largely through the prism of inquisition sources, this course explores popular religion in the Viceroyalty of New Spain and its relationship to Catholic orthodixy. Central themes will include ideas about conversion, resistance, local religion, and religious tolerance. Among other topics, we will study crypto-Judaism, the conversion of indigenous people to Catholicism, diabolism, popular saints, witchcraft and mysticism. The course will also explore the methodological challenges involved in using inquisition sources for the study of religion. 6 cr., HU, RAD; HI, IS, FallA. Fisher

HIST 279. American Intellectual History A study of selected moments in the history of ideas from Puritanism to Pragmatism. The major focus will be on the classic writing of William Bradford, Anne Hutchinson, Jonathan Boucher, William Bartram, Henry David Thoreau, Oliver Wendell Holmes, William James and John Dewey. Students will examine the ideas of one writer in depth and analyze that writer's attempt to shape public policy. Using Louis Menand's Prize-winning "The Metaphysical Club," we will explore the attempt of post-Civil War thinkers to craft a social philosophy for the modern world of industry and science. 6 cr., HU, WR; HI, WR2, Not offered in 2010-2011.

HIST 280. African in the Arab World This course surveys the development of an African Diaspora in the Arab world. This community’s emergence is linked to the movement of enslaved Africans across the Sahara Desert, up the Nile valley, and across the Red Sea. Highlighting communities in North Africa and the Middle East, this course looks at the diverse experiences of peoples whose black skin came to be equated with slave status, yet who also became loyal followers of Islam in an Arab world. It challenges students to conceive of an African Diasporic identity in which the "East" and Islam are central. 6 cr., HU, RAD; HI, IS, Offered in alternate years. WinterT. Willis

HIST 281. War in Modern Africa This course examines the Nigerian Civil War, also known as the Biafra War, 1967-1970, and its implications for post-colonial Nigerian and African history. Clashes between two ethnic groups, the Igbo and the Hausa, culminated in a failed attempt by the Igbo-dominated south to secede from the nation of Nigeria and establish Biafra as an independent country. What role did colonialism play in igniting and fueling the tensions that culminated in the war? What was the role of the media in the war? What light does the Biafra War shed on modern conflict in Africa? 6 cr., HU, RAD; HI, IS, Offered in alternate years. SpringT. Willis

HIST 283. Farm and Forest: African Environmental History We will explore the complex interaction between the African physical world of "nature" (plants, soils, water, climate) and "culture" or human society over time, from the pre-colonial through the colonial period to the present. We also seek to understand the meanings (including cultural and symbolic meanings) associated with the African natural world, both for African societies and for non-Africans who have lived, worked, or been engaged with the continent. We will delve into controversies about land use, population growth, wildlife conservation, desertification and other topics. Each student will gain insight into a particular issue or case study through an independent research project. 6 cr., HU, RAD; NE, Not offered in 2010-2011.

HIST 298. Junior-year History Colloquium In the junior year, majors must take six-credit reading and discussion course taught each year by different members of the department faculty. The general purpose of History 298 is to help students reach a more sophisticated understanding of the nature of history as a discipline and of the approaches and methods of historians. A major who is considering off-campus study in the junior year should consult with their adviser on when to take History 298. 6 cr., ND; HI, Fall,WinterW. North, S. Zabin

HIST 306. Topics in Environmental History: American Wilderness Each year, this course will focus on a major issue in American or world environmental history. For 2010-11, the topic will be American Wilderness. To many Americans, wild lands are among the nation’s most treasured places. Yosemite, Yellowstone, the Grand Canyon, Joshua Tree--the names alone evoke a sense of awe, naturalness, beauty, even love. But, where do those ideas and feelings come from, and how have they both reflected and shaped American cultural, political and environmental history over the last four centuries? These are the central issues and questions that we will pursue in this seminar. Prerequisite: History 195 or consent of instructor. 6 cr., HU; HI, Offered in alternate years. WinterG. Vrtis

HIST 322. Civil Rights and Black Power This seminar frames the life and death of the civil rights and black power movements as rich experiments in political, social, cultural, religious, and intellectual theory and practice envisioned to create a racially liberal American state. 6 cr., HU, RAD; HI, Not offered in 2010-2011.

HIST 324. The Concord Intellectuals The social and intellectual history of the American Renaissance with focus on selected works of Emerson, Thoreau, Amos Bronson Alcott, and Margaret Fuller. Special emphasis will be placed on the one common denominator uniting these intellectuals: their devotion to the possibilities of democracy. Prerequisite: History 120 or consent of the instructor. 6 cr., HU; HI, Not offered in 2010-2011.

HIST 330. Gender, Ethics and Power in Medieval France What comprised the ethical fabric of medieval France? How was it created and understood over the generations? This course explores the ways in which men and women from the twelfth through the fifteenth centuries explored essential questions about their society: What was love? What factors shaped relations between men and women? How did one know right from wrong? What are the obligations between men and women, rich and poor, knight and lord, merchant and seller, humans and God? What kinds of violence were just, why, and for whom? 6 cr., HU; HI, IS, Not offered in 2010-2011.

HIST 333. Iconoclasm What roles do images play in society? What are these images thought to be and to do? Why, at particular moments, have certain groups attempted to do away with images either completely or in specific settings? How do images create and threaten communities and how is the management of the visual integrated with and shaped by other values, structures, and objectives? This course will examine these questions by looking in depth at iconoclasm in Byzantium and in Protestant Europe and by examining theoretical discussions of images, vision, and cognition from the fourth-sixteenth centuries. Discussion intensive with a research component. 6 cr., HU, WR; HI, WR2, IS, Not offered in 2010-2011.

HIST 346. The Holocaust This course will grapple with the difficult and complicated phenomenon of the genocide of the Jews of Europe. We will explore anti-Semitism in its historical context, both in the German-speaking lands as well as in Europe as a whole. The experience of Jews in Nazi Germany will be an area of focus, but this class will look at European Jews more broadly, both before and during the Second World War. The question of responsibility and guilt will be applied to Germans as well as to other European societies, and an exploration of victims will extend to other affected groups. 6 cr., HU; HI, IS, Offered in alternate years. WinterD. Tompkins

HIST 353. Intellectuals and the State Power in East Asia A course to explore issues concerning the evolving relations between intellectuals and the state power in East Asia with an emphasis on developing the skills to analyze primary sources. 6 cr., HU, WR; HI, WR2, IS, Not offered in 2010-2011.

HIST 360. Muslims and Modernity Through readings in primary sources in translation, we will discuss the major intellectual and cultural movements that have influenced Muslim thinkers from the nineteenth century on. Topics include modernism, nationalism, socialism, and fundamentalism. Prerequisite: at least one prior course in the history of the Middle East or Central Asia or Islam. 6 cr., HU, WR, RAD; HI, WR2, IS, Not offered in 2010-2011.

HIST 381. History, Memory and the Atlantic World: Ghana and the United States This reading and research seminar prepares students for a winter-break field trip in Ghana. It investigates four major questions: did contemporary Gold Coast merchants participate in the Atlantic world slave trade as willing partners or did they make irrational decisions? How do Ghanaians remember slavery, British colonization, and the struggle for independence? What roles did W.E.B. Du Bois, Marcus Garvey, Shirley Graham Du Bois, and Richard Wright play in Ghana's cultural life? Why did Maya Angelou and other American writers and artists move to Ghana during the Civil Rights Movement? This course is part of the OCS winter break program involving two linked courses in fall and winter; this clas is the first class in the sequence. 6 cr., HU, RAD; HI, IS, FallH. Williams

HIST 382. History, Memory, and the Atlantic World: On Site and Revisited This course is the second part of a two-term sequence beginning with History 381. The first part of the seminar is a 15-day winter break field trip to Ghana. Fieldwork begins in Accra, the seat of national government since 1877. The capital is the base for lectures by University of Ghana professors and for visits to sites representing important moments in Ghana's post-colonial history. The trip continues to Kumasi, capital of the Ashanti Region and once an inland terminus of major slave trading routes to the Atlantic coast. Kumasi is the base for day trips to traditional craft villages and for lectures by professors at Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST). 6 cr., HU; HI, IS, WinterH.Williams

HIST 386. Disease, Health, and Healing in Modern African History In this course, we will examine the history of disease, health, and healing in the context of changing economic, cultural, and political relations in Africa. Topics to be discussed include African medical ideas and practices, therapeutic pluralism, colonial medicine, social/public responses to disease, patient experiences, and controversies surrounding HIV/AIDS. We will pay attention to questions of power, agency, and gender as we discuss these topics. The course will highlight the key themes, historiographies, and methodologies in the history of disease, health, and healing in modern African history. 6 cr., HU; HI, IS, Not offered in 2010-2011.

HIST 395. Colonialism This course begins with a consideration of classic and recent scholarship on colonialism, including both theoretical and historical works, covering distinct eras and areas of the globe. The second half of the term will be devoted primarily to the development of individual research projects, each concerning an aspect of colonialism grounded in a particular historical context. Students will present their findings to their peers and produce a 25-30 page paper. 6 cr., HU, WR; HI, WR2, Offered in alternate years. SpringA. Fisher

HIST 395. Transnational Black History Since 1945 An interdisciplinary seminar, this course places postwar U.S. black history in transnational context by examining flows of people, information, and images with parallel liberation movements in the Third World, including Ghana, Cuba, and what Vijay Prashad theorizes as the "darker nations." Major research paper required. 6 cr., HU; HI, IS, SpringH. Williams

HIST 395. Controversial Histories: Conflict, Polemic, and Persuasion in Medieval and Modern Worlds This seminar explores the history of how people in the pre-modern world discussed, debated and decided the issues, ideals, and policies that shaped their lives, communities, and world. Particular attention will be paid to the role of institutions and individuals, networks, the form and functions of polemical discourse, and the dynamics of group formation and stigmatization of the historical unfolding of conflict and consensus. Theoretical readings and case studies of conflicts from late antique, medieval, and early modern periods will provide the common readings for the seminar. 6 cr., HU, WR; HI, WR2, FallW. North

HIST 397. Senior Research Proposal Completion of a research proposal, working with an adviser. Satisfactory completion of this senior requirement depends upon approval of the proposal by the faculty adviser and the department. 3 cr., S/CR/NC, HU; HI, FallStaff

HIST 398. Advanced Historical Writing This course is designed to support majors in developing advanced skills in historical research and writing. Through a combination of class discussion, small group work, and one-on-one interactions with the professor, majors learn the process of constructing sophisticated, well-documented, and practice strategies for engaging critically with contemporary scholarship and effective techniques of peer review and the oral presentation of research. Concurrent enrollment in History 400 required. By permission of the instructor only. 6 cr., S/CR/NC, HU, WR; HI, WR2, WinterA. Igra, S. Zabin

HIST 400. Integrative Exercise Completion and defense of a substantial (approximately 34-40 page) original research paper, written in consultation with a faculty adviser. Concurrent enrollment in History 398 required. 3 cr., S/NC, ND; NE, WinterStaff