Vascular Flora of the Carleton Arboretum

Nomenclature follows Gleason and Cronquist (1991) except where superceeded by The Flora of North America. Vascular plants without seeds (so-called "pteridophytes") are listed first, followed by the conifers and angiosperms. Within these three groups, plants are arranged alphabetically by family, then alphabetically by genus within families, then alphabetically by species within genera. Following this list is the list of potential vascular flora and the list of planted, non-spreading flora. Both use the same format for ordering. Further explanation of the entries is in the Appendix at the end of this document: locations and people.

Fall Trail 



Adiantum pedatum; maidenhair fern. '92 DH, '95 PM (h). Uncommon, in woods.


Athyrium filix-femina; lady fern. '95 PM. Abundant, in upland woods.

Cystopteris cf. fragilis; fragile fern, brittle bladder-fern. '96 PM (h). Upland woods, on limestone outcrops.

Dryopteris cf. carthusiana; toothed wood-fern. '96 PM (h). Best Woods. Common.


Equisetum arvense; field horsetail. '95 PM (h). RR tracks, 1982 Field.

Equisetum laevigatum; smooth scouring rush. '95 PM (h). RR tracks.


Botrychium multifidum; leathery grape-fern. '99 PTI (h).


Osmunda claytoniana; interrupted fern. '96 PM (h). Near Lyman Lakes (h).


Thelypteris palustris; marsh fern. '92 CU. Kettlehole Marsh.



Juniperus virginiana; eastern red cedar. '87 AC (h). Uncommon but widespread; in open or previously open areas.

PINACEAE (fide FNA 1993)

Pinus banksiana; jack pine. '87 AC (h). In plantations in the Lower Arb.

Pinus resinosa; red pine. '87 AC (h). In plantations in the Lower Arb.

Pinus strobus; white pine. '87 AC (h). In plantations in the Lower Arb.




Acer ginnala*; Siberian maple, amur maple. '87 AC. Widely cultivated in the area and spreading in forest understory in the Upper Arb.

Acer negundo; boxelder. '87 AC (h). Common in both upland and floodplain forests, especially in disturbed sites and early in succession.

Acer saccharinum; silver maple. '87 AC (h). Floodplain.

Acer saccharum; sugar maple. '87 AC (h). Widely planted as part of restoration efforts (e.g., in Stork Forest, Alumni Field, 1993 Field). There are some older trees of uniform age in the floodplain, in I16 (between the dike and the 1970 Field) and I15 (south of the trail); these seem to have been planted. There may be some non-planted individuals near H13, in a drainage in the Oak Savanna just west of the upper trail.


Alisma triviale; northern water-plantain. '95 PM. Riverbend Wetland, Kettlehole Marsh, other ponds.

Sagittaria latifolia; arrowhead, wapato, duck potato. '92 CU (h). Kettlehole Marsh, other ponds.


Amaranthus cf. retroflexus; rough pigweed, redroot. '95 PM (h). Riverbend Wetland.


Rhus glabra; smooth sumac. '87 AC, '95 PM (h). Common along forest edges and in old fields.

Toxicodendron rydbergii; poison ivy. '87 AC, '95 PM. Occasional; along trails, in open to partially shaded habitats.


Angelica atropurpurea; purplestem angelica. '95 PM (h).

Cicuta bulbifera; bulbous water hemlock. '92 CU, '00 TS (h). Kettlehole Marsh.

Cryptotaenia canadensis; honewort, wild chervil. '92 DH (h). Woods.

Eryngium yuccifolium; rattlesnake master, button snakeroot. '90 HP (h). Hillside Prairie (planted).

Heracleum lanatum*; cow-parsnip. '95 PM.

Osmorhiza claytonii; bland sweet cicely. '92 DH, '94 PM (h). Woods.

Osmorhiza longistylis; long-styled sweet cicely. '92 DH, '94 PM (h). Woods.

Pastinaca sativa*; parsnip. '89 MM, '95 PM (h).

Sanicula marilandica; black snakeroot, sanicle. '92 DH, '95 PM (h).

Sanicula odorata; black snakeroot, cluster sanicle. '92 DH.

Taenidia integerrima; yellow pimpernel. '95 PM (h). RR tracks and adjacent woods.

Zizea aurea; golden alexanders. '89 CL, '95 PM (h). Open upland forest, Hillside Prairie (planted).


Apocynum androsaemifolium; spreading dogbane. '96 PM (h). Near the Women's League Cabin.

Apocynum cannabinum; hemp-dogbane, Indian hemp. '95 PM (h).


Arisaema triphyllum; jack-in-the-pulpit. '92 DH, '95 PM (h). Upland forest understory.


Aralia nudicaulis; wild sarsaparilla. '92 DH (h).


Asarum canadense; wild ginger. '92 DH (h). Woods.


Asclepias exaltata; tall milkweed. '89 MM. Best Woods, only a few individuals.

Asclepias incarnata; swamp milkweed. '92 CU (h). Kettlehole Marsh.

Asclepias syriaca; common milkweed. '89 CL (h). Common in open areas.

Asclepias tuberosa; butterfly milkweed. '89 MM, '95 PM, '00 TS (h). RR tracks, Hillside Prairie (planted).

Asclepias verticillata; whorled milkweed. '89 CL, '95 PM (h). Railroad Tracks; Postage Stamp Prairie; Lobe Prairie; Hillside Prairie (planted).


Achillea millefolium (some forms non-native); common yarrow. '89 CL (h).

Ambrosia artemisiifolia; common ragweed. '89 MM (h).

Ambrosia cf. psilostachya; western ragweed. '95 MM, field ID. RR tracks.

Ambrosia trifida; giant ragweed. '89 MM. Abundant, especially in floodplain old fields.

Anaphalis margaritacea; pearly everlasting. '96 PM. Upper Arb old field.

Antennaria sp.; pussy-toes. '89 CL. Postage Stamp Prairie.

Arctium minus (non-native?); common burdock. '95 PM (h). Common in disturbed sites.

Artemisia ludoviciana; white sage. '88 MM, '90 HP (h). RR track, Postage Stamp Prairie (planted as seedlings into '90 plot from Prairie Restorations); Hillside Prairie (planted).

Artemisia serrata; toothed sage. '88 MM. RR track.

Aster ericoides; white aster, heath aster. '89 CL(h). Postage Stamp Prairie; Hillside Prairie (planted).

Aster novae-angliae; New England aster. '89 CL (h). Postage Stamp Prairie; Hillside Prairie (planted).

Aster oolentangiensis; azure aster. '89 MM (h). Hillside Prairie (planted).

Aster sericeus; silky aster. '89 MM. Hillside Prairie (planted).

Bidens cernua; beggar-ticks, bur-marigold, sticktight. '95 PM (h). Common in wetlands.

Bidens cf. vulgata; tall beggar-ticks, bur-marigold, sticktight. '95 PM. Common in wetlands

Carduus acanthoides*; plumeless thistle. '89 MM (h). Postage Stamp Prairie.

Chrysanthemum leucanthemum*; ox-eye daisy. '95 MM. South 1990 Field.

Chrysopsis villosa; golden aster. '89 MM (h). Hillside Prairie (planted).

Cirsium arvense*; Canada thistle. '95 PM, '95 MM (h). Abundant in disturbed sites and old fields.

Cirsium discolor; field thistle. '89 MM (h). Postage Stamp Prairie.

Cirsium vulgare*; bull thistle. '89 MM (h). Postage Stamp Prairie.

Conyza canadensis; horseweed. '89 CL (h). Abundant in old fields.

Coreopsis palmata; finger coreopsis, finger tickseed. '89 MM (h). Hillside Prairie (planted).

Crepis tectorum*; hawk's beard. '89 MM, '95 PM (h). Abundant in old fields.

Erigeron cf. annuus; annual fleabane, daisy fleabane. '95 PM.

Erigeron philadelphicus; fleabane, Philadelphia daisy. '92 DH, '94 PM (h).

Erigeron strigosus; daisy fleabane. '89 MM, '00 TS (h). Postage Stamp Prairie; Hillside Prairie.

Eupatorium perfoliatum; boneset, thoroughwort. '92 CU (h). Kettlehole Marsh and other wet areas.

Eupatorium pupureum; joe-pye weed. '95 PM (h). Woods and thickets.

Eupatorium rugosum; white snakeroot. '87 MM. Common in woods.

Gnaphalum obtusifolium; Fragrant cudweed. '97 PTI (h).

Helianthus cf. giganteus; swamp sunflower. '89 MM. Hillside Prairie (planted).

Helianthus maximiliani; Maximilian sunflower. '90 MM. Postage Stamp Prairie (planted as seedlings into Okada Garden); Hillside Prairie (planted).

Helianthus cf. pauciflorus; stiff sunflower. '88 MM. RR track, Hillside Prairie (planted).

Helianthus tuberosus; Jerusalem artichoke. '88 MM (h). M17, grassy, open area

Heliopsis helianthoides; ox-eye. '88 MM, '90 HP (h). RR track, Postage Stamp Prairie, Hillside Prairie (planted), Oak Savannas (planted).

Kuhnia eupatorioides; false boneset. '89 CL. Postage Stamp Prairie; Hillside Prairie (planted).

Lactuca serriola*; prickly lettuce. '89 MM. Hillside Prairie.

Liatris cf. aspera; lacerate blazing star, gayfeather. '90 HP (h). Postage Stamp Prairie (planted as seedlings into Okada Garden).

Liatris cf. ligulistylis (?); northern plains blazing star, gayfeather. '89 MM. Hillside Prairie (planted).

Liatris punctata; blazing star, gayfeather. '89 MM (h). Postage Stamp Prairie.

Liatris pycnostachya; thick-spike blazing star, gayfeather. '89 MM. Hillside Prairie (planted).

Parthenium integrifolium; wild quinine. '89 CL (h). Hillside Prairie (planted).

Polymnia canadensis; leafcup. '89 MM, '95 PM. Best Woods, floodplain.

Ratibida columnifera; prairie coneflower. '89 MM. Hillside Prairie (planted).

Ratibida pinnata; grayhead prairie coneflower. '88 MM, '89 CL (h). RR track, Postage Stamp Prairie; Hillside Prairie (planted).

Rudbeckia hirta; black-eyed susan. '89 CL (h). Postage Stamp Prairie; Hillside Prairie (planted).

Rudbeckia laciniata; cutleaf coneflower. '87 MM. Floodplain and other wet places.

Silphium laciniatum; compass plant. '89 CL (h). Hillside Prairie (planted).

Silphium perfoliatum; cup plant. '90 HP. Postage Stamp Prairie; Hillside Prairie (planted?); near the Cannon River along the South 1990 Field.

Silphium terebinthinaceum; prairie dock, basal-leaved rosinweed. '89 CL. Hillside Prairie (planted).

Solidago canadensis; Canada goldenrod. '89 MM (h).

Solidago gigantea; smooth goldenrod. '89 MM (h). Common in old fields.

Solidago missouriensis; Missouri goldenrod, prairie goldenrod. '89 CL. Hillside Prairie (planted).

Solidago nemoralis; gray goldenrod. '89 CL (h). Postage Stamp Prairie; Hillside Prairie (planted).

Solidago rigida; stiff goldenrod. '88 MM. RR tracks, Hillside Prairie (planted).

Solidago speciosa; showy goldenrod. '89 MM. Hillside Prairie (planted).

Sonchus cf. arvensis*; sow thistle. '95 PM (h).

Taraxacum officinale*; common dandelion. '00 TS (h).

Tragopogon dubius*; goat's beard, western salsify. '89 CL, '90 HP (h).

Tragopogon pratensis*; goat's beard, meadow salsify. '88 MM. Near Farm House.

Vernonia fasciculata; ironweed. '89 MM (h). Hillside Prairie (planted).


Impatiens capensis; orange jewelweed, orange touch-me-not, spotted touch-me-not. '95 PM (h). Common in wet areas.

Impatiens pallida; yellow jewelweed, yellow touch-me-not, pale touch-me-not. '95 PM (h). Common in wet areas.


Caulophyllum thalictroides; blue cohosh. '92 DH. Woods.

Podophyllum peltatum; may-apple, mandrake. '92 DH (h). Woods; those in Stork Forest probably planted.

BETULACEAE (fide FNA 1997)

Betula pumila; bog birch, swamp birch. '92 CU, '95 PM. Kettlehole Marsh.

Corylus americana; American hazlenut. '87 AC, '95 PM. Best Woods.

Ostrya virginiana; hop hornbeam. '87 AC, '95 PM. Best Woods.


Hackelia virginiana; stickseed, beggar's lice. '95 PM, '95 MM. Abundant in open woods.

Lithospermum cf. canescens; hoary puccoon. '95 PM (h). RR tracks.

Lithospermum incisum; narrow-leaved puccoon, plains stoneseed. Herbarium specimens from RR tracks and Upper Arb, most recent collection 1962 (h).

Mertensia virginica; eastern bluebell, Virginia bluebell, Virginia cowslip. '96 PM (h). Floodplain forest, west side of Cannon River.

Onosmodium molle; false gromwell. '95 PM. RR tracks, Lobe Remnant.

Symphytum officinale*; common comfrey; Old Organic Garden.


Arabis glabra; tower mustard. '95 MM. 1991 Field.

Arabis hirsuta; rock cress. '90 HP. Postage Stamp Prairie.

Arabis shortii; rock cress. '95 PM (h). Common in Best Woods and in floodplain forest.

Barbarea vulgaris*; yellow rocket, winter cress. '92 DH, '95 PM (h). Infrequent, in disturbed areas.

Berteroa incana*; hoary allysum. '89 MM (h). Disturbed sites.

Brassica nigra*; black mustard. '95 PM (h). Old fields.

Capsella bursa-pastoris*; shepherd's purse. '92 DH, '95 PM (h). Common weed.

Cardamine concatenata; toothwort. '95 PM (h). Near Lyman Lakes entrance (possibly planted there.)

Cardamine pensylvanica; bitter cress. '96 PM, from herbarium specimen. Floodplain forest.

Erysimum cheiranthoides*; wormseed mustard, wormseed wallflower. '95 PM (h). Floodplain.

Hesperis matronalis*; dame's rocket. '89 MM (h). Common in disturbed sites.

Lepidium densiflorum; peppergrass. '89 MM.

Rorippa palustris; bog yellow cress. '92 MM, '95 PM. Old fields.

Sisymbrium altissimum*; tumble mustard. '89 MM. Postage Stamp Prairie.

Thlaspi arvense*; field penny-cress, stinkweed. '89 MM, '92 DH (h).


Chamaecrista fasciculata; partridge pea, prairie senna. '95 PM. 1995 Prairie (planted).

Gymnocladus dioica; Kentucky Coffee-tree. '08. JH. Floodplain, coordinates approximately H15. (Introduced by Paul Jensen in 1981).


Campanula americana; tall bellflower, American bellflower. '89 MM (h). Postage Stamp Prairie.

Campanula aparinoides; marsh bellflower. '95 PM. Kettlehole Marsh.

Campanula rapunculoides; creeping bellflower, rover bellflower. '90 HP. Postage Stamp Prairie.

Campanula rotundifolia; harebell. '95 PM. RR tracks, Postage Stamp Prairie.

Lobelia siphilitica; great lobelia; blue cardinal flower. '95 PM (h). South 1990 Field, Cole Wetland (planted).

Lobelia spicata; pale-spike lobelia. '95 PM. Cole Wetland (planted).


Cannabis sativa*; hemp, marijuana. '90 HP (h).

Humulus lupulus*; hops. '99 PTI (h).


Lonicera cf. tatarica*; Tartarian honeysuckle. '87 AC, '95 PM (h). Invasive throughout, especially in forests.

Sambucus canadensis; common elder. '87 AC, '95 PM.

Sambucus racemosa; red-berried elder. '87 AC, '95 PM (h).

Symphoricarpos occidentalis; wolfberry. '89 MM, '95 PM, '00 TS (h). RR tracks, Hillside Prairie (planted?).

Viburnum lentago; nannyberry, sheepberry. '87 AC, '88 MM (h). Banks of Cannon River, near Kettlehole Marsh.

Viburnum opulus; highbush cranberry. '95 PM (h). Along Spring Creek and the Cannon River.


Arenaria lateriflora; grove sandwort. '92 DH, '96 PM (h).

Cerastium nutans; mouse-ear chickweed. '96 PM, keyed from class herbarium specimen. Disturbed areas.

Silene cf. antirrhina; sleepy catchfly. '89 CL. Postage Stamp Prairie.

Silene latifolia*; white campion, white cockle. '89 CL (h).

Silene stellata; starry campion. '95 PM, '95 MM (h). Uncommon; RR tracks, Oak Opening.


Celastrus scandens; bittersweet. '95 PM (h).

Euonymus atropurpureus; wahoo, burning bush. '96 PM (h). Two trees known, upland forest.


Chenopodium cf. album*; lamb's quarters. '89 MM, '95 PM. Disturbed areas.


Helianthemum bicknellii; frostweed. '95 MM. Wright Savanna (planted).


Hypericum perforatum; common St. John's-wort. '95 PM, '00 TS (h). RR tracks, river bank.

Hypericum pyramidatum; great St. John's-wort. '95 PM (h). Oak Savanna.


Tradescantia cf. bracteata; spiderwort. '89 MM, '90 HP, '95 PM (h). RR tracks, Hillside Prairie (planted).


Calystegia sepium (some forms non-native?); hedge bindweed. '90 HP, '95 PM (h). Hillside Prairie, trail near Cannon River.

Convolvulus arvensis*; field bindweed. '95 PM (h). RR tracks.


Cornus alternifolia; pagoda dogwood. '87 AC, '95 PM (h). Best Woods.

Cornus amomum; silky dogwood, pale dogwood. '95 PM (h).

Cornus racemosa; gray dogwood, panicled dogwood. '87 AC, '95 PM (h).

Cornus sericea; red-osier dogwood. '96 PM (h). Banks of the Cannon River; common.


Penthorum sedoides; ditch stonecrop. '92 CU, '95 PM (h). Kettlehole Marsh, river bank.


Echinocystis lobata; wild cucumber. '90 MM (h).

Sicyos angulatus; bur cucumber. '90 MM (h).


Cuscuta cf. gronovii; dodder. '87 MM, '95 PM. Uncommon; in floodplain growing on Laportea canadensis.


Carex alopecoidea. '96 PM, CU (h). Kettlehole Marsh and South 1990 Field.

Carex amphibola. '96 PM, CU (h). Best Woods.

Carex comosa. '92 CU. Kettlehole Marsh.

Carex gravida. '96 PM, CU (h). Wright Savanna.

Carex cf. hitchcockiana. '96 PM, CU (h).

Carex lacustris. '92 CU (h). Kettlehole Marsh.

Carex lasiocarpa. '92 CU. Kettlehole Marsh.

Carex cf. muhlenbergii. '89 MM. Hillside Prairie.

Carex pedunculata. '96 PM, CU (h). Forest; common.

Carex rosea. '96 PM, CU (h). Oak Savanna, South 1990 Field.

Carex rostrata. '92 CU (h). Kettlehole Marsh, common throughout.

Carex stipata. '96 PM, CU. South 1990 Field and adjacent floodplain forest.

Carex sychnocephala. '96 PM, CU (h). South 1990 Field.

Carex tribuloides. '96 PM (h). South 1990 Field.

Carex vulpinoidea. '96 PM (h). Wet areas, both open and forested; common.

Scirpus cf. atrovirens; black bulrush. '95 PM (h). Along Spring Creek; pond near RR tracks.

Scirpus cyperinus; bulrush, woolgrass. '92 CU, '95 PM. Kettlehole Marsh; Cole Wetland (planted).


Euphorbia corollata; flowering spurge. '89 MM, '95 PM (h). RR tracks, Hillside Prairie (planted).

Euphorbia cyparissias*; cypress spurge. '88 MM (h). G9, in grass west of trail west of Olin Farm

Euphorbia esula*, leafy spurge. '96 PM, MM. Rare, in northeast Lower Arb in grassy areas.


Amorpha canescens; leadplant. '89 CL (h). Postage Stamp Prairie; RR tracks; Lobe Remnant; Hillside Prairie (planted).

Amorpha fruticosa; false indigo. '89 MM, '95 PM (h). Postage Stamp Prairie; Hillside Prairie (planted?); Oak Savanna; along Spring Creek and on the shore of Lyman Lakes; 1982 Field.

Amphicarpaea bracteata; hog-peanut. '95 PM. Upland thickets.

Astragalus cf. canadensis; Canada milk vetch. '89 CL (h). Hillside Prairie (planted).

Astragalus crassicarpus; ground plum. '89 CL (h). Postage Stamp Prairie.

Baptisia alba; wild false indigo, white wild indigo, milky wild indigo. '89 MM. Hillside Prairie (planted).

Coronilla varia*; crown-vetch. '96 PM. Edge of Alumni Field, spreading from the adjacent roadside.

Dalea candida; white prairie-clover. '89 MM (h). Hillside Prairie (planted).

Dalea purpurea; purple prairie-clover. '89 CL (h). Postage Stamp Prairie; Hillside Prairie (planted).

Dalea villosa; silky prairie-clover. '95 PM. Wright Savanna (planted).

Desmodium canadense; Canada tickclover, tick-trefoil. '89 MM, '95 PM. Oak Savanna; near the Women's League Cabin; Hillside Prairie (planted).

Desmodium glutinosum; wood tickflower, tick-trefoil. '87 MM, '95 PM. Best Woods, other upland woods.

Lathyrus ochroleucus; pale pea, yellow vetchling. '92 DH, '95 PM (h). Uplands in the Lower Arb.

Lespedeza capitata; bush clover. '89 CL. Hillside Prairie (planted).

Lotus corniculatus*; birdsfoot trefoil. '95 PM.

Lupinus perennis; wild lupine. '90 MM, '95 PM (h). Hillside Prairie (planted); Turnaround at Postage Stamp Prairie (planted).

Medicago lupulina*; black medick. '89 MM (h).

Medicago sativa*; alfalfa. '89 MM. Hillside Prairie.

Melilotus officinalis*; sweet clover. '89 MM, '95 PM (h). Both yellow and white (formerly called M. alba) forms present. In old fields and other open or semi-open areas.

Pediomelum esculentum; prairie turnip, breadroot scurfpea. '89 MM. Postage Stamp Prairie.

Trifolium hybridum*; alsike clover. '90 HP (h). Postage Stamp Prairie.

Trifolium pratense*; red clover. '89 MM (h). Hillside Prairie.

Trifolium repens*; white clover. '90 HP (h).

Vicia americana; American vetch. '92 DH, '95 PM.

FAGACEAE (fide FNA 1997)

Quercus cf. ellipsoidalis; northern pin-oak. '87 AC, '95 PM, '00 TS (h). Apparently common in upland forests, especially sandy areas; difficult to distinguish from Q. rubra, with which it probably hybridizes freely.

Quercus macrocarpa, bur oak. '87 AC, '95 PM (h). The dominant tree in open or previously open upland forests.

Quercus cf. rubra; northern red oak. '87 AC, '95 PM. Apparently common in upland forests, but difficult to distinguish from Q. ellipsoidalis, with which it probably hybridizes freely.


Dicentra cucullaria; Dutchman's breeches. '92 DH (h). Woods.


Gentiana flavida; pale gentian. '99 TS (h). RR tracks.


Geranium maculatum; wild geranium, wild cranesbill. '92 DH (h). Woods, open areas.


Ribes americanum; wild black currant. '87 AC, '92 DH (h).

Ribes cynosbati; prickly gooseberry. '95 PM (h).

Ribes missouriense; Missouri gooseberry. DH '92 (h).

Ribes odoratum; buffalo currant. '95 PM (h). Faculty Picnic Area, perhaps esaped from cultivation.


Aesculus glabra; Ohio buckeye. '87 AC, '95 PM (h). Planted in scattered locations, with some reproduction from seed.


Ellisia nyctelea; waterpod. '94 PM (h).

Hydrophyllum virginianum; Virginia waterleaf. '89 MM (h).


Iris versicolor; blue flag. '92 CU, '95 PM (h). Kettlehole Marsh, lower Lyman Lake, pond near RR tracks.

Sisyrinchium cf. campestre; blue-eyed grass. '95 PM. Southeast of Best Woods (J16); Postage Stamp Prairie; Turnaround (planted); Wright Savanna (planted).


Juglans cinerea; butternut. '87 AC, '95 PM. A few individuals in Best Woods; several along Spring Creek and Lyman Lakes may be planted.

Juglans nigra; black walnut. '87 AC, '95 PM, '00 TS (h). Common in early successional upland forests; many individuals planted, especially near campus.


Juncus tenuis; rush, path-rush. '96 PM. Cole Wetland and other wet places throughout the Arb. Common.


Agastache foeniculum; fragrant giant hyssop, lavender hyssop. '89 MM, '95 PM, '00 TS (h). RR tracks, Hillside Prairie (planted?).

Agastache scrophulariaefolia; purple giant hyssop. '95 PM. Woods in the Upper Arb near Spring Creek Road.

Galeopsis tetrahit*; hemp-nettle. '95 PM. Upland forest.

Glechoma hederacea*; creeping charlie, ground ivy, gill-over-the-ground. '89 CL (h).

Hedeoma hispidum; rough pennyroyal. '95 PM. Sand Hill.

Leonurus cardiaca*; motherwort. '89 MM, PM '95 (h). Common in disturbed sites.

Lycopus uniflorus; bugleweed, one-flower horehound, northern water horehound. '92 CU. Kettlehole Marsh.

Mentha arvensis; field mint. '95 PM. South 1990 Field.

Monarda fistulosa; wild bergamot. '88 MM, '89 CL (h). RR track, Postage Stamp Prairie; Hillside Prairie (planted).

Nepeta cataria*; catnip. '89 CL, '95 PM (h). Common.

Origanum vulgare*; wild marjoram. '95 PM (h). Old Organic Garden.

Physostegia virginiana; Virginia lionsheart, obedience, false dragonhead. '95 PM, '00 TS (h). South 1990 Field.

Prunella vulgaris; self-heal. '95 PM. Upper Arb, along Spring Creek; Oak Savanna; open woods.

Pycnanthemum virginiamum; mountain-mint. '95 PM, '00 TS (h). Prairies and savannas; definitely planted in some restorations.

Scutellaria lateriflora; mad-dog skullcap, blue skullcap. '92 CU, '95 PM, '00 TS (h). Kettlehole Marsh, Riverbend Wetland, other wet areas.

Scutellaria ovata; forest skullcap, eggleaf skullcap. '95 PM, '95 MM. Known from only one site along the Cannon River.

Scutellaria parvula; small skullcap. '96 PM (h). Postage Stamp Prairie.

Stachys cf. palustris; woundwort, hedge nettle, marsh betony. '89 MM, '95 PM (h). Open woods, along trails, Hillside Prairie (planted?).

Teucrium canadense; American germander, wood sage. '89 MM, '95 PM, '00 TS (h). Oak Opening, Hillside Prairie.


Lemna minor; lesser duckweed. '95 MM, '00 TS (h). Quiet water.


Allium canadense, wild onion, wild garlic. '96 PM. Prairie remnants along railroad tracks, river slopes.

Allium stellatum; wild onion. '89 MM. Postage Stamp Prairie.

Allium tricoccum; wild leek. '95 PM (h). Forests.

Asparagus officinalis*; asparagus. '90 HP (h). Postage Stamp Prairie.

Convallaria majalis*, lily-of-the-valley. '96 PM (h). Along Spring Creek.

Erythronium albidum; trout-lily, dogtooth-violet, fawn-lily. '96 PM (h). Common in woods.

Lilium michiganense; Michigan lily. '95 PM. Known from one site along the path in the Oak Savanna.

Maianthemum canadense; wild lily-of-the-valley, Canada mayflower. '96 PM (h). Upper Arb, woods near Alumni Field.

Maianthemum racemosum; false spikenard, false Solomon's seal. '92 DH.

Polygonatum biflorum; Solomon's seal. '89 MM (h).

Scilla siberica*. '96 PM (h). Widely planted, may be spreading.

Smilacina racemosa; false Solomon's seal. Several herbarium specimens from the 1990's.

Smilacina stellata; false Solomon's seal. Herbarium specimen from 1951 collected from Sand Hill.

Trillium cf. cernuum; nodding trillium. '96 PM (h). Difficult to distinguish from T. flexipes.

Trillium cf. flexipes; bent trillium. '96 PM (h). Difficult to distinguish from T. cernuum.

Trillium nivale; snow-trillium. Herbarium specimen from 1957.

Uvularia grandiflora; large bellwort, merrybells. '96 PM. Upland woods; common.


Linum sulcatum; grooved flax. '89 MM (h). Postage Stamp Prairie.

Linum usitatissimum; common flax. '99 PTI (h). Drainage grate by Rt. 19.


Lythrum salicaria*; purple loosestrife. '94 MM, '95 PM. Wetland and floodplain; attempts are made to remove this species whenever found.


Abutilon theophrasti*; velvet-leaf. '95 PM (h). Abundant agricultural weed; found in old fields and disturbed, open sites.

Malva neglecta*; common mallow, cheeses. '92 DH (h). Disturbed areas.


Menispermum canadense; moonseed. '96 PM. Upland; common.


Morus alba; white mulberry. '95 PM.


Mirabilis hirsuta; hairy four-o'clock, hairy umbrellawort. '89 MM. Postage Stamp Prairie.

Mirabilis nyctaginea; wild four-o'clock, heart-leaved umbrellawort. '95 PM (h).


Fraxinus pennsylvanica; red ash, green ash. '87 AC, '95 PM (h).


Circaea lutetiana; enchanter's nightshade. '95 PM, '00 TS (h). Upland woods.

Epilobium cf. coloratum; willow-herb. '95 PM. Wetlands.

Oenothera cf. biennis; common evening primrose. '89 MM, '00 TS (h). Young prairie restorations.


Orchis spectabilis; showy orchis. '92 DH, '95 PM. Trail north of Kettlehole Marsh.


Oxalis cf. dillenii; gray-green wood sorrel. '89 MM. Hillside Prairie.

Oxalis stricta; yellow wood sorrel. '92 DH, '95 PM (h).


Sanguinaria canadensis; bloodroot. '89 MM, '92 DH (h).


Plantago major*; common plantain. '95 MM (h). South 1990 Field.

Plantago rugelii; American plantain. '89 MM, '95 PM.


Agrostis gigantea*; redtop. '95 MM. 1991 Field.

Andropogon gerardii; big bluestem. '89 CL (h). Postage Stamp Prairie; Hillside Prairie (planted).

Bouteloua curtipendula; side-oats grama. '88 MM, '89 CL (h). RR track, Postage Stamp Prairie; Hillside Prairie (planted).

Bouteloua hirsuta; hairy gramma. Herbarium specimen from 1997. Wright Savannah.

Brachyelytrum erectum; shorthusk. '87 MM. Near Spring Creek, Upper Arb.

Bromus inermis*; smooth brome. '89 MM (h). Frequently planted as a monoculture, spreads from cultivation.

Bromus cf. japonicus*; Japanese brome, Japanese chess. '95 MM. South 1990 Field.

Bromus kalmii; Kalm's brome. '90 MM (h). Postage Stamp Prairie (planted as seedlings into Okada Garden).

Bromus latiglumis. '88 MM. RR track, South 1990 Field.

Bromus pubescens; Canada brome. '95 MM (h). In open woods south of Sand Hill.

Calamagrostis canadensis; bluejoint. '92 CU. Kettlehole Marsh.

Cenchrus longispinus; sandbur. '90 MM (h). Hillside Prairie.

Dactylis glomerata*; orchard grass. '89 MM. Postage Stamp Prairie.

Digitaria ischaemum*; smooth crabgrass. '90 MM.

Digitaria sanguinalis*; hairy crabgrass. '89 MM.

Echinochloa cf. muricata; barnyard grass. '95 PM. Wetlands.

Elymus cf. canadensis; Canada wild rye. '89 CL (h). Hillside Prairie (planted).

Elymus hystrix; bottlebrush grass. '95 MM (h). Woods between 1991 and 1992 Fields.

Elymus virginicus; Virginia wild rye. '95 MM. Open, upland woods; old fields.

Elytrigia repens*; quackgrass. '89 CL (h).

Eragrostis cilianensis*; stinkgrass. '89 MM. Hillside Prairie.

Eragrostis pectinacea; Carolina lovegrass. '89 MM (h). Postage Stamp Prairie.

Eriochloa villosa; Chinese cup-grass. '95 PM (h).

Festuca subverticillata; nodding fescue. '89 MM (h). Best Woods.

Festuca cf. trachphylla*; hard fescue. '95 MM (h). Sand Hill.

Glyceria grandis; tall mannagrass, American mannagrass. '92 MM, '92 CU, '95 PM. Kettlehole Marsh, southernmost section of South 1990 Field, near cattle-pass entrance.

Hordeum jubatum; foxtail barley, squirrel-tail grass. '95 PM, '95 MM (h). South 1990 Field.

Koeleria pyramidata; Junegrass. '90 MM. Hillside Prairie (planted).

Leersia oryzoides; rice cutgrass. '92 CU, '95 PM. Kettlehole Marsh, Railroad Ponds.

Muhlenbergia cuspidata; plains muhly. '89 MM. Postage Stamp Prairie.

Muhlenbergia cf. racemosa; marsh muhly. '89 MM. Postage Stamp Prairie.

Panicum capillare; common witchgrass. '89 MM. Postage Stamp Prairie; Hillside Prairie.

Panicum oligosanthes. '89 MM. Postage Stamp Prairie; RR tracks; southeast of Best Woods (J16), Hillside Prairie (planted?).

Panicum cf. villosissimum. '95 MM. Sand Hill.

Panicum virgatum; switchgrass. '88 MM, '89 CL. RR track, Hillside Prairie (planted); several fields in the Upper Arb were planted in switchgrass and are essentially monocultures.

Phalaris arundinacea; reed canary grass. '92 CU, '95 PM (h). Abundant in open wet areas.

Phleum pratense*; timothy. '89 MM (h). Hillside Prairie.

Poa compressa*; Canada bluegrass. '89 MM. Postage Stamp Prairie.

Poa palustris; fowl meadowgrass, fowl bluegrass. '92 MM. South 1990 Field.

Poa pratensis (apparently both native and non-native forms occur in our range); Kentucky bluegrass. '89 CL (h). Common to abundant, often planted.

Schizachyrium scoparium; little bluestem. '89 CL. Postage Stamp Prairie; Hillside Prairie (planted).

Setaria faberi*; Chinese foxtail, giant foxtail. '90 MM. Postage Stamp Prairie.

Setaria glauca*; yellow foxtail. '90 MM.

Setaria viridis*; green foxtail. '89 MM.

Sorghastrum nutans; Indian grass. '88 MM, '89 CL (h). RR track, Postage Stamp Prairie; Hillside Prairie (planted).

Spartina pectinata; prairie cordgrass. '88 MM. RR track.

Sphenopholis obtusata; prairie wedgegrass. '95 MM. 1991 Field.

Sporobolus heterolepis; prairie dropseed, northern dropseed. '90 MM. Postage Stamp Prairie; Hillside Prairie (planted).

Stipa spartea; porcupine grass. '89 CL. Postage Stamp Prairie; Hillside Prairie (planted).


Phlox divaricata; blue phlox. '92 DH (h). Common, along trails and in woods.

Phlox pilosa; prairie phlox. '89 CL, '95 PM (h). Hillside Prairie (planted); Turnaround at Postage Stamp Prairie (planted); Oak Savanna (planted?).


Polygala senega; Seneca snakeroot. '92 MM, '95 PM (h). Turnaround at Postage Stamp Prairie (planted), southeast of Best Woods (J16).


Polygonum convolvulus; black bindweed. '90 MM. Hillside Prairie.

Polygonum persicaria*; lady's thumb. '90 HP, '95 PM (h). Old fields, Hillside Prairie.

Polygonum pensylvanicum; pinkweed, Pennsylvania smartweed. '92 MM, '00 TS (h). South 1990 Field.

Polygonum scandens; false buckwheat. '99 PTI (h). Both native and non-native forms occur in our range.

Rumex acetosella*; sheep sorrel. '95 PM (h).

Rumex crispus*; curly dock. '89 MM.

Rumex orbiculatus; great water dock. '92 CU. Kettlehole Marsh.


Claytonia virginica; spring beauty. '94 PM (h). Lyman Lakes Entrance, probably planted.

Portulaca oleracea*; common purslane. '89 MM. Hillside Prairie.


Lysimachia ciliata; fringed loosestrife. '95 PM (h). RR tracks; Oak Savanna; floodplain.

Lysimachia nummularia*; creeping loosestrife, moneywort. '95 PM (h). Floodplain old fields.

Lysimachia thyrsiflora; tufted loosestrife. '92 CU, '95 PM (h). Kettlehole Marsh.


Actaea rubra; red baneberry. '95 PM (h). Woods.

Anemone acutiloba; acute-leaved hepatica, liverleaf. Herbarium specimens from floodplain forest.

Anemone canadensis; Canada anemone. '95 PM (h). Various open areas, Hillside Prairie.

Anemone cylindrica; thimbleweed. '89 CL, '95 PM. Postage Stamp Prairie; RR tracks; Hillside Prairie (planted).

Anemone quinquefolia; wood anemone. '92 DH (h).

Aquilegia canadensis; columbine. '89 CL (h).

Caltha palustris; marsh marigold. '95 PM (h). Cole Wetland. A single plant known before restoration began; many others planted.

Clematis virginiana; virgin's bower. '90 MM (h). Postage Stamp Prairie, open areas.

Delphinium carolinianum; prairie larkspur. '89 MM. Postage Stamp Prairie; Hillside Prairie (planted).

Enemion biternatum; false rue anemone. '92 DH (h). Woods.

Ranunculus abortivus; early wood buttercup, kidneyleaf buttercup, small-flowered crowfoot. '92 DH (h).

Ranunculus gmelinii; yellow water-crowfoot. Herbarium specimen from 1992. Kettlehole marsh.

Ranunculus hispidus; swamp buttercup, bristly buttercup, marsh buttercup. '92 DH, '94 PM (h). Floodplain.

Ranunculus cf. pensylvanicus; bristly crowfoot. '95 PM (h). Edge of ponds.

Ranunculus recurvatus; hooked crowfoot. Herbarium specimen from 1994.

Ranunculus rhomboideus; prairie buttercup. Herbarium specimen from 1955.

Ranunculus sceleratus (both native and non-native forms in our range); cursed crowfoot. '95 PM. Edge of ponds.

Thalictrum dasycarpum; tall meadow rue, purple meadow rue. '95 PM. Oak Savanna, wet areas.

Thalictrum dioicum; early meadow rue, quicksilver weed. '92 DH, '95 PM.


Ceanothus americanus; New Jersey tea, redroot. '95 PM (h). RR tracks; Oak Savanna. Rare.

Rhamnus cathartica*; buckthorn. '87 AC (h). Abundant, especially in degraded oak woods.

Rhamnus frangula*; alder buckthorn. '95 PM (h). Along Cannon River at the northern end of South 1990 Field.


Agrimonia cf. gryposepala; agrimony. '95 PM. Upland woods.

Fragaria virginiana; thick-leaved wild strawberry. Several herbarium specimens from the 1990s.

Geum aleppicum; yellow avens. '95 PM (h). 1991 Field.

Geum canadense; white avens. '89 MM, '95 PM.

Geum triflorum; prairie smoke, purple avens, torchflower, maidenhair. '89 CL (h). Postage Stamp Prairie.

Physocarpus opulifolius; ninebark. '95 PM (h). RR tracks, 1970 Field.

Potentilla arguta; tall cinquefoil, rough-leaved cinquefoil. '89 MM. Hillside Prairie (planted).

Potentilla cf. norvegica; strawberry weed, Norwegian cinquefoil. '95 PM (h). South 1990 Field.

Potentilla palustris; marsh cinquefoil, marsh potentilla. '92 CU, '95 PM (h). Kettlehole Marsh.

Potentilla recta*; sulphur five-finger, sulphur cinquefoil. '89 CL. Postage Stamp Prairie.

Prunus americana; wild plum. '87 AC, '95 PM (h). Edges, open areas.

Prunus cf. pensylvanica; pin-cherry. '92 MM (h). Fencerow along Canada Avenue, north of Women's League cabin.

Prunus serotina; black cherry. '87 AC, '95 PM (h). Scattered in upland woods, especially early in succession.

Prunus cf. tomentosa; a cultivar. '95 PM (h). Spreading from cultivation; near Farm House and a few in the Lower Arb.

Prunus virginiana; chokecherry. '87 AC, '95 PM (h). Abundant in upland woods.

Rosa sp.; rose. '89 MM. Hillside Prairie (planted).

Rosa cf. blanda. '95 PM (h). Upper Arb.

Rubus cf. allegheniensis; common blackberry. '95 PM.

Rubus cf. flagellaris; eastern dewberry, northern dewberry. '87 AC.

Rubus occidentalis; black raspberry. '87 AC, '92 DH, '95 PM (h).


Galium aparine; cleavers, catchweed bedstraw. '89 MM, '92 DH, '95 PM (h).

Galium boreale; northern bedstraw. '92 DH, '95 PM (h). Oak Savanna, RR tracks.

Galium concinnum; shining bedstraw. '95 PM (h). 1991 Field.

Galium tinctorium; southern three-lobed bedstraw. '95 PM. Kettlehole Marsh.

Galium trifidum; small bedstraw, northern three-lobed bedstraw. '92 CU, '95 PM. Kettlehole Marsh.

Galium triflorum; sweet-scented bedstraw. '89 MM. Postage Stamp Prairie.

Hedyotis longifolia. '97 PM (h). Cole Wetland.


Zanthoxylum americanum; common prickly ash, northern prickly ash, toothache tree. '87 AC, '92 DH (h).


Populus deltoides; eastern cottonwood. '99 TS (h). Common in floodplain forest.

Populus tremuloides; quaking aspen. '97 PM, '99 TS (h). Upland forest.

Salix cf. amygadaloides; peachleaf willow. '95 PM. Floodplain.

Salix cf. discolor; pussy willow. '95 PM (h). Kettlehole Marsh.

Salix cf. eriocephala; heart-leaved willow, diamond willow, Missouri willow. '92 DH.

Salix cf. nigra; black willow. '95 PM (h). Floodplain.


Comandra umbellata; bastard toadflax. '95 PM (h). RR tracks.


Heuchera richardsonii; prairie alumroot. '89 MM, '95 PM (h). Hillside Prairie (planted); Okada Garden (planted).

Penthorum sedoides. '00 TS. Kettlehole Marsh.


Besseya bullii, kittentail. '95 PM. RR tracks; one individual known!

Castilleja cf. sessiliflora; downy paintbrush, downy painted cup. '95 PM (h). Postage Stamp Prairie; Turnaround (planted?).

Chelone glabra; turtlehead. '00 TS (h). Cole Wetland (planted).

Linaria vulgaris*; butter-and-eggs. '89 CL, '95 PM (h).

Lindernia dubia; false pimpernel. '95 PM (h). Banks of the Cannon River.

Mimulus ringens; Allegheny monkey-flower. '92 MM, '95 PM. South 1990 Field, floodplain.

Penstemon grandiflorus; large beardtongue. '89 MM (h). Hillside Prairie (planted).

Scrophularia lanceolata; figwort. '95 PM (h). RR tracks, Wright Savanna (endemic?).

Scrophularia marilandica; figwort, carpenter's square. '95 PM. Floodplain.

Verbascum thapsus*; common mullein. '89 CL (h). Disturbed, open sites.

Veronica anagallis-aquatica*; water speedwell. '95 PM. Pond near RR tracks.

Veronica cf. serpyllifolia (both native and non-native forms occur); thyme-leaved speedwell. '95 PM (h). Disturbed areas.

Veronicastrum virginicum; Culver's root. '89 MM, '95 PM, '00 TS (h). RR tracks, Oak Savanna, Hillside Prairie (planted).


Smilax herbacea; greenbrier, catbrier. '95 PM. Thickets; along Spring Creek and the RR tracks.

Smilax tamnoides; greenbrier, catbrier. '95 PM, '95 MM. Best Woods and other upland forests.


Physalis heterophylla; clammy ground cherry. '89 MM (h). Hillside Prairie (possibly planted?).

Physalis virginiana; Virginia ground cherry. '89 MM, '95 PM (h). Postage Stamp Prairie, Sand Hill (?).

Solanum dulcamara*; climbing nightshade, bittersweet. '95 PM (h).

Solanum nigrum; black nightshade. '95 PM, '99 PTI (h). Oak Savanna, old fields.


Staphylea trifolia; bladdernut. '88 MM, '00 TS (h). Best Woods; K17, north of path.


Tilia americana; American linden, basswood. '92 DH, '00 TS (h). Common tree of upland forest.


Typha angustifolia; narrow-leaved cat-tail. '00 TS (h). Cole Wetland (probably planted).

Typha latifolia; broad-leaved cat-tail. '92 CU. Kettlehole Marsh.

ULMACEAE (fide FNA1997)

Celtis occidentalis; hackberry. '87 AC, '95 PM (h). Common in upland forests, also present in floodplain.

Ulmus americana; American elm, white elm. '87 AC, '95 PM (h). Upland and lowland forests, reduced in numbers in recent decades by Dutch Elm disease

Ulmus pumila*; Siberian elm. '87 AC, '95 PM. Spreading from cultivation, becoming a weed in some open areas.

Ulmus rubra; slippery elm, red elm. '87 AC, '95 PM (h). Upland and lowland forests.


Boehmeria cylindrica; bog-hemp, false nettle. '95 PM. Kettlehole Marsh.

Laportea canadensis; wood nettle. '92 DH (h). Abundant in floodplain forests.

Pilea sp.; clearweed. '95 PM. Wet areas.

Urtica dioica; stinging nettle. '89 MM, '92 DH (h). Common.


Phryma leptostachya; lopseed. '89 MM (h).

Verbena bracteata; creeping vervain, prostrate vervain. '89 MM (h). Postage Stamp Prairie; Hillside Prairie.

Verbena hastata; common vervain, blue vervain. '95 PM (h). South 1990 Field.

Verbena stricta; hoary vervain. '89 MM. Hillside Prairie (planted).

Verbena urticifolia; white vervain, nettle-leaved vervain. '95 PM. Open, somewhat disturbed areas.


Viola canadensis; tall white violet, Canada violet. '92 DH, '94 PM (h). Lyman Lakes Entrance.

Viola pubescens; yellow forest violet. '92 DH, '95 PM (h). Along Spring Creek.

Viola sororia; sister violet, downy blue violet, dooryard violet. '89 MM, '92 DH (h).


Parthenocissus quinquefolia; virginia creeper. '00 TS (h). Very common in wooded areas.

Vitis riparia; river-bank grape, frost grape. '87 AC, '92 DH, '95 PM (h).


This list comprises species that potentially may be found in the arboretum. In some instances the species is known only from herbarium sheets more than fifty years old. In others precise identification has been difficult.


Sagittaria cf. cuneata; northern arrow-head. '00 TS(h). Pond on floodplain northwest of Cannon River. Identification difficult.


Antennaria neglecta; field pussytoes. Herbarium specimen from 1928. Antennaria identification difficult.

Antennaria plantaginifolia; plantain pussytoes. Herbarium specimen from 1928.

Aster cf. cordifolius; common blue heart-leaved aster. PTI 1999. Aster identification difficult.

Aster dumosus; long-stalked aster. Herbarium specimen from 1947.

Aster cf. hesperius; western lined aster. PTI 1999.

Aster cf. puniceus; bristly aster. '00 TS.

Cichorium intybus; chicory. Herbarium specimen from 1948.

Eupatorium maculatum; spotted joe-pye weed. Herbarium specimen from 1938 from RR tracks.

Helenium autumnale; common sneezeweed. Herbarium specimen from 1947.

Taraxacum laevigatum; red-seeded dandelion. Herbarium specimen from 1940.


Cynoglossum officinale*; hound's tongue. '34 HS; not seen since (h). RR tracks.


Arabis laevigata; smooth rock cress. Herbarium specimen from 1943.

Cardamine rhomboidea; spring-cress. Herbarium specimen from 1940.

Lepidium virginicum; wild peppergrass. Herbarium specimen from 1922.

cf. Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum*; watercress. '95 PM.


Triosteum perfoliatum; horse gentian, Indian coffee. Herbarium specimen from 1938 from RR tracks.


Tradescantia cf. occidentalis; prairie spiderwort. Herbarium specimen from 1940 from RR tracks. Tradescantia identification difficult.


Corydalis aurea; golden corydalis. Herbarium specimen from 1940.


Allium cernuum; nodding onion. Herbarium specimen from 1938 from RR tracks.

Trillium grandiflorum; big white trillium. Herbarium specimen from 1940.


Fraxinus cf. nigra; black ash. '00 TS (h). Best Woods.


Gaura cf. coccinea; scarlet gaura. '31 HS. RR tracks, not seen since 1931 and presumed extirpated.


Bromus tectorum; Junegrass, downy chess. Herbarium specimen from 1940.


Phlox paniculata; summer-phlox. Herbarium specimen from 1938 from RR tracks.


Rumex obtusifolius; bitter dock. Herbarium specimen from 1941.


cf. Dodecatheon meadia; eastern shooting star. Herbarium specimen from 1955.

Lysimachia terrestris; bulbil-loosestrife. Herbarium specimen from 1940.


Chimaphila umbellata; prince's pine; pipsissewa. Herbarium specimen from 1940.


Anemone virginiana; tall anemone. Herbarium specimen from 1943.

cf. Thalictrum thalictroides; rue-anemone. Herbarium specimen from 1953.


Fragaria vesca; thin-leaved wild strawberry. Herbarium specimen from 1940.

Pyrus ioensis; prairie crab-apple. Herbarium specimen from 1940.


Salix alba*; white willow. Herbarium specimen from 1940.


Chelone glabra; white turtlehead. Herbarium specimen from 1940.


Viola cucullata; blue marsh-violet. Herbarium specimen from 1943.

Viola pedata; bird's-foot violet. Herbarium specimen from 1940.

Viola sagittata; arrowhead-violet. Herbarium specimen from 1940.


This list comprises non-native species planted in the arboretum and not spreading from seed. Many of these were planted by Harvey Stork, Carleton botany professor between 1920-1955. Many of these plants are found in Stork Forest, along the paved trail through the Upper Arb, and in the area surrounding the tennis courts in the Lower Arb.


Larix sp.; larch, tamarack. '95 PM. Planted.

Picea glauca; white spruce. '96 PM. Planted.


Acer platanoides*; Norway maple. MM (h). Some apparently planted in Stork Forest.

Acer rubrum, red maple. '95 PM (h). Some planted near Lyman Lakes Entrance, not clear if any endemic plants.


Rhus typhina; staghorn sumac. '87 AC, '95 PM. Near Lyman Lakes entrance, possibly planted there.

BETULACEAE (fide FNA 1997)

Betula alleghaniensis; yellow birch. '87 AC. A few planted trees on the southeast border of the 1970 Field.

Betula papyrifera; paper birch. '95 PM. Planted; in the Upper Arb along Spring Creek.


Gymnocladus dioica; Kentucky coffee-tree. '87 AC, '95 PM. Near Lower Arb tennis courts (planted).


Viburnum cf. lantana*; wayfaring tree. '95 PM (h). Edge of Cole Wetland and Bell Field; probably planted.


Eleagnus angustifolia*; Russian olive (h).


Caragana arborescens*; pea tree. '95 PM (h). Probably all planted.


Ginkgo biloba*; ginkgo.


Philadelphus cf. inodorus; Appalachian mock-orange. '95 PM. Lyman Lakes Entrance. Planted.


Forsythia sp. (cultivar). '94 PM. Lyman Lakes Entrance. Planted.


Oenothera cf. clelandii. '00 TS. 2000 prairie.


Sorbaria sorbifolia*; false spiraea. '95 PM. Cultivar, planted near Wright Savanna.


Ptelea trifoliata; hop-tree, water-ash. '95 PM (h). Planted near Lyman Lakes entrance and Lower Lyman Lake.


Populus grandidentata; big-toothed aspen. '87 AC, '95 PM (h). Upper Arb near Postage Stamp Prairie; possibly planted there.

APPENDIX: key to entries.

The term "cf." (from the Latin confer) is used to indicate some doubt about the identification. So "Helianthus cf. giganteus" would mean that identification to the genus Helianthus is clear, but there was some difficulty in assigning the plant to the species H. giganteus.

The symbol "*" after a species name indicates a species not native to North America. Some native species are only known from hand-planted individuals and are indicated as "planted". Otherwise populations of native plants are assumed to be endemic to the Arb.

The symbol "(h)" after the list of collectors indicates that there is a specimen from the Arb in the Carleton College herbarium. The herbarium is located on the first floor of Hulings Hall and is maintained by the biology department.

Common names are generally taken from Gleason and Cronquist (1991), Ownbey and Morley (1991), or Great Plains Flora Association (1986).


AC: Alice Cascorbi (Class of '88) Worked in summer of 1987 on the woody plants. Used field guides and Gleason and Cronquist (1963).

DH: David Heiser (Class of '92). Worked in the spring of 1992, mostly using Gleason and Cronquist (1991).

JH: Jeremy Hayward (Class of 2009).

CL: Chris Lund (Class of '90). Worked mostly in the summer of 1989. ID usually from Great Plains Flora Association (1986) or by field experience.

MM: Mark McKone, Biology. Worked sporadically from 1987 to present. ID from Gleason and Cronquist (1991), Great Plains Flora Association (1986) and field experience.

PM: Pat McIntyre (Class of '97). Hired to work on the Arb flora full time during the summers of 1995 and 1996; supported by the Cole Fund.

HP: Holly Pearson (Class of '91). Worked mostly in 1990. ID from Great Plains Flora Association (1986) or by field experience.

TS: Ted Salk (Class of '01). Worked during 2000. ID from Gleason and Cronquist (1991), Chadde (1998) and Flora of North America.

HS: Professor Harvey Stork, Botany Department, Carleton College, 1920-1955. Some records from his herbarium collections, mostly in the 1930's.

CU: Charles Umbanhowar, Jr. (Class of '85), Biology Department, St. Olaf College. Sampled Kettlehole Marsh in July 1992 as part of a survey of local wetlands, helped with Carex identification.


These are places mentioned in the entries, though not an exhaustive list. Locations are coordinates on the Arboretum map.

Alumni Field is in the southeast corner of the Upper Arb (H3-4 and I3-4). This was removed from agriculture and planted to brome in 1986. Trees have been planted here in various years starting in 1990.

Best Woods is so named because it is the best example of mature upland forest in the Arb. The northern part (around K17) is older than the more successional southern part (K16).

Cole Wetland is a restoration in the Upper Arb (G5, N5) made possible by the Richard S. Cole Memorial fund. Almost all species there are planted, most in 1995.

The Dike Trail runs north along the section line between the 1970 and 1982 Fields in the floodplain forest of the Lower Arb (between I15-17 and J15-17).

Hillside Prairie is completely restored, so contains few (any?) endemic populations of prairie plants. It should be assumed that native prairie species at Hillside were planted, many from seeds or seedlings from Prairie Restorations. Planting began in 1979 and continued through 1990.

Kettlehole Marsh is in J12-13. The southern portion of the marsh is outside the Arb boundary.

Lobe Remnant is a small and quite disturbed prairie remnant in the Upper Arb (H4), just south of the open area known as the old Faculty Picnic Grounds.

Lyman Lakes Entrance. The Arb entrance and area along Spring Creek from Lyman Lakes to the Cannon River. This area has a number of planted exotic species, and some of the native species may be planted as well.

Old Fields in the Lower Arb are designated by the first year that the field was not in agriculture (e.g., 1992 Field). Most fields were disked in the spring of the year they were abandoned. Some have had little or no planting (both North and South 1990 Fields, 1991 Field, 1992 Field) and others have had large numbers of trees planted (1972 Field, 1993 Field).

Old Organic Garden (northeast H4, Upper Arb) has been abandoned for many years, but there are still a few garden plants growing there..

Postage Stamp Prairie is a native prairie remnant, but has been expanded to a much larger area with restorations in 1989 ("Turnaround", previously a paved area), 1990 ("Okada Garden"), and 1992 ("Wright Savanna"). References in the list to Postage Stamp Prairie are from the original remnant, and are probably endemic populations. Known introductions to Postage Stamp Prairie are noted as such.

The Prairie Restorations occupy a large section of the Lower Arb from I14 through G-I9. They are split into several fields named after the first growing season after they were removed from cultivation. A new field has been added every year since 1995, and this will continue through approximately 2007. Most plants were planted there from seed collected at local prairie remnants.

The two Railroad Ponds are along the railroad tracks on the western boundary of the Arb in C9 and D-E10.

The Retention Pond (D-E7) was created in 1999 to control run-off from the Recreation Center. It was extensively planted with native floodplain meadow plants.

Riverbend Wetland is an area that ranges from almost-permanent water to seasonally flooded low areas. It includes parts of the 1990 Field in F11-12, and the northwest corner of G11.

RR tracks run along the entire northeast boundary of the Lower Arb. Though the area is highly disturbed, there are a number of remnant populations of prairie plants found along the tracks.

Sand Hill is a small, disturbed sandy hill in the Upper Arb (I5) that has a disti