All Highlighted Student Scholarship

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Alexander, Margaret '12

Recombination Junction Cleaving Enzymes and Their Role in Mitochondrial DNA Maintenance

Homologous recombination results in a four-way DNA junction that must be cleaved by a resolvase enzyme before cell division can occur. One of these enzymes has been identified in the yeast S. cerevisiae, and has been termed cruciform-cutting enzyme (CCE1). Deletion of the CCE1 gene results in an increased fraction of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecules that are linked together by recombination junctions resulting in loss of mtDNA during cell division. Recently, a homolog to the CCE1 protein has been identified in S. pombe (a distantly related species of yeast). This gene product, termed YDC2, has only limited homology to the CCE1 protein. However, our experiments indicate that increased expression of CCE1, YDC2, or an YDC2 mutant that can bind, but not cleave, recombination junctions leads to mtDNA loss in S. cerevisiae. These results suggest that the CCE1 and YDC2 proteins share a functional homology for recognizing recombination junctions.

This work was supervised by Stephan Zweifel

Alster, Charlotte '12

Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Accumulation in a 15-Year Prairie Restoration Experiment

Prairie restoration following agricultural abandonment can lead to the accumulation of soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N). Understanding the rate and patterns of C and N accumulation is important for determining how quickly these systems recover from agriculture and the capacity for restored prairies to act as a carbon sink. Studies on the dynamics of C and N accumulation following prairie restoration from agriculture are generally based on chronosequence studies. However, few studies have compared the results of using a chronosequence to direct measures of accumulation over time. We present the results of a 15-year study to determine the rate of C and N accumulation in restored tallgrass prairies in the Cowling Arboretum of Carleton College, Northfield, Minnesota, USA. Restored prairies were established annually from 1995-2007. In 2000 and again in 2010, we sampled for soil C and N content at different soil depths. Soil cores were taken from 12 permanent plots in each field and pooled to determine average C and N content for each restoration age. In 2000 we sampled both restored prairies and those planning to be restored, but at the time still in agriculture. Thus, we are able to determine both the effects of prairie age using the chronosequence of restored fields as well as the change in pool sizes within a specific location over time. In both 2000 and 2010, there was no effect of field age across the chronosequence on C and N pools at any either 0-10 or 10-20 cm soil depth. However, when we compared the accumulation C and N in each field over time there was a significant positive effect of field age on N content (p = 0.037; r2 = 0.61) and a marginally significant positive effect on C content (p = 0.109; r2 = 0.217) at the 0-10 cm depth. Furthermore, C accumulation rate (g C m-2 y-1) increased with the number of years between sampling dates that a field was planted in prairie (p <0.001; r2 = 0.80). Our findings suggest that both soil C and N content increases significantly with prairie age, even in the early stages of successional development and that chronosequence studies may not accurately capture C and N accumulation in restored tallgrass prairie ecosystems.

This work was supervised by Daniel Hernandez

Amaefuna, Steve '12

Novel therapies for drug resistance in chronic myeloid leukemia

The uncontrolled kinase activity of the oncogenic protein Bcr-Abl is a hallmark of Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML). Although the drug imtanib is highly effective at shutting down aberrant Abl kinase activity, some CML patients harbor additional mutations in their bcr-abl gene that renders their gene product, the Bcr-Abl protein, resistant to this drug. Since second generation Abl kinase inhibitors such as dasatinib are effective only against particular resistant mutant proteins, new targeted agents are needed to combat drug resistance. Two combi-inhibitors ZRF1 and ZRF2, which block Bcr-Abl activity and damage DNA in the cell, have been shown to be more potent than imatinib in cellular assays. Because ZRF1 is hydrolyzed in the cell to ZRF0, an imatinib analog, we wondered why it was so much more potent. To determine whether ZRF1/2s' increased potency was due to the DNA damaging agent attached to the parent compounds, we sought to co-crystallize the Abl kinase domain with these two inhibitors.

This work was supervised by Nidanie Henderson

Anderson, Ben '12

A Modified Loehr-Warrington Map on Partitions

Loehr and Warrington produced an involution on partitions that gives a combinatorial proof of the equidistribution of certain partition statistics. By performing their involution on each critical rational in turn, one can extend it to a bijection on partitions. This bijection often turns out to be the conjugate bijection, but not always. In this project, we exploited a symmetry property of their involution to construct a modified involution that always extends to the conjugate bijection.

This work was supervised by Eric Egge

Cerjan, Ben '12

Creation of Integrated Optofluidic Devices

This project is working toward creating integrated optofluidic devices, or centimeter scale devices, out of photo-sensitive polymer. These devices are a burgenoning field, with applications from blood sugar testing to computer memory storage. Ben worked to characterize the optical properties of the cured polymer, mainly be measuring its index of refraction.

This work was supervised by Marty Baylor

Chael, Andrew '13

Weaving an Effective Web of Writing Center Relationships at Small Liberal Arts Colleges

This project studies the importance of good relationships between different constituencies in a liberal arts college for the success of its writing center. It looks at the different ways in which writing is defined and understood, and the tensions that arise as a result. It asks the questions of "What is writing? Who owns writing? What does it mean to be a good writer?" and seeks to find a balance between the various competing answers, in order that writing center staff might best serve the needs of all parties - professors and students alike.

Presented at the Midwest Writing Centers Association conference

This work was supervised by Kathy Evertz

Cvitkovic, Milan '13

Asymmetric Organocatalytic Synthesis

Organocatalysis is an emerging and versatile strategy in synthetic chemistry which uses small, organic molecules to enable difficult chemical transformations. Our research group is currently pursuing two projects, both of which focus on designing organocatalytic methods to create useful asymmetric molecules out of biorenewable starting materials. Milan assisted professors Gretchen Hofmeister and David Alberg at all levels of the project, from research to experimental design to synthesis and lab-work.

This work was supervised by Gretchen Hofmeister and David Alberg

Deeg, Katie '12

CO2 Preferential Adsorption Sites in MFI-Type Zeolites

This project studied CO2 adsorption in zeolites, silicon-based crystalline materials. Empty space in the zeolite crystal framework allows CO2 molecules to adsorb (adhere) to its attractive surface. This makes zeolites ideal for separating CO2 from other gases, which could be applied to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Substituted aluminum atoms in the framework of zeolites and accompanying mobile, metallic cations drastically change adsorption of small alkanes in zeolites, but their effect on CO2 adsorption has not been studied extensively. Understanding on a molecular level how location and number of aluminum substitutions and cations affect the adsorption of CO2 could aid in the search for more useful zeolites. Using atomistic simulations of CO2 adsorption in MFI-type zeolites, we found that cations change the location and increase the number of preferential CO2 adsorption sites. Evenly spaced cations and low CO2 loading maximize the number of preferential sites in straight channels.

This work was supervised by Daniela Kohen

Dhakal, Prasit '12

Dirichlet Process Prior in a Catch-Effort Hierarchical Model for Animal Abundance

The Dirichlet Process Prior (DPP) in Bayesian Statistics offers useful insight in studying animal abundance if heterogeneity of animal abundance has been unobserved. We used DPP to add to a previous statistical model that estimated animal abundance.

This work was supervised by Katie St. Clair

Duggins, Peter '13

Non-Monotonic Behavior of the Lyapunov Exponent in the Quantum-Classical Transition

Chaos, a property of certain dynamical systems, is defined as extreme sensitivity to initial conditions -- as the system evolves, a small initial separation between trajectories becomes exponentially larger in time. In this project, we investigated how chaotic behavior is affected as a system transitions in size from that described by classical mechanics to that described by quantum mechanics. Specifically, we calculate the Lyapunov Exponent, a measure of chaos describing a system's sensitivity to initial conditions, as we make the system size smaller and smaller (go deeper into the quantum regime). We find that for a specific system, the damped driven double-well Duffing oscillator, there is a non-monotonic change in the degree of chaos in the quantum-classical transition. This novel result indicates that systems in an intermediate regime can display unique behavior not found in the limiting cases.

Published in Physical Review.

This work was supervised by Arjendu Pattanayak

Duncan, Anne '13

The Bacterial Wilt Pathogen, Ralstonia Solanacearum: Effector Proteins and Plant Root Responses

Ralstonia solanacearum is a root-invading phytopathogen that causes bacterial wilt, a devastating disease that affects hundreds of plant species including tomato and potato on a worldwide scale. There is a complex interplay between bacterial virulence strategies and plant defense mechanisms in the progression of the plant disease. Our lab focuses on bacterial proteins, called effector proteins, and the plant root response against them. Over the summer, Anne and Nana Tanamoto worked on cloning the effector genes and developing a method for tomato root transformation to express the cloned effector in planta for GFP localization studies. In future, this project will also look at tomato gene expression level analysis to better understand the interaction of Ralstonia and its host plant.

This work was supervised by Raka Mitra

Einstein, Michael '12

Examining the Pathogenesis of Ralstonia Solanacearum

The bacterial wilt pathogen, Ralstonia Solanacearum, infects hundreds of different plant species, resulting in millions of dollars of crop loss worldwide. A genomic-scale strategy was used to identify putative bacterial effector proteins which are translocated into plant root cells and essential for virulence. Once identified, effector protein genes were fused to the fluorescent reporter GFP. Transformed Medicago truncatula roots were examined with fluorescent confocal microscopy to determine effector subcellar localization, providing information about effector function. Most notably, PopP2, an effector protein that putatively interacts with transcription factors to activate plant immune response, was found to localize to the nucleus. However, further studies need to be conducted in solanaceous plant species, such as tomato, in order to assess effector function in a natural host.

This work was supervised by Raka Mitra

Epping, Madeline '13

Determination of Phylogenetic Position and the Role of Xanthine Dehydrogenase in Sceloporus Lizards

This project was designed to offer a genetic explanation for the differing pigmentation and behavioral patterns of the Sceloporus lizards. We examined the role of the Xanthine Dehydrogenase gene as a potential site of variation between the morphs. We also worked to determine the phylogenetic position of our population in the recently updated tree of the Sceloporus lizards. Madeline collected DNA samples and amplified them for sequencing.

This work was supervised by Matt Rand

Finke, Cody '12

Recombination Junction Cleaving Enzymes and Their Role in Mitochondrial DNA Maintenance

Homologous recombination results in a four-way DNA junction that must be cleaved by a resolvase enzyme before cell division can occur. One of these enzymes has been identified in the yeast S. cerevisiae, and has been termed cruciform-cutting enzyme (CCE1). Deletion of the CCE1 gene results in an increased fraction of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecules that are linked together by recombination junctions resulting in loss of mtDNA during cell division. Recently, a homolog to the CCE1 protein has been identified in S. pombe (a distantly related species of yeast). This gene product, termed YDC2, has only limited homology to the CCE1 protein. However, our experiments indicate that increased expression of CCE1, YDC2, or an YDC2 mutant that can bind, but not cleave, recombination junctions leads to mtDNA loss in S. cerevisiae. These results suggest that the CCE1 and YDC2 proteins share a functional homology for recognizing recombination junctions.

This work was supervised by Stephan Zweifel

France, Katherine '12

Investigating the Mechanism of Action of Human Mitochondrial Alanyl-tRNA Synthetase

This project studied the larger question of how the human mitochondrial alanyl-tRNA synthetases attach the amino acid alanine to a tRNA molecule including a codon coding for alanine. This included experiments aimed at investigating the importance of the C-terminal domain in the human mitochondrial synthetase by using both human mitochondrial and E. coli examples of the alanyl-tRNA synthetase. These experiments were perfected from literature examples and used complex formation between the enzyme and substrate as a sign of successful enzyme function. The project also studied the mechanism by which two recently discovered mutations in human mitochondrial alanyl-tRNA synthetases cause fatal cardiomyopathy in infants. Through site-directed mutagenesis, the target mutations were made and their effect on the enzyme's ability to attach amino acids to their tRNA complements were tested. A larger goal of the research was to discover the mechanism of the wildtype synthetase in detail.

This work was supervised by Joe Chihade

French, Holly '13

Towards Self-Healing Networks: Browser-Based Measurement of Video Quality

In our research, we aim to quantify what a "high-quality" video actually is. Once this is accomplished, we hope our research will lead to more effective protocols, video streaming applications, and networks to improve video streaming. Through the use of Dynamic Time Warping to analyze video stream data, we have found that in general, for standard definition video, many of the parameters we tested (frame rate, bandwidth, and bitrate) either alone or in combination performed well. However, making good predictions of quality in high definition video is different - using more parameters (frame rate, bandwidth, and bitrate) in combination yields more accurate results.

Presented at IEEE Int'l Performance, Computing & Communications Conference

This work was supervised by Amy Csizmar Dalal

Gessner, Dylan '12

Examining Public Opinion on America's Changing Political System

This project focused on the evolving American political system since the 1960s. We show that, while America's political system is organized to represent a greater plurality of political views than ever before, the sheer size of government presents itself as a confusing blur to many citizens and thus they choose not to participate in the political process at all. Dylan collected and organized data, performed and interpreted statistical analyses, and created charts to display trends in the data.

Published in America's Dysfunctional Political System.

This work was supervised by Steven Schier

Gick, Jess '13

Visualizing Material History: Using Google Earth and ArcGIS to Create an Interactive Map of Theaters Throughout the Roman Empire

This project consisted of creating an interactive database and map of theaters built throughout the Roman Empire using Google Earth and ArcGIS. Its purpose was to (1) create a visual representation of this aspect of material history and (2) show that faculty and students can collaboratively conduct humanities research. A brief description of each theater was obtained using Frank Sear's book, Roman Theaters: An Archaeological Study. Information was recorded for each theater, including its geographic coordinates, size, and the date it was built, converted into a Roman theater and/or renovated. Often Sear's description of theater location was not precise enough to locate them on Google Earth, which in turn affected their accuracy in ArcGIS. To ensure accuracy, this was solved by cross-referencing information available on several hundred websites. At present, Jess has obtained the geographic coordinates of over 200 theaters in Italy, Greece, France, Spain and the Middle East.

This work was supervised by Chris Polt

Gottesman, Rachel '12

Genetic Control of Flowering in the non-Papilionoid Chamaecrista fasciculata

Chamaecrista fasciculata, a prairie legume, presents itself as a interesting model species based on its phylogenetic position and indicator of climate change. The Singer laboratory sought to unwrap the intricacies of the flowering cascade with respect to temperature, photoperiod, autonomous, and gibberellin related pathways. In addition to genetic analysis, the lab group investigated phenotypic plasticity between ecotypes of multiple field sites not only in Minnesota, but also in Oklahoma and Kansas. Chamaecrista offers a mechanism to understanding the impact of changing temperatures over growing season on the phenotypes of populations. Rachel collected extensive flowering field data at multiple sites and as well as running a rigorous photoperiod experiment. In addition, Rachel investigated the potential role of Flowering Locus T in Chamaecrista flowering pathway.

This work was supervised by Susan Singer

Granowski, Brooke '13

Research on the Religious Thought and Political Context of Marianne Weber (1870-1954)

This project examines the work of Marianne Weber, today remembered as wife of Max Weber but known in her own time as a public intellectual who published nine books and served as a leading voice for women's rights in Germany in the early decades of the twentieth century. Professor Lori Pearson and Brooke Granowski focused on Weber's theories of religion, domination, and emancipation in her works on the history of legal norms concerning women and the family. Brooke Granowski also conducted research on the womens' movement in late-nineteenth-century Germany, particularly in relation to the formation of Germany's new Civil Code of 1900. She also examined definitions of "female culture" in sociological analyses of modernity during this period.

This work was supervised by Lori Pearson

Groeneman, Michael '12

Recommender Systems for Wikipedia Editors

This project examines ways to encourage Wikipedia editors to contribute more content to the encyclopedia. Specifically, we use news articles and sources preferred by a particular editor to recommend relevant Wikipedia articles for editing. Michael studied methods of computerized text matching, built a web-based tool that identifies related Wikipedia articles for a given news source, and helped manage a database containing the full text of every revision of every Wikipedia article ever created.

This work was supervised by Dave Musicant

Hallman, Kevin '12

Non-Monotonic Behavior of the Lyapunov Exponent in the Quantum-Classical Transition

Chaos, a property of certain dynamical systems, is defined as extreme sensitivity to initial conditions -- as the system evolves, a small initial separation between trajectories becomes exponentially larger in time. In this project, we investigated how chaotic behavior is affected as a system transitions in size from that described by classical mechanics to that described by quantum mechanics. Specifically, we calculate the Lyapunov Exponent, a measure of chaos describing a system's sensitivity to initial conditions, as we make the system size smaller and smaller (go deeper into the quantum regime). We find that for a specific system, the damped driven double-well Duffing oscillator, there is a non-monotonic change in the degree of chaos in the quantum-classical transition. This novel result indicates that systems in an intermediate regime can display unique behavior not found in the limiting cases.

Published in Physical Review.

This work was supervised by Arjendu Pattanayak

Hardt, Andy '13

Restricted Symmetric Signed Permutations

The symmetry group D4+Z2 acts on the set of signed permutations by rotations, reflections, and bar operations (flip the sign of each entry). Following Professor Egge's work on unsigned permutations, we enumerate the signed permutations that, given a symmetry subgroup H and a set R of length-2 signed patterns, are invariant under H and avoid R. Mansour and West began this work by enumerating the signed permutations that avoid R, not taking symmetries into account. Dukes and Mansour continued by enumerating signed involutions that avoid R. This paper considers the remaining subgroups of D4+Z2, thus completing the enumeration. The resulting sequences include the Catalan numbers and the central binomial coefficients, and many of them are given recursively. A few of the sets can be counted in two different ways, yielding combinatorial identities.

This work was supervised by Eric Egge

Heckman, Ned '13

Swimming in a Sea of Complexity: Characterizing Integrative Learning in Student Work

This research seeks to characterize integrative learning done by Carleton students in term-long group projects that connected the science of abrupt climate change with an issue of human concern. The methods of concept mapping and naming were used to analyze, classify, and understand a range of "integrative moves" in student project work. This has ultimately led to a framework that describes the type, purpose, and sophistication of a particular "integrative move". The research examines integration at all levels of student work (i.e. sentence level, page level, and higher).

This work was supervised by Tricia Ferrett

Her, Koua '13

Human Mitochondrial Alanyl-tRNA Synthetase: An Important Enzyme for tRNA Recognition

Animal mitochondrial tRNAs are not well-defined. Their tRNAs are highly diverged in both sequence and structure. The loops and stem size in their predicted secondary structures are variable and the conserved nucleotides are often not present. The tRNAs are recognized and charges by nuclearly-encoded mitochondrial aminoalanyl-tRNA synthetase. Koua focused on the interaction between the human mitochondrial alanyl-tRNA synthetase and their tRNA substrate to locate the interaction site, and to identify what is being recognized on the tRNA.

This work was supervised by Joe Chihade

Hommeyer, Camille '12

Researching the Life and Career of Thomas Gomez

As a Humanities Student Research Assistant, Camille Hommeyer researched the life and career of Thomas Gomez for Greg Hewett's upcoming biography, THE HEAVY: The Life of Thomas Gomez, Hollywood's Quintessential Character Actor. She designed and created the website, thomasgomezactor.com, for informational and promotional purposes, investigated the whereabouts of Gomez's "lost" films, read and compiled all New York Times' play and movie reviews mentioning Gomez (over 200 articles), contacted an old friend of Gomez's, checked relevant immigration, birth and death records, and read and offered feedback on Hewett's biography.

Link: www.thomasgomezactor.com

This work was supervised by Greg Hewitt

Houser, Emily '12

Are Child Care Centers in the Twin Cities Metro Area Exposed to Dangerous Levels of Traffic Noise?

This GIS-based project aims to assess the exposure level of child care centers in the Twin Cities seven-county metro area to aircraft and road traffic noise. Studies have shown that high levels of noise can not only be annoying and distracting to children, but can also have detrimental physiological and cognitive effects, which can impede learning at this crucial stage in development. Emily did a review of the literature on noise exposure in children, as well as some preliminary geospatial analysis using ArcMap software. She is working on a paper with Tsegaye Nega, with whom she plans to co-author a paper on her research.

This work was supervised by Tsegaye Nega

Johnson, Anya '12

Evolving Altruism in Digital Organisms

This project explores the circumstances under which altruism would evolve in digital organisms. The research this summer was an extension of previous research by Professor Sherri Goings. To study the evolution of altruism we use software called Avida that creates a digital world in which simple digital organisms evolve.

This work was supervised by Sherri Goings

Lai, Alexandra '13

Asymmetric Thiolysis of Citric Anyhdride Using Enantioselective Organocatalysis

This research investigates the enantioselectivity of thiols as nucleophiles in the organocatalytic desymmetrization of anhydrides derived from citric anhydrides, a reaction which is synthetically useful as an alternative to using heavy metal catalysts and large amounts of expensive chiral reagents. Our group had previously synthesized this citric anhydride, as well as cinchona alkaloid-derived organocatalysts, and then used the organocatalysts and methanol to perform asymmetric desymmetrization reactions on the citric anhydride. With these results in mind, we decided to try to replicate these reactions using thiols as nucleophiles instead of methanol, in order to increase stereoselectivity. Thiolysis reactions proved to be slower but more stereoselective than methanolysis reactions, thus offering more synthetic utility. Alex carried out the thiolysis reactions in the laboratory and analyzed their results.

This work was supervised by Dave Alberg and Gretchen Hofmeister

Leichter, Kyle '12

Design and Development of Low-Cost, High-Efficiency Liquid Helium Transfer Tubes

This project was part of a larger endeavor to study the superfluid transition of thin films of helium in the presence of disorder. Kyle's work allowed liquid helium to be moved around the lab quickly and efficiently, helping to reduce operating costs.

This work was supervised by Dwight Luhman

Lerman, Dania '13

Social Ontology of Immigrant Exlcusion

This project explores the sources of exclusive attitudes of receiving cultures towards those of immigrants'. Both empirical and theoretical methods were used to collect data. Lerman helped find/read related papers, examine roots of self-other delineation in European school curricula, and generate a survey to be distributed.

This work was supervised by Anna Moltchanova

Lin, Jonathan '13

Hip-Hop Music as Identity in the UAE; and Masquerades of Nigeria

Jonathan worked with Professor Willis of the history department on a number of assignments for his two research projects, involving photomanipulation, video-editing, transcribing interviews, microfilm scanning and transcription, and researching the slave trade in East Africa during the 19th century. The first project examined the social force generated from major figures in the hip-hop music scene of countries of the United Arab Emirates such as Dubai, and other Middle Eastern countries. As a powerful and emotive form of cultural expression, hip-hop music and its controversial nature become a crucial aspect of identity for many artists and individuals living in the Middle East. The second project centered on footage Professor Willis took in Nigeria of traditional masques and masquerades. Their vibrant performances and exquisite costumes currently make up a digital exhibition in Gould Library.

Exhibited in Gould Library.

This work was supervised by John Thabiti Willis

Lin,Jie '14

Self-Healing Networks: Real Time Video QoE Analysis of RTMP Streams

This project aimed to develop self-healing networks that can detect degradation of streaming video quality of experience (QoE), react, and correct the pathology on the network. We presented a set of architecture to assess real time video QoE of RTMP streams. Results from a small set of preliminary experiments demonstrated that we can predict video QoE with 70-80% accuracy based on stream state measurements and previous users' ratings, using at little as 20 seconds of stream state information. Jie and his co-workers designed measurement tools and coded rating predictor together. Jie also collected data from experiments, managed the database, and analyzed results.

This work was supervised by Amy Csizmar Dalal

Mixa, Tyler '12

Independent Component Analysis Through Optical Signal Processing

The project studies the design and implication of an optical system used to address the 'cocktail party problem' - separating mixed audio signals without any prior knowledge of how they were mixed. The system takes two input audio mixtures representing left and right ear inputs and encodes them onto a laser beam. The beam goes through a series of optical and electrical devices to detect statistical correlations and distinguish between the two signals, amplifying one and suppressing the other. Tyler wrote the program necessary to mix and encode the signals, and he designed and built electrical components for the optical system.

This work was supervised by Marty Baylor

Nachbor, Kristine '12

Climate Change and Human Learning

This research seeks to characterize integrative learning done by Carleton students in term-long group projects that connected the science of abrupt climate change with an issue of human concern. The methods of concept mapping and naming were used to analyze, classify, and understand a range of "integrative moves" in student project work. This has ultimately led to a framework that describes the type, purpose, and sophistication of a particular "integrative move". The research examines integration at all levels of student work (i.e. sentence level, page level, and higher).

This work was supervised by Tricia Ferrett

Nygaard, Kayla '12

Determination of Phylogenetic Position and the Role of Xanthine Dehydrogenase in Sceloporus Lizards

This research is a continuation of Professor Matt Rand's work with the lizard Sceloporus undulatus erythrocheilus. The Sceloporus lizards from Boulder, Colorado have an interesting sexually dimorphic color polymorphism. The males display orange, yellow or white chin coloration which is correlated with territorial behavior and mating strategies. Based on recent outside research Professor Rand, Kayla and Madeline Epping designed a project to determine the new phylogenetic position of the Sceloporus lizard from Boulder Colorado. In addition to finding the new name for the lizard, the Rand lab is also working to establish a genetic basis for the color polymorphism seen in the male Sceloporus lizards. Kayla and Maddie have worked to sequence the Xanthine Dehydrogenase gene in Sceloporus in search for genetic differences between the three color morphs. Past research by Kayla and Professor Rand has ruled out the MC1R gene as the source for genetic variation.

This work was supervised by Matt Rand

Orr, Laurel '13

Recommender Systems for Wikipedia Editors

This project examines ways to encourage Wikipedia editors to contribute more content to the encyclopedia. Specifically, we use news articles and sources preferred by a particular editor to recommend relevant Wikipedia articles for editing. Michael studied methods of computerized text matching, built a web-based tool that identifies related Wikipedia articles for a given news source, and helped manage a database containing the full text of every revision of every Wikipedia article ever created.

This work was supervised by Dave Musicant

Reich, Robin '12

Japanese Maps in Meiji Era Japan

Robin researched the historical use and composition of Japanese maps in order to identify and contextualize one of the Gould Library's recent acquisitions. The acquisition was a Meiji-era multi-volume text that contained a map framed by a drawing of imperial soldiers.

This work was supervised by Victoria Morse

Roberts, Sean '12

Enantioselective Organocatalysis

The purpose of this project was to research the asymmetric desymmetrization of a citric acid derivative using quinine derived organocatalysts.

This work was supervised by Dave Alberg and Gretchen Hofmeister

Rownd, Henry '13

The Stewardesses: 3D Porno Camp that Kills

This paper explores the phenomenal success of a softcore 3D porno from the early 70's known as "The Stewardesses," the highest grossing 3D film until "Avatar" surpassed it in 2009. In the paper, I examine the film, its social context as well as its marketing in order to explain just how such a film became so successful.

This work was supervised by Jay Beck

Schmidt, Kathryn '12

China: Ancient and Modern. Understanding the Heart of the Dragon Through the Eyes of American Students

Kathryn Schmidt has worked on several projects with Chinese Professor Qiguang Zhao. She has done research, translation, and editing for his works on Daoist traditions and their application to modern society, but their latest project was to put together a book of students' photo journals from Carleton's 2010 Tianjin program. The threads throughout the book are the students' impressions of modern China and cross-cultural understanding to forge better relations between China and the United States.

This work was supervised by Qiguang Zhao

Skinner, Ryan '13

Initial Observation of Silicon Quantum Dot Behavior at 3 K

This past summer, Ryan worked with Dwight Luhman in Carleton's Physics Department to set up and take initial measurements of silicon quantum dots at low temperatures. We are collaborating with researchers at Sandia National Labs to investigate applications in quantum computing. Normally, the dots are made of GaAs, a very "clean" substance that has very predictable and extensively studied quantum properties. However, because all of our commercial electronics infrastructure is silicon-based, comparatively "dirty" silicon quantum dots are the focus of our research. Using LabVIEW and a GPIB interface between the computer and lab instruments, Ryan set up and automated the data collection environment from scratch. By the end of the summer, we had observed clear quantum oscillations at 3 K in a sample fabricated at Sandia. Eventually, we will manipulate the state of the dot as it is cooled to study the effects on the resulting quantum behavior.

This work was supervised by Dwight Luhman

Smyth, Alison '12

Particle Sources in Milwaukee, WI Studied With Single-Particle Mass Spectrometry

Single particle mass spectrometry was used to broaden our understanding of urban aerosols in the Great Lakes region. Specifically, the impacts of Lake Michigan's shipping traffic and coal-fired power plants on Milwaukee were explored. Data collected with an Aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (ATOFMS) in Milwaukee during a summer intensive study in 2010 will be emphasized here. A variety of data analysis methods were utilized to find relationships between metal ions detected in the particles, in order to better elucidate possible sources of these particles. Clustering was used to investigate particle types, with a focus here on the particle types that included significant metals peaks, such as Pb, Ag, and Bi. Species such as V, Br, Se, Mo, Sb, and Cd, were studied by comparing temporal trends and correlating them with back-trajectory modeling results to investigate possible particle sources.

This work was supervised by Deborah Gross

Tan, Deborah '13

Auditory Sequence Test in Monkeys

This project tests tamarins' ability to detect variation in sound patterns. We presented patterns of phonemes and musical notes either as an AAB sequence or as an ABB sequence for 5 days to habituate the monkeys (n=15) to the sounds. We then tested their reactions to novel sounds either presented in the same pattern (AAB--AAB) or a novel pattern (AAB -- ABB). The monkeys noticed the novel sounds and also were most surprised when the pattern also changed. This demonstrated that monkeys can learn an abstract relation among notes and language sounds, and may use that to parse auditory information. Deborah was a research assistant.

This work was supervised by Julie Neiworth

Tan, Deborah '13

Theory of Mind Tests of Tamarins

We trained tamarins to follow a pointing gesture to search for food in one of two containers. Then we tested their notion of what we know, by having foils (guessers) sometimes do the pointing when they could not know where the food had been hidden. The tamarins (n=5 thus far) do not follow the guesser's point reliably, but they do follow the point of a "knower" -- someone who actually hid the food. This indicates that the tamarins may be distinguishing between what people may know, a concept that comes with theory of mind. Deborah was a research assistant.

This work was supervised by Julie Neiworth

Tanamoto, Nana '13

The Bacterial Wilt Pathogen, Ralstonia Solanacearum: Effector Proteins and Plant Root Responses

Ralstonia solanacearum is a root-invading phytopathogen that causes bacterial wilt, a devastating disease that affects hundreds of plant species including tomato and potato on a worldwide scale. There is a complex interplay between bacterial virulence strategies and plant defense mechanisms in the progression of the plant disease. Our lab focuses on bacterial proteins, called effector proteins, and the plant root response against them. Over the summer, Nana and Anne Duncan worked on cloning the effector genes and developing a method for tomato root transformation to express the cloned effector in-planta for GFP localization studies. In future, this project will also look at tomato gene expression level analysis to better understand the interaction of Ralstonia and its host plant.

This work was supervised by Raka Mitra

Tandler, Jane '12

Consistency in Real-Life Decision-Making

This study looks into the process by which students make important decisions. These choices include: academic major, class schedule, campus housing, and summer plans. The investigation centers on the ways in which the decisions are similar across decisions, and across participants. Students' decision-making style is relatively consistent, with about half of the decision criteria appearing in multiple decisions. That said, participants' self-report reflects more consistency, suggesting that they believe themselves to show less variety in their decision-making style than our measures suggest is the case. Jane Tandler's summer involvement included data analysis and organization, database searching, and bibliography annotation, among other tasks.

This work was supervised by Kathleen Galotti

Troyka, Justin '13

Restricted Symmetric Signed Permutations

The symmetry group D4+Z2 acts on the set of signed permutations by rotations, reflections, and bar operations (flip the sign of each entry). Following Professor Egge's work on unsigned permutations, we enumerate the signed permutations that, given a symmetry subgroup H and a set R of length-2 signed patterns, are invariant under H and avoid R. Mansour and West began this work by enumerating the signed permutations that avoid R, not taking symmetries into account. Dukes and Mansour continued by enumerating signed involutions that avoid R. This paper considers the remaining subgroups of D4+Z2, thus completing the enumeration. The resulting sequences include the Catalan numbers and the central binomial coefficients, and many of them are given recursively. A few of the sets can be counted in two different ways, yielding combinatorial identities.

This work was supervised by Eric Egge

VanDis, Erik '12

Examining the Effects of Deer Herbivory on Plant Reproduction

The objective of this study was to define the effect of deer herbivory on the reproductive fitness of the prairie forb Desmodium canadense, and to determine whether or not deer are selecting plants non-randomly. Browsed and unbrowsed plants were selected at five locations in the prairies of the Cowling Arboretum and reproductive fitness was quantified. We determined that deer are selectively browsing larger plants and that this browsing delays reproduction, ultimately causing a shift in plant reproductive effort towards tertiary shoots.

This work was supervised by Daniel Hernadez and Mark McKone

Vang, Andrea '13

Emission Line Survey of M33 and Local Group Dwarf Galaxies

Local group galaxies allow astrophysicists to study individual stars as well as gas and dust in order to better understand the interplay between stars and a galaxy's interstellar medium. As part of the Local Group Galaxy Survey (LGGS-Massey et al (2006)), emission-line and continuum images were obtained of M31, M33, and seven dwarf galaxies (including NGC6822 and IC10). We analyzed these emission-line images to determine fluxes of ionized hydrogen regions in M33 and two of the dwarf galaxies. We have also begun looking at the interior structure of these ionized hydrogen regions by breaking up larger, complex ones. Finally, we have been working on a program to make our M33 data available to other astrophysicists working on similar projects.

This work was supervised by Cindy Blaha

Wadleigh, Laura '14

Understanding CaF2 Surfaces With Adsorption-Desorption Isotherms and Atomic Force Microscopy

We are interested in using rough CaF2 films to study the superfluid transition in two-dimensional helium films. These experiments require quantitative information regarding the topography of the CaF2 surfaces. The surface roughness of CaF2 films is known to increase with film thickness as has been shown with previous atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements. In this work we verify these results using AFM and further characterize the surfaces using adsorption-desorption isotherm measurements at T=77 K with liquid nitrogen. These complementary techniques produce results that are consistent with each other and previous experiments. In addition, hysteresis in the isotherms demonstrates the emergence of pores in the substructure of the film as the film thickness of CaF2 increases. Our combined results provide a detailed description of CaF2 surface roughness which can be utilized in the planned superfluid experiments.

This work was supervised by Dwight Luhman

Walters, Diane '12

CO2 Preferential Adsorption Sites in MFI-Type Zeolites

This project studied CO2 adsorption in zeolites, silicon-based crystalline materials. Empty space in the zeolite crystal framework allows CO2 molecules to adsorb (adhere) to its attractive surface. This makes zeolites ideal for separating CO2 from other gases, which could be applied to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Substituted aluminum atoms in the framework of zeolites and accompanying mobile, metallic cations drastically change adsorption of small alkanes in zeolites, but their effect on CO2 adsorption has not been studied extensively. Understanding on a molecular level how location and number of aluminum substitutions and cations affect the adsorption of CO2 could aid in the search for more useful zeolites. Using atomistic simulations of CO2 adsorption in MFI-type zeolites, we found that cations change the location and increase the number of preferential CO2 adsorption sites. Evenly spaced cations and low CO2 loading maximize the number of preferential sites in straight channels.

This work was supervised by Daniela Kohen

Andrykovich, Kristin '13

Investigating the Molecular Basis of Notochord Loss in Molgula Occulta

Of 3,000 total ascidian tunicate species, only approximately 20 are anural. Almost all of these anural ascidians are within the Molgulidae, a clade containing three groups of geographically differentiated species found primarily in the Northern Hemisphere. As there are closely related anural and urodele species in the Molgulidae, this clade offers an opportunity to identify pathways present only in the urodele species and effectively characterize elements necessary for notochord development. During this study Kristin isolated "prickle," a gene involved in the convergence and extension of ascidian notochordal cells, by PCR from cDNA in preparation for in situ hybridization. We were especially interested in in situ hybridizations of the isolated genes in M. occulta, M. oculata and M. occulta x M. oculata hybrid embryos. Future studies will use the same transcriptome-guided molecular methods to isolate and perform in-situs for other prospective "notochordal genes."

This work was supervised by Billie J. Swalla (University of Washington)

Barber, Alice '13

Zinc Oxide Nanomaterials Increase the Activity of RNAse

This project examines the effects of zinc oxide nanomaterials on the activity of RNAse A and B. If nanomaterials are to be effective as a mechanism for therapeutic RNA delivery, their interactions with RNA-degrading enzymes must be understood. Alice's preliminary experiments using gel electrophoresis indicate that incubation with nanomaterials increases the amount of RNA degraded upon exposure to RNAse.

This work was supervised by Robert K. DeLong (Missouri State University)

Beckwith, Sean '12

Characterization of At4g33666 in Arabidopsis thaliana

Plants must adapt to variable conditions including environmental stresses and suboptimal nutrient availability. Sean Beckwith, in collaboration with Christine Palmer and Mary Lou Guerinot, studied the chloroplast-localized gene, At4g33666, which encodes a short peptide and is crucial for proper seed development in the model plant organism Arabidopsis thaliana. We show At4g3366 to be involved in the salt stress response. Loss-of-function mutants show delayed germination and decreased germination efficiency in the presence of salt while overexpression improves germination rates under saline conditions. Further study of this gene holds promise for improving crop yields under poor soil conditions. Experiments were designed by Sean Beckwith, Christine Palmer and Mary Lou Guerinot and performed by Sean Beckwith. This research was supported by the New Hampshire IDeA Network of Biological Research Excellence (NH-INBRE) summer SURF program.

This work was supervised by Mary Lou Guerinot (Dartmouth)

Benson, Katherine '12

Role of Echocardiography in Determing the Physiologically Significant PDA

Patent ductus arteriosis(PDA) is a common premature fetal heart defect that frequently resolves itself after several days of life. In some cases, however, the condition can cause severe symptoms such as organ failure and chronic lung disease. There is currently no gold standard for evaluating whether a PDA will become symptomatic. Our project was focused on collecting data on the use of echocardiography in PDA, and what signs on the echocardiogram were associated with more severe symptoms. Katie assisted in developing the database and collected data from patient charts.

This work was supervised by Richard Parad (Brigham and Women's Hospital)

Brewer, Alex '12

Conflict Resolution in Dyadic Relationships

This project, coordinated through Berkeley's Psychology Graduate program, sought to explore how dyadic couples overcome conflict in their relationships. For the summer, Alex reviewed and coded numerous videos of couples engaging in a conflict conversation, and then performed the relevant statistical analysis necessary to interpret the data.

This work was supervised by Serena Chen (University of California-Berkeley) and Amie Gordon (University of California-Berkeley)

Campbell, Josh '13

Protein Carbonylation and Detection in Various Mouse and Human Tissues

Protein carbonylation occurs when lipid peroxidation products form covalent complexes with lysine, histidine, or cysteine amino acids. High levels of lipid peroxidation leads to oxidative stress, which has been linked to a variety of diseases such as muscular dystrophy and insulin resistance. This study was conducted to determine if obese subjects have higher levels of carbonylated protein than lean subjects and to assess the effects of bariatric surgery on carbonylation. A variety of mouse tissues were examined, including muscle, liver, subcutaneous and visceral fat. In addition, human adipose tissue samples from before and after bariatric surgery were analyzed. Contrary to our hypothesis, obese subjects did not have higher levels of carybonylated protein than lean subjects in any tissue studied. The human post-operation samples show elevated carbonylation when compared to the pre-operation samples. This increase may be due to the localized inflammation that occurs after surgery.

This work was supervised by David A. Bernlohr (University of Minnesota)

Cardiel, Allison '13

Chemically Directed Assembly of Photoactive Metal Oxide Nanoparticle Heterojunctions via the Copper-Catalyzed Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition "Click" Reaction

Metal oxides are used in a wide variety of emerging applications in renewable energy, such as dye-sensitized solar cells and photocatalysts. The separation of charge can be facilitated at junctions between metal oxides, which can lead to solar energy harvesting. We demonstrate use of the Copper-catalyzed Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition Reaction, widely referred to as "click" chemistry, to form heterojunctions between metal oxide nanoparticles, using WO3 and TiO2 as a model system. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier-transform Infrared Spectroscopy verify the nature and selectivity of the chemical linkages, while scanning electron microscopy reveals that the TiO2 nanoparticles form a high-density, conformal coating on the larger WO3 nanoparticles. Time-resolved surface photovoltaic measurements show that the resulting dyadic structures support photoactivated charge transfer, while measurements of the photochemical degradation of methylene blue show that chemical grafting of TiO2 nanoparticles to WO3 enhances the photocatalytic activity. Allison Cardiel worked on every aspect of this research.

Published in ACS Nano.

This work was supervised by Robert J. Hamers (University of Wisconsin-Madison)

Cawthon, Ross '12

Infrared Spectroscopy of a Dense Dust Cloud

Interstellar dust is made of tiny solid particles in space. These small particles can eventually combine to form planets and in our case, life. One way to study the composition of dust is to view starlight through a dust cloud. Any unexpected absorption lines in the star's spectrum can be attributed to the dust. The wavelength and depth of these absorption lines tell us what is in the dust, and how much of it. This project involved infrared spectral images of a dense dust cloud, the Pipe Nebula, which has many bright stars behind it. Ross processed these images, calibrated the wavelengths, and ran models to determine the amount of absorption due to dust. The study focused primarily on the amount of absorption due to water-ice and silicates in the dust. Ross worked on this project as an REU student at the SETI Institute in Mountain View, CA.

Chael, Andrew '13

Analyzing Pulsar Timing Data in the Presence of Correlated Noise

Timing noise in pulsars makes it difficult to accurately predict their behavior. Correlated (systematic) noise, while not well understood, may also mask physical behavior like orbiting planets. Under the direction of Professor Joel Weisberg and Ryan Shannon, Cornell University, at the Australia Telescope National Facility in Sydney, Andrew applied the Cholesky decomposition process to account for correlated noise in 150 pulsars. He also developed a series of programs to collect and display the resulting data and to speed up the analysis process. The improved timing models will help future researchers in their studies of these pulsars and in searches for the physical origin of correlated noise.

This work was supervised by Joel Weisberg and Ryan Shannon (Cornell University)

Chen,Xin '13

The Isoperimetric Inequalities on Constant Gauss Curvature Surfaces

This project works on a new proof for the isoperimetric inequalities on spheres and hyperbolic planes using metacalibration. Unlike the classical optimization approach calculus of variations, metacalibration compares competitors directly to the proposed minimizer via vector fields and the divergence theorem. It paves the way to solve open problems such as multiple bubbles and isoperimetric problems with boundary on constant Gauss curvature surfaces.

Published in Involve.

This work was supervised by Donald Sampson (Brigham Young University) and Becca Dorff (Brigham Young University)

Coughlin, Michael '12

Third-Generation Gravitational Wave Detector Placement

One of the most immediate challenges associated with third-generation gravitational wave detectors is to select site candidates. There are numerous factors that must be taken into consideration, including surface topography, seismicity, population density and many more. The project analyzes a number of US-wide data sets, including seismic, wind, topography, and geology, as well as seismic data from around the world. The combination of these data sets indicates the suitability of possible site locations. Other analyses with the seismic data include tracking seismic noise levels at various frequencies over large periods of time as well as microseismic peak correlation in various locations. Michael wrote computer software to access, download, and perform the data analysis.

This work was supervised by Jan Harms (California Institute of Technology)

Greenstein, Rebecca '13

Characterization of the protein amx-1 in C. elegans

This project studied mutant amx-1 and spr-5; amx-1 Caenorhabditis elegans to see if these mutant worms displayed the same phenotypes exhibited by the previously characterized spr-5 worms. A plate phenotyping analysis, apoptosis assay, and DAPI staining analysis were conducted. No definite conclusions can be drawn from this set of data, although it seems like amx-1 and spr-5; amx-1 mutant worms display similar phenotypes to spr-5 mutant worms.

This work was supervised by Monica Colaiacovo (Harvard)

Johnson, Traci '12

Toward a Unified Understanding of Radio Emission from Novae

Traci Johnson worked with the Nova Team at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory collecting historical radio data sets of galactic novae. Highly-sensitive, frequent, and early sampling methods used in the Expanded Very Large Array observations of recent galactic novae have shown results startlingly different than earlier data sets, as well as strong deviations from previously developed models. To gain a better understanding of these results,Traci compiled a complete collection of historical radio observations of novae and performed model fits to these data. Comparisons were made with the new data to determine whether these deviations were fundamental or a function of more consistent observations. She and her mentors concluded that many of the deviations in the new data are mimicked in the older data sets. They suggest model modifications and plans for future observations of novae which could provide better clues into the true nature of nova outbursts.

This work was supervised by Miriam Krauss (National Radio Astronomy Observatory)

Jun, YeJi '12

The Regulation of E2-2 and Id2 Expression in Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells

Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are one subset of dendritic cell types, which are involved in the antiviral response of innate immunity. When activated through viral infection or TLR stimulation, the secretion of type I interferon (IFN) is induced in pDCs including IFN-alpha, which is involved in pDC differentiation process. Several transcription factors that are specifically involved in DC-pDC lineage development have been identified, such as E2-2 and Id2. Id2 is an antagonist of E2-2 that inhibits pDC generation and IFN secretion. To investigate whether IFN-alpha also directly regulates Tcf4 and and Id2 gene expression, we focused on STAT1's involvement, which is a major intracellular signaling pathway activated by IFN-alpha. YeJi conducted immunoblotting and dual luciferase assay to measure the level of STAT1 under IFN-alpha stimulation and detect Id2 level.

This work was supervised by Stephanie S. Watowich (University of Texas)

Lim, Min Yao '12

Mapping Optical Trapping Energy of Nanoparticles via Confocal Microscopy

Optical traps are highly focused laser beams that can hold and manipulate objects of microscopic scale. They are used to study the motion and energy of particles such as colloids or DNA molecules. In order to achieve this purpose we first seek to measure the energy associated with optical traps. We use a fluorescent nanoparticle ensemble within the optical trapping volume to determine the depth of the potential well of the trap. Min Yao used confocal microscopy to map the fluorescence intensity distribution of nanoparticles which allowed us to calculate the trapping energy profile in two dimensions. We repeated this process with different trapping powers to find the depth of the trapping potential well as a function of trapping power. With this technique of mapping trapping energy we can further study particle-particle interactions.

This work was supervised by H. Daniel Ou-Yang (Lehigh University)

Lucal, Hannah '12

Research Assistant for the Sexual and Gender Based Violence Team at the International Center for Reproductive Health

Hannah worked as a research assistant with the Sexual and Gender-Based Violence (SGBV) team of the International Center for Reproductive Health, a World Health Organization affiliate housed at the Hospital of Ghent University in Ghent, Belgium. The ICRH is a multidisciplinary organization with a gender sensitive approach to improving reproductive health globally. The ICRH works in collaboration with local experts and community organizers around the world to conduct research and policy change as well as implement trainings and public health initiatives on a local level. Working on various projects related to forced marriage and child marriage, honour-related violence and female genital mutilation, Hannah assisted with literature review, policy research, and transcription work for the SGBV team.

Link: http://www.icrh.org/projectcategories/sexual-and-gender-based-violence

This work was supervised by Els Leye (University of Ghent)

Lum, Kenneth '13

Structure-Activity Relationship of JZL-184: A Potent and Selective Irreversible Inhibitor of Monoacylglycerol Lipase

Monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) is the primary enzyme responsible for the degradation of 2-arachidonoylglycerol, a lipid that modulates mood, appetite, memory, and pain-sensation through the endocannabinoid system in the brain. Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) studies were conducted on JZL-184, a potent, selective, and irreversible MAGL inhibitor. A library of related compounds was synthesized and screened against mouse brain proteomes using gel-based Activity Base Protein Profiling. A lead compound, KML-29, with potentially less toxic metabolites than JZL-184 was identified. KML-29 showed slightly higher potency than JZL-184 and better selectivity against an off-target, fatty acid amine hydrolase (FAAH), in vitro. An in vivo experiment of KML-29 in mice suggested similar results.

Miller, David '13

Environmental Noise of VSR4 and Preparing for Advanced Virgo

In effort to increase detector sensitivity of the Virgo interferometer to detect gravitational waves, David identified noise lines using the Noemi and coherence tools. David produced a list of all noise lines between 10 and 100 Hz for VSR4 (Virgo's 4th Scientific Run). Additionally, David tested new cooling fans for Advanced Virgo to replace the noisy VSR4 cooling fans.

Link: https://tds.ego-gw.it/itf/tds/index.php?callContent=2&callCode=8833

This work was supervised by Irene Fiori (European Gravitational Observatory)

Modlin, Chelsea '12

Nutritional Survey of HIV Positive Patients in the DarDar Pediatric Program: Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

This project assesses the nutritional status and levels of malnutrition seen within pediatric patients of the DarDar Pediatric HIV Program (DPP) in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania by methods of 24-hour food recall and measuring household food insecurity. Results will be compared to current recommended nutritional standards and anthropometric data of participants. The primary purpose is to make recommendations for the nutritional counseling services at the DPP. Chelsea designed the study that was overseen by Ford vonReyn, M.D. of Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center and Dr. Goodluck Lyatu of the DPP. Chelsea also oversaw the start up of the survey at the clinic and is currently entering, coding, and analyzing the data.

This work was supervised by Ford vonReyn (Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center) and Dr. Goodluck Lyatu (DarDar Pediatric HIV Program)

Norden, Justin '13

The Effect of Rituximab on Serum Immunoglobulin Levels in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma and Burkitt Lymphoma Undergoing Immunochemotherapy

This project investigated the effect of Rituximab on serum immunoglobulin levels for newly diagnosed Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma and Burkitt Lymphoma patients undergoing immunochemotherapy. Patients immunoglobulin levels were sampled up to 12 months out of treatment. There were no cases of low immunoglobulin (IGG) levels in patients treated with only chemotherapeutic agents at 12 months out of treatment, as opposed to a fourth of patients showing low immunoglobulin (IGG) levels in patients treated with chemotherapeutic agents and Rituximab at 12 months out of treatment. Although it has been shown that low immunoglobulin (IGG) levels can lead to increased levels of serious infection, this study did not show whether or not these low immunoglobulin (IGG) levels lead to higher rates of infection. Justin Norden collected information from patients about infection, as well as analyzed the data for trends in serum immunoglobulin levels across patients.

This work was supervised by Wyndham Wilson (National Institutes of Health)

Olson, Erik '12

Examining the Monomer-Dimer Equilibrium of Segments of the HIV-1 RNA Genome

The ultimate goal of this project was to obtain more data on the tertiary structure of elements in the HIV-1 RNA genome using small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). To obtain good SAXS data, the segments of HIV-1 genomic RNA under analysis must be homogenously pure. This is difficult, however, as the HIV-1 genome naturally forms loose dimers in solution, which would distort the SAXS data. To this end, mutant RNA constructs were designed that should result in shifting the natural equilibrium that exists between monomer and dimer towards monomer. These constructs were created and transcribed, and their monomer-dimer equilibria were assayed by both native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and size exclusion chromatography monitored by UV-spectroscopy. The mutant constructs were found to be successful in shifting the equilibrium preferentially towards monomer.

This work was supervised by Karin Musier-Forsyth (Ohio State University)

Padilla, Christian '13

Visible Light Photocatalysis: Intramolecular [4+2] Cycloaddition

The forming of carbon-carbon bonds is of immense importance to the chemical industry and to society at large. This work, lead by the Yoon group at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, seeks to use visible light to activate organic molecules. Having shown that [2+2] cycloaddition is accessible with oxidative visible light photocatalysis the group hoped to expand on this method by exploring its utility in promoting [4+2] cycloaddition, an important reaction in industrial and laboratory chemistry. Conventionally this reaction requires heat or a Lewis acid catalyst. It was expected that [4+2] cycloaddition would be accessible through the same oxidative cycle, using Ru(bpy)32+ previously reported for [2+2] cycloaddition. Christian Padilla and Shishi Lin spent this summer investigating this possibility. In the process, Shishi and Christian discovered novel reactivity and were able to propose a reasonable mechanism based on previous work.

This work was supervised by Tehshik P. Yoon (University of Wisconsin-Madison)

Peters, Andrew '13

HIV Protein Gp120 Promotes T Cell Apoptosis via the Transcription Factor Foxo3a.

HIV infection causes the progressive loss of T lymphocytes, leading eventually to immune suppression and AIDS; a major contributor to this process is apoptosis, or programmed cell death. This study investigates a mechanism by which gp120, an HIV protein responsible for viral entry, contributes to T cell apoptosis. We hypothesize that gp120 inhibits microRNAs which normally suppress the transcription factor foxo3a. Freed of this inhibition, foxo3a becomes active and mediates the transcription of proteins which sensitize the cell to apoptosis. Our results suggest foxo3a as a major contributor to T cell loss in HIV infection, and therefore as a potential target for HIV therapies. Andrew designed and performed many of the experiments involved in the project.

This work was supervised by Andrew Badley (Mayo Clinic) and Nathan Cummins (Mayo Clinic)

Tan, Shao Min '12

Solar-Cycle Variation of Oscillation Frequencies and Surface Magnetic Field

Working at the High Altitude Observatory in Boulder, CO, Shao Min did a project investigating the relationship between solar oscillation frequencies and surface magnetic fields over the course of the last solar cycle. The project found a strong linear correlation between the frequencies and magnetic fields, consistent with a similar study done in 2001. However, the correlation was strong for both the rising and declining phases of the solar cycle, which is interesting since other studies have indicated a deviation in similar quantities during the declining phase.

Presented at the American Geophysical Union conference

This work was supervised by Kathy Evertz

Wong, Debbie '13

Weaving an Effective Web of Writing Center Relationships at Small Liberal Arts Colleges

This project studies the importance of good relationships between different constituencies in a liberal arts college for the success of its writing center. It looks at the different ways in which writing is defined and understood, and the tensions that arise as a result. It asks the questions of "What is writing? Who owns writing? What does it mean to be a good writer?" and seeks to find a balance between the various competing answers, in order that writing center staff might best serve the needs of all parties - professors and students alike.

Presented at the Midwest Writing Centers Association conference

This work was supervised by Kathy Evertz

Yang, Heather '12

Competing Instincts: Semantic Versus Physical Size Processing of Numbers

Heather undertook research in the field of cognitive psychology with Professor Avishai Henik, the Head of the Cognitive Neuropsychology Laboratory at the Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, in Israel. The project examined the relationship between the Semantic Congruity Effect and the Size Congruity Effect; an important link that has not been previously examined. This work in magnitude processing was undertaken in order to aid our understanding of numerical processing and possibly help understand Developmental Dyscalculia. Heather assisted in designing the study, creating an experiment paradigm using E-Prime software, running participants, as well as analyzing data using Statistica

This work was supervised by Avishai Henik (Ben-Gurion University of the Negev)

Zhao, Sen '12

Prediction by Iterative Supervised Principal Components

In this statistical genetics project, we tried to classify people based on their gene expressions. We found that existing methods, including LASSO, Tibshirani's Nearest Shrunken Centroids, Supervised Principal Components (PCA), and 2-Means did not work well with datasets which were unbalanced and had high mislabeling rate. However, unbalancedness and mislabeling do exist commonly in the real-world. Therefore, we developed an iterative method which extends the algorithm of Supervised PCA proposed by Bair, Hastie, Paul, and Tibshirani (2006). This method worked better than traditional Supervised PCA in terms of error rate, sensitivity, and specificity. Zhao was the main investigator of the project.

This work was supervised by Eric Bair (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)

Burr-McNeal, Mahal '12

Leading Every Day: A Child Abuse Prevention Leadership Program

Mahal Burr created and implemented a child abuse prevention leadership project for teen mothers. The project aimed to empower young mothers to become leaders on child abuse prevention both for their children and other children in Memphis. The participants were treated as community organizers. They recieved a small stipend, were given professional training on child abuse (including prevention techniques, sign recognition, response and reporting skills and much more) from six leading organizations on child abuse prevention and recovery in Memphis. In addition the participants received leadership training and put these skills to the test with an accumulative community event. Following the program, Mahal Burr is working to create a child abuse prevention week-long curriculum that will be implemented into a Memphis City School starting in Spring 2012.

This work was supervised by Anita Chikkatur

Denny, Adam '12

Geochemistry of the Eocene Crescent Formation Basalt, Washington State: Implications for Mantle Plume Activity

The Coast Range Basalt provinces of Oregon, Washington, and Vancouver Island consist of an estimated 250,000 cubic kilometers of extrusive lavas generated between 62 and 50 Ma. Although previous studies have linked this Large Igneous Province (LIP) to subduction of a mid-ocean ridge (Haeussler et al., 2003) or accreted seamounts potentially associated with a mantle plume (Duncan, 1982), unambiguous evidence concerning the origin of Coast Range volcanism remains elusive. Ongoing investigation of the trace element and isotope compositions of the Crescent Formation basalts of Washington State demonstrates a range of basalt compositions consistent with an enriched mantle source. Compositional heterogeneity of the Crescent Formation requires the tapping of multiple mantle reservoirs as volcanism progressed. This study presents an expanded geographical survey of Crescent Formation compositions in an e_x001E_ffort to further constrain the origins of the Coast Range LIP.

This work was supervised by Bereket Haileab

Foran, Rachel '12

Made and Making: The Construction of Somali Muslim Selves in Rural Minnesota

Existing scholarship has largely overlooked the role of religion in the formation and maintenance of Somali selves in the diaspora. This project seeks to address the lack of scholarship on Somali Islam. Rachel conducted extended fieldwork with the Somali Muslim immigrant community in Faribault, Minnesota. Based on conversations and observations from the field augmented by with theoretical analysis, this study looks at the formation of Somali Muslim identities for Somali female youth in rural Minnesota.

This work was supervised by Shana Sippy

Gupta, Lipi '12

So You Want to Start an NGO?: Why "Empowering" People Takes More Mentors and Time Than You Might Think

This series of qualitative case studies of three NGO programs investigates how the organizations' "empowerment" strategies simultaneously undermine and enhance the quality of their impact in ways that that are not fully revealed or obvious at a glance. This study comprises independent and faculty-supervised fieldwork at Jagori in Delhi, Indi;, the Esilalei Women's Cultural Boma in Esilalei, Tanzania; and Project Why, in Delhi, India. Research in Esilalei was co-conducted with Emily Houser '12. Gupta concludes that interventions aiming to "empower" seem to require a great deal of face-to-face time within a set of new relationships; and these relationships in the NGO spaces take years to influence individuals' broader roles and abilities in daily life. Further analysis will be complete spring term.

Link: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&pid=explorer&chrome=true&srcid=0B80E2CnG9xYJYWFhZmI4NmUtOTg1Yy00NmM5LWEwYWEtYTlmODNkZjk5YjU5&hl=en

Kelati, Beserat '12

Polarization of Memory in the Eritrean Diaspora

As a Mellon Mays Fellow Beserat Kelati is studying the development of the Eritrean identity and community cohesion, both in the nation-state and in the context of the Houston diaspora experience. Kelati's research questions are: How has politics in the Eritrean nation-state affected community cohesion in the Houston Eritrean diaspora? And what role has the sociopolitical disjunction between Eritrea's political fronts played in fostering or impeding cultural cohesion with the Houston's Eritrean community? To determine community cohesion in the Houston Eritrean diaspora, she used a multi-method approach. Life histories, participant observation and interviews were conducted in the form of a qualitative approach. Kelati hopes historical memories, personal experiences, community dynamics and emotion will provide alternative narratives that have been excluded from recent literature due to the complexity that exists between the Eritrean diaspora community and the nation-state.

This work was supervised by Van Dusenbery

Kunkel, William '12

Lamp Tag: Building a Safe, Cheap Alternative to Commercial Laser Tag

Lamp Tag is a game of virtual paintball that is played with electronic equipment designed by a group of Carleton physics majors. In the game, each player is equipped with an infrared "lamp gun" emitter and a set of sensors that enable communication along line of sight for distances up to 60 m. While commercial laser tag equipment typically costs over $3000 per set, we have developed a laser-free substitute that can be assembled at a cost of $40 per set.

Link: http://www.people.carleton.edu/~kunkelm/Lamp_tag_report.pdf

This work was supervised by Marty Baylor

Lopez, Paulina '12

The Relevance of Mexican Political Printmaking

This project investigates the relevance of Mexican printmaking as a sociopolitical tool in the 20th and 21st centuries. Paulina researched the historical and social contexts that surround Mexican prints from both eras, and conducted formal analyses of primary sources from art institutions and conferences in the mid-west and along the El Paso-Juarez border. Her research focuses on the way contemporary Mexican artists are embracing form over content in order to preserve the medium's relevance in the digital age. She is incorporating the traditional and contemporary Mexican printmaking methods studied from primary sources into a series of artist's books that document the experiences of Mexican immigrants living in southeastern Minnesota. Paulina collected the oral histories of these immigrants as part of the project during the summer of 2010. Professor Fred Hagstrom assisted Paulina on the studio aspect of this project, which is funded by the Mellon Mays Undergraduate Fellowship program.

This work was supervised by Fred Hagstrom

Cushing, Benjamin '12

What's Worth Knowing? A Quantitative Approach to the Debate Over What Fills Young Americans' Minds

Borrowing tools from sociology, this paper challenges generational arguments made by popular writers about the essential knowledge that every American must have. These critics, including recent bestseller Mark Bauerlein, overlook the possibility that definitions of essential knowledge change over time and are particular to a historical moment. Through surveying members of the Carleton College and Northfield, MN communities, we set out to find whether peoples' perceptions of essential knowledge and skills are affected by certain sociodemographic or behavioral characteristics. The results of our study provide evidence that older people value categories of academic-content knowledge more strongly than younger people do. The results also show that as people value their education more, they increasingly value these categories of knowledge. The only type of knowledge that younger people valued more than older people did was proficiency in foreign languages. These results demonstrate that the effects of age and generation play important, but perhaps different, roles in shaping an individual’s educational values.

This work was supervised by Bill North and Annette Nierobisz

Bellos, Nicholas '12

What's Worth Knowing? A Quantitative Approach to the Debate Over What Fills Young Americans' Minds

Borrowing tools from sociology, this paper challenges generational arguments made by popular writers about the essential knowledge that every American must have. These critics, including recent bestseller Mark Bauerlein, overlook the possibility that definitions of essential knowledge change over time and are particular to a historical moment. Through surveying members of the Carleton College and Northfield, MN communities, we set out to find whether peoples' perceptions of essential knowledge and skills are affected by certain sociodemographic or behavioral characteristics. The results of our study provide evidence that older people value categories of academic-content knowledge more strongly than younger people do. The results also show that as people value their education more, they increasingly value these categories of knowledge. The only type of knowledge that younger people valued more than older people did was proficiency in foreign languages. These results demonstrate that the effects of age and generation play important, but perhaps different, roles in shaping an individual’s educational values.

This work was supervised by Bill North and Annette Nierobisz

Alexander, Michael '12

What's Worth Knowing? A Quantitative Approach to the Debate Over What Fills Young Americans' Minds

Borrowing tools from sociology, this paper challenges generational arguments made by popular writers about the essential knowledge that every American must have. These critics, including recent bestseller Mark Bauerlein, overlook the possibility that definitions of essential knowledge change over time and are particular to a historical moment. Through surveying members of the Carleton College and Northfield, MN communities, we set out to find whether peoples' perceptions of essential knowledge and skills are affected by certain sociodemographic or behavioral characteristics. The results of our study provide evidence that older people value categories of academic-content knowledge more strongly than younger people do. The results also show that as people value their education more, they increasingly value these categories of knowledge. The only type of knowledge that younger people valued more than older people did was proficiency in foreign languages. These results demonstrate that the effects of age and generation play important, but perhaps different, roles in shaping an individual’s educational values.

This work was supervised by Bill North and Annette Nierobisz

McClellan, Michael '13

Cyclodextrin-Containing Air Fresheners: A New Pathway for Inhaling Pollutants?

The indoor environment contains many pollutants that can be damaging to health and offensive to human senses. A new generation of air fresheners contains beta-cyclodextrin, a cyclic glucose oligomer that is reported by manufacturers to "eliminate" odors by trapping offensive smelling molecules in its core, rendering it scent-free. In this study, the kinetics and mechanism of cyclodextrin-pollutant complexation were studied in solution and in the aerosol phase using spectroscopy and mass spectrometry techniques. Aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry was used to collect mass spectra of aerosol mixtures of beta-cyclodextrin and naphthalene derivatives (simulated indoor pollutants), which were shown to complex in solution using spectroscopic methods. Markers that indicate complexation of naphthalene derivatives in cyclodextrin-containing mixtures have been identified in the ATOFMS spectra, leading to the possibility of identifying beta-cyclodextrin-pollutant complexes in real-world particles.

This work was supervised by Deborah Gross

McMurtrey, Owen '12

Cowling Arboretum Grassland Breeding Bird Survey

The Arboretum Grassland Breeding Bird Survey establishes the diversity and overall numbers of grasslands bird species of interest. The survey is envisioned as a long-term study that will help Arboretum managers and prairie restorationists understand avian responses to a variety of management decisions. The survey data also serves as an aid in understanding the ecology of grassland birds generally. After three years, the data show an increase in the numbers of grassland species that avoid trees during the nesting season and a coinciding decline in the numbers of species that associate with trees during nesting. The removal of trees from Arboretum prairies is ongoing, and we hypothesize a relationship between tree removal and species composition changes. An example of temporal allocation of niche space among three abundant grassland species is noted, as well as increases in species diversity and overall numbers over the last three years.

Link: https://apps.carleton.edu/campus/arb/connections/student_research/

This work was supervised by Nancy Braker

Overholt, True '12

XXXX Desea Usted? Consumer and Survey Participant Behavior within a Multiethnic Community

Seeing a lack of research sufficiently addressing the issue of acculturation's impact on the ethnocentric tendency of consumers regarding the country of origin effect, we presented Mexican-Americans living in Northfield, Minnesota, with a two-part questionnaire. The first asked participants to rate, according to favorability and purchase intent, advertisements of 12 goods and six services; the second concerned cultural preferences (Mexican or American) and a construal of self scale. We encountered many difficulties cultural and methodological throughout the process working with an under-sampled population that limited statistically significant results. The lessons we learned were rather those of surveying a multicultural immigrant population, the difficulties arising in undertaking such a project, and how to improve future academic studies within a nonacademic population.

This work was supervised by Annette Nierobisz and Mija Van Der Wege

Vang, Pachee '14

Speech Surrogates of the White Hmong: A Study of the Representation of Hmong Tones as Musical Pitches on the Nkauj Nog Ncas (Two-Stringed Violin)

Hmong musicians surpass the combination of melodies by transforming the ineffable through instruments, one pitch representing one word; a phenomenon called speech surrogacy. Unlike our elders, we did not understand the words played from Hmong speech surrogates. Therefore, we looked into studies on Hmong music and language from Poss (2005) flute, Catlin (1981) sung poetry, and Falk (2003) open-reed pipe organ who found similar pitch-system patterns. We expanded on these studies with the two-stringed violin, examining the lexical-tones correspondence to musical-pitches, tones collapsing into one pitch, and the instrument's style of "speech." We collected music pieces from seven musicians and analyzed the pitches of each word. In short, a pattern of high tones to high pitches and vise versa suggests that tones assist in the understanding of the instrument. Through this work, we hope that Hmong youth understand Hmong speech surrogacy better and that advancements in Hmong speech surrogacy continues.

This work was supervised by Annette Nierobisz, Katie Fortin, and Melinda Russell

Vue, Bill '12

Speech Surrogates of the White Hmong: A Study of the Representation of Hmong Tones as Musical Pitches on the Nkauj Nog Ncas (Two-Stringed Violin)

Hmong musicians surpass the combination of melodies by transforming the ineffable through instruments, one pitch representing one word; a phenomenon called speech surrogacy. Unlike our elders, we did not understand the words played from Hmong speech surrogates. Therefore, we looked into studies on Hmong music and language from Poss (2005) flute, Catlin (1981) sung poetry, and Falk (2003) open-reed pipe organ who found similar pitch-system patterns. We expanded on these studies with the two-stringed violin, examining the lexical-tones correspondence to musical-pitches, tones collapsing into one pitch, and the instrument's style of "speech." We collected music pieces from seven musicians and analyzed the pitches of each word. In short, a pattern of high tones to high pitches and vise versa suggests that tones assist in the understanding of the instrument. Through this work, we hope that Hmong youth understand Hmong speech surrogacy better and that advancements in Hmong speech surrogacy continues.

This work was supervised by Annette Nierobisz, Katie Fortin, and Melinda Russell

Vue, Bao '12

Speech Surrogates of the White Hmong: A Study of the Representation of Hmong Tones as Musical Pitches on the Nkauj Nog Ncas (Two-Stringed Violin)

Hmong musicians surpass the combination of melodies by transforming the ineffable through instruments, one pitch representing one word; a phenomenon called speech surrogacy. Unlike our elders, we did not understand the words played from Hmong speech surrogates. Therefore, we looked into studies on Hmong music and language from Poss (2005) flute, Catlin (1981) sung poetry, and Falk (2003) open-reed pipe organ who found similar pitch-system patterns. We expanded on these studies with the two-stringed violin, examining the lexical-tones correspondence to musical-pitches, tones collapsing into one pitch, and the instrument's style of "speech." We collected music pieces from seven musicians and analyzed the pitches of each word. In short, a pattern of high tones to high pitches and vise versa suggests that tones assist in the understanding of the instrument. Through this work, we hope that Hmong youth understand Hmong speech surrogacy better and that advancements in Hmong speech surrogacy continues.

This work was supervised by Annette Nierobisz, Katie Fortin, and Melinda Russell

Walker, Alex '12

What Factors Regulate the Automobile Related Negative Consequences of Alcohol Consumption in the Twin Cities Metro Area of Minnesota?

This project investigated negative consequences of alcohol consumption in the seven county metro area surrounding the Twin Cities, Minnesota. After using statistical modeling to isolate useful variables, a spatial analysis was conducted on the appropriate variables to predict three negative consequences: motor vehicle crashes (MVCs), motor vehicle fatalities MVFs) and arrests for driving while intoxicated (DWIs). The intention was to provide a snapshot of risk for the metro counties relative to each other, for example: which counties have the highest predicted rates of drinking and driving? Demographic, economic, geographic and legal information were incorporated into the model with the intent of identifying the factors that contribute to illegal roadway actions and their consequences. Analysis showed that prediction models for MVFs and DWIs contained serious issues and that only the MVC model was appropriate for prediction. Analysis of the MVC model showed that a wide range of variables determined negative consequences and that differences in legislation did not have an effect in determining the extent of alcohol related issues.

This work was supervised by Tsegaye Nega

Williams, David '12

XXXX Desea Usted? Consumer and Survey Participant Behavior within a Multiethnic Community

Seeing a lack of research sufficiently addressing the issue of acculturation's impact on the ethnocentric tendency of consumers regarding the country of origin effect, we presented Mexican-Americans living in Northfield, Minnesota, with a two-part questionnaire. The first asked participants to rate, according to favorability and purchase intent, advertisements of 12 goods and six services; the second concerned cultural preferences (Mexican or American) and a construal of self scale. We encountered many difficulties--cultural and methodological--throughout the process working with an under-sampled population that limited statistically significant results. The lessons we learned were rather those of surveying a multicultural immigrant population, the difficulties arising in undertaking such a project, and how to improve future academic studies within a nonacademic population.

This work was supervised by Annette Nierobisz and Mija Van Der Wege

Xiong, Milah '14

Speech Surrogates of the White Hmong: A Study of the Representation of Hmong Tones as Musical Pitches on the Nkauj Nog Ncas (Two-Stringed Violin)

Hmong musicians surpass the combination of melodies by transforming the ineffable through instruments, one pitch representing one word; a phenomenon called speech surrogacy. Unlike our elders, we did not understand the words played from Hmong speech surrogates. Therefore, we looked into studies on Hmong music and language from Poss (2005) flute, Catlin (1981) sung poetry, and Falk (2003) open-reed pipe organ who found similar pitch-system patterns. We expanded on these studies with the two-stringed violin, examining the lexical-tones correspondence to musical-pitches, tones collapsing into one pitch, and the instrument's style of "speech." We collected music pieces from seven musicians and analyzed the pitches of each word. In short, a pattern of high tones to high pitches and vise versa suggests that tones assist in the understanding of the instrument. Through this work, we hope that Hmong youth understand Hmong speech surrogacy better and that advancements in Hmong speech surrogacy continues.

This work was supervised by Annette Nierobisz, Katie Fortin, and Melinda Russell

Abadian-Heifetz, Ariana '12

Following the Flame

I journeyed to India to travel the path Persian Zoroastrians took to escape persecution following Islamic conquest of their lands 1,400 years ago. As a Zoroastrian by birth, I intended to reclaim my heritage by better understanding the essence of my religion, how others practice it, the significance it holds, and how the religion has evolved. In each community I explored Zoroastrian fire temples and interviewed those still practicing. I wanted to deeply understand: What vital messages might this ancient religion have for us today that has managed to stay alive despite the pressures of persecution and modernity? How can I internalize the  Zoroastrian message of good thoughts, good words, and good deeds?

Beck, James '12

Tracing Uighur Identity from the East to the West of China

This experiential research project mostly took place in Xinjiang, the western-most province in China. The project was designed to gain a fuller understanding of the lifestyles, culture, and changing identities of the Uighurs - a Turkic ethnic group that flourished in the time of the silk road. James Beck developed relationships, stayed in villages with Uighurs, and expanded his understanding of the current complex power structures and politics in China.

Clark, Julia '12

Constructing a Soul: the Origins of Pinoko in Tezuka Osamu's Black Jack

This paper, which was presented at the School Girl and Mobile Suits Conference at the Minneapolis College of Art and Design in September, outlines Tezuka Osamu's overall vision of the self as shaped by the narratives and texts that we consume, demonstrated by instances of allusion and Noh and Bunraku symbolism in the chapter entitled "Teratoid Cystoma" from Black Jack Volume 1. "Teratoid Cystoma" represents a fascination with intertextuality which is found more subtly throughout Tezuka's work, blurring the boundary between reality and a world of text. In this paper, Julia traces these themes throughout Tezuka's vast body of work and explores what this intertextuality means in terms of Tezuka's ideas about identity and mortality.

Ea, Dennis '13

Medicine for Sick Children - Kampala, Uganda

The Medicine for Sick Children Foundation serves to bring first aid medical cabinets to the neediest children's orphanages in Kampala, Uganda. Our long-term study seeks to provide data on the impact that basic first aid medicine has on child health and development and whether household treatment can be effective in orphan care. Dennis constructed first aid cabinets and collected children measurements and medical backgrounds.

Fishman, Joseph '13

Men With Arms

Men with Arms is a feature film written, directed, edited, and produced in New York City by three Carleton students over the course of the summer. The film is about a young man who slowly escapes his deteriorating family and discovers himself through the sounds of New York City. The objective of this project was to project our skills learned in the CAMS department onto a large scale piece that could potentially garner national and international recognition for the directors, the CAMS department, and Carleton. Carleton was a major contributor to the film and without the help of the college, we would not have been able to make such a large scale collaborative project. Gabriel Loeb, Matt Spevack and I shared equivalent roles in the production, editing, producing, and directing.

Will be screened at Carleton in the end of winter or the beginning of spring.

Link: http://www.indiegogo.com/menwitharms

Frumkin, Rebekah '12

Nebeneinander, Nacheinander: James Joyce, Bertrand Russell and the Philosophy of Language

I received a Class of 1963 Scholarship to conduct scholarly research at the James Joyce Foundation in Zurich, Switzerland. I was an attendee at the International James Joyce Workshop, where I presented my research. This Workshop's theme was "Pierced but not Punctured," a phrase from Finnegans Wake that more or less means "punctuation." I'm a philosophy major, so it was nice for me to be able to incorporate my specific knowledge of the Philosophy of Language into a presentation on modern literature. I spoke about dialogue in "Ulysses" and "Dubliners," incorporating Russell's philosophy of meaning and denotation from "On Denoting."

Hockenbury, Laura '12

The Way of Water: Examining the Environmental and Human Impacts of the Arun River in the Koshi Region of Nepal

The idea is simple enough: to follow a river and see where it goes. Laura traced the Arun River as it flows through Nepal, from the High Himalayas (elevation ranging from 10,000 to 20,000 feet) to the Terai region (elevation 300 feet) on the border of India. Along the way, she took water samples and performed various water quality tests from each distinct ecosystem. Investigation was also made into the people in the villages along the Arun regarding their perceptions, beliefs, and attitudes towards and about the river itself, with special focus on climate change and development, and chronicled the difference between mountain and plains culture in Nepal.

Ngo, Hai '12

Fovea Centralis: A Visual Commentary on the Medium of Photography in the 21st Century

Failure is one of the most valuable moments to a photographer. In this moment contains the conscious aspects that the artist has put in the photograph, but also many other aspects waiting to be realized by the audience and, more importantly, the photographer. In a journey of self-discovery through the medium of photography, Hai Ngo returns to Vietnam to conduct a genealogy project and a photography project.

Exhibited in Gould Library.

Spevack, Matthew '13

Men With Arms (Feature Film)

Men With Arms is a feature-length fiction film that was written, directed, produced, and edited by three Carls over the course of one summer in New York City. The project was a collaboration between Matt Spevack, Joey Fishman, and Gabriel Loeb, the three co-founders of Mothers Favorite Pictures, Inc. The film is slated for its Carleton premiere early Spring 2012 and will hit the international film festival circuit the following Fall/Winter.

Link: http://www.indiegogo.com/menwitharms

Trees, Hannah '12

Exploring the Sources of Moral Authority: Religion, the State, and Personal Autonomy

Interested in dealing with ethics as an existential issue, Hannah explored the work of Sartre and Kierkegaard in order to grapple with the question of whether or not complete moral autonomy benefits an individual's personal existence. Unsatisfied both with Sartre's morally self-defined individual and Kierkegaard's individual defined by religious ethical standard, she looked to Charles Taylor's work in communitarianism for a more complete account of individual moral existence. Finding in Taylor's work a portrait of the individual as one necessarily embedded in the moral norms of a community, she concluded that complete moral autonomy is never a realistic goal, nor is it one that deals with the existential anxiety to which both Sartre and Kierkegaard call our attention.

Ackerman, Daniel '13

Stable Isotopes Indicate Nitrogen Sources in Carnivorous Plants Across Contrasting Habitat Types in Sub-Arctic Sweden

The goal of this research was to determine nitrogen acquisition patterns in the carnivorous plant Pinguicula vulgaris (common butterwort). In July, Ackerman collected plant, soil and insect samples from different habitats in Northern Sweden. In August, the samples were analyzed in a stable isotope mass spectrometer at the University of New Hampshire to measure how much of the plants' nitrogen is insect-derived, and whether that value varies between contrasting habitat types and different plant parts, such as foliage and roots.

Will be presented at the American Geophysical Union conference in San Francisco this December.

This work was supervised by Erik Hobbie (University of New Hampshire)

Adelman, Eli '13

Identity Creation and Construction in Usman dan Fodio's Jihad

This project studies the writings of Usman dan Fodio, a West African scholar, reformer, and jihadist in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Dan Fodio’s successful jihad ultimately led to the foundation of the Sokoto Caliphate, which would remain in existence into the 20th century. Adelman used the knowledge he has gleaned from secondary sources of dan Fodio's life and jihad to critically read dan Fodio's writings (at least the ones that are available in English). While reading, he looked for ways that and noted specific instances in which dan Fodio grafted a new identity that would be simultaneously attractive to potential followers and steeped in his vision of a pure Islam, or an Islam that revolved fully around a focus on root sources, such as the Quran, the Sunna, and early Abbasid and Maliki exegetical writings.

This work was supervised by Thabiti Willis

Alexander, Lauren '13

Eckankar: An Ethnography of a Minnesotan New Religious Movement

This project explores the beliefs, lifestyle, traditions, and worldview of Eckankar, a New Religious Movement based in a western suburb of the Twin Cities, MN. Through original ethnographic field work centered on interviews, phone calls, and research of both scholarly and primary sources (sacred texts, newsletters, etc.) of Eckankar, Alexander examined the sites, documents, and texts of Eckankar and took part in services, ceremonies, and group gatherings. In addition to examining Eckankar today, her project placed Eckankar and its development within the wider landscape of New Religious Movements and their acceptance in and rejection from American culture, the unique location of Eckankar within Minnesota, and larger questions about what can, does, and should qualify as 'religion' within our society. Because very little scholarly work exists on Eckankar, this project represents an important and holistic study of a modern, Midwestern New Religious Movement.

This work was supervised by Shana Sippy

Alreja, Adit '14

Opioid G-Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs): Dose Dependent Activation in Cultured Cells Transferred with Receptor DNA

Alreja prepared cultured HEK-293 cells containing stably expressed mu-opioid receptors to study ligand recognition and signal activation. In addition to transfecting the cells with receptor DNA using a liposomal reagent, a transfected chimeric G protein Δ6-Gqi4-myr, whose activation is coupled to mobilizing calcium release, was used to transform the native alpha-subunit of the Gi/Go G-protein that couples to the receptor. Occupation of a recognition site on the opioid receptor by a high affinity ligand triggers signal transduction via the chimeric protein, activating phospholipase-C to stimulate Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. Cells thus stimulated were subjected to Ca2+ measurement using fluorescence; the dose-response relationship was determined. Opioid GPCRs that do not embody a marker to visualize signal transduction are transformed into a powerful tool in the Portoghese laboratory, where cells co-expressing receptor heteromers are used to design ligands that may lead to better analgesics devoid of addiction potential.

This work was supervised by Philip S. Portoghese (University of Minnesota)

Anderson, Kelly '13

Male Preference Is Enhanced in Female Rats Receiving Clitoral-Vaginocervical Lidocaine Prior to Paced Mating Behavior

Female rats exhibit paced mating behavior, in which the female controls the rate and timing of stimulation during sexual interactions with a male rat. We previously found that application of clitoral-vaginocervical (CVC) lidocaine alters the display of paced mating behavior, possibly by decreasing the elements of mating that may be aversive for the female rat. The present study examined the female rats’ sexual motivation as measured by preference for a male vs. female rat during a no contact partner preference test. The results suggest that lidocaine application reduced the aversive aspects of paced mating, leading to increased motivation to seek out a male. This experiment adds to our understanding that the complex interplay of aversive and rewarding sensory information affects the moment-to-moment display of mating behavior as well as sexual motivation. Kelly Anderson conducted behavioral testing, data entry and analysis.

This work was supervised by Sarah Meerts

Ashinsky, Beth '13

ER stress response to procollagen triple helix misfolding

The purpose of this study is to characterize misfolded procollagen with glycine substitution mutations in human fibroblasts with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). Specifically, we sought to identify which endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathways are upregulated in OI. Ashinsky was responsible for maintaining cell culture of the fibroblasts, performing collagen secretion and folding experiments, staining for ER stress markers using immunofluorescence, and performing quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR). Additionally, Ashinsky was responsible for analyzing the results of her experiments, which will contribute to a future publication at the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NIH).

This work was supervised by Sergey Leikin (National Institutes of Health)

Baquet, Zachary '13

Street Performance in Quito, Ecuador and Lima, Peru

This project examines the art and culture of street performance in these two capital Latin American cities. It is an ethnographic account of the street performers that tells both how they view themselves and how society views them as street performers. The project consists of two films that attempt to give a voice to these street performers against the stereotypes and phobias they face in their work every day. Baquet filmed this project in Quito, Ecuador. He came up with all of the questions and examined the pre-existing literature on the topic to prepare for the field research and after to better understand it. Ben Walsh (’14) helped Zachary Baquet film in Lima, Peru and was also a part of the video editing process.

This work was supervised by Bill North and Thabiti Willis

Bechtel, Tyler '13

Development of a Direct Activity Sensor for Interrogating Pertubations in Cell Migration Signaling

The ability of tumor cells to aberrantly migrate to, and invade distant tissues is a hallmark of aggressive cancers. Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) has been identified as a key signaling molecule which regulates the remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. Literature evidence has demonstrated increased activation of ROCK in several types of cancer and inhibition of ROCK has been shown to decrease invasive phenotypes. The overarching goal of the project was to develop a direct activity sensor for ROCK2 in order to: 1) potentially develop small-molecule inhibitors of this enzyme and 2) elucidate biologically relevant perturbations in ROCK2 activity during cancer progression. Bechtel synthesized a complementary substrate for ROCK and evaluated multiple properties of the kinase using a CSox fluorescent sensor.

This work was supervised by Cliff Stains (University of Nebraska - Lincoln)

Beck, Jared '14

Cowling Arboretum Grassland Breeding Bird Survey

The Grassland Breeding Bird Survey is designed to monitor populations of grassland-dependent birds and establish what species are breeding in the Arb in addition to exploring the impacts of management practices such as prescribed fire on grassland birds. Beck conducted the survey in the summer of 2012, organized the data and analyzed the results.

This work was supervised by Nancy Braker

Boerma, Joseph W. '13

Metal-Ligand Multiply Bonded Species for Small-Molecule Activation

Our research focuses on the activation and transformation of energy-relevant small molecules such as hydrogen and carbon dioxide by coordination complexes containing late transition metal-ligand multiple bonds. Towards this goal, we have worked to develop reproducible synthesis of silicon-based tridentate ligands for subsequent attachment to late transition metals and formation of metal-silicon multiple bonds. The ligands and their metal complexes were synthesized using air-free manipulations and were characterized by infrared and multinuclear NMR spectroscopies. Future work will involve purifying the metal complexes and exploring their small-molecule reactivity.

This work was supervised by Matthew Whited

DeRosha, Daniel E. '13

Metal-Ligand Multiply Bonded Species for Small-Molecule Activation

Our research focuses on the activation and transformation of energy-relevant small molecules such as hydrogen and carbon dioxide by coordination complexes containing late transition metal-ligand multiple bonds. Towards this goal, we have worked to develop reproducible synthesis of silicon-based tridentate ligands for subsequent attachment to late transition metals and formation of metal-silicon multiple bonds. The ligands and their metal complexes were synthesized using air-free manipulations and were characterized by infrared and multinuclear NMR spectroscopies. Future work will involve purifying the metal complexes and exploring their small-molecule reactivity.

This work was supervised by Matthew Whited

Borchardt, Jennifer '13

Effects of Human Mitochondrial Alanyl-tRNA Synthetase Mutations on Enzyme Function

This work examines the biochemical function of the human mitochondrial alanyl-tRNA synthetase (Hs mt AlaRS). Mutations within the editing domain of this protein lead to infantile cardiomyopathy, a fatal condition. Our goal is to understand on a molecular level how these mutants impair protein function and cause pathogenic phenotypes. Using published data on related enzymes as a guide, we created and characterized an editing-defective mutant of Hs mt AlaRS. This mutant will be compared to a specific pathogenic mutation, R592W, and will be used as a means of mischarging tRNAAla with serine to generate substrate for deacylation assays. Acylation, misacylation and deacylation assays with the wildtype and mutant proteins are in progress to explore how the R592W mutation affects charging of tRNA with alanine or serine and removal of serine from mischarged tRNAAla.

This work was supervised by Joe Chihade

Borden, Meredith '13

The Synthesis and Characterization of Vapochromatic Platinum Extended Linear Chain Materials

This research studies the potential for platinum-based extended linear chain materials as vapochromic detectors of benzene and its derivatives. By synthesizing platinum materials with a variety of substituents, we hope to compile structural data that will inform synthesis of future reversible and vapochromic detection materials.

This work was supervised by Steven Drew

Gorski, Galen '13

The Synthesis and Characterization of Vapochromatic Platinum Extended Linear Chain Materials

This research studies the potential for platinum-based extended linear chain materials as vapochromic detectors of benzene and its derivatives. By synthesizing platinum materials with a variety of substituents, we hope to compile structural data that will inform synthesis of future reversible and vapochromic detection materials.

This work was supervised by Steven Drew

Borsh, Colin '13

The Biocontrol Potential of Toxomerus Marginatus for the Suppression of the Invasive Aphis Glycines

The invasion of the Asian soybean aphid in 2000 led to widespread damages to American soybean crops and passed on high monetary costs to farmers. Borsh worked over the summer of '12 in the Heimpel lab at the University of Minnesota, a lab which had biocontrol, the suppression of pest species through the use of other living organisms, as one of its primary focuses. The high biocontrol services provided by the European hoverfly Eristalis Tenax have been studied extensively by European labs, but very limited work has been done on American hoverflies. Borsh’s work on the native Minnesotan hoverfly Toxomerus marginatus provided information on its life stage durations and investigated its potential for the suppression of the soybean aphid compared to two native aphid species, A. monardae and A. nerii.

This work was supervised by George Heimpel and Gregg Johnson (University of Minnesota)

Brobeck, Emma '13

Amicita, Pudor, and Liberalitas in Terence's Adelphoe

Terence’s Adelphoe is a Roman comedy about the competing parenting philosophies of two brothers, which features a role reversal between lenient father and strict father in the final act. This research project aims at making sense of the reversal in the final act through an examination of social relations within the play as well as Republican Roman society with a focus on "amicitia" (friendship), "pudor" (shame), and "liberalitas" (generosity). This was a collaborative research project between Professor Clara Hardy, Mellisa Udhayananondh (’13), and Emma Brobeck. All have contributed to an extensive annotated bibliography for a future article on the topic.

This work was supervised by Clara Hardy

Buckley, Aaron '14

Dendritic Epidermal T cells

Dendritic Epidermal T cells (DETCs), are a subset of gamma delta T cells found in epidermal tissue. Relatively little is known of the function of these cells. This project involved quantifying and locating DETCs in human tissue using immunohistochemical and fluorescent staining. Buckley collected data and gained an understanding of basic immunology and several types of staining performed in the lab.

This work was supervised by Wendy Havran (Scripps Research)

Campbell, Josh '13

Effects of HIV Protease Inhibitors on Caspase Activity

Proteases are enzymes responsible for breaking down proteins into smaller peptide chains, which is important for many biological functions including digestion, cellular upkeep, and epitope presentation to immune cells. One type of protease, caspases, are responsible for cleaving cellular targets during apoptosis, and apoptotic cells can produce novel epitopes for presentation on neighboring cells. During HIV treatment, patients are prescribed a protease inhibitor in an effort to hinder HIV protease, which makes active virus particles from newly synthesized poly-proteins. However, these protease inhibitors (PIs) have also been shown to cause variations in the activity levels of endogenous proteases. This project was examining the effects of common HIV protease inhibitors on caspase activity. This is important to study because if the drugs are influencing caspase activity may also be influencing the epitopes being produced from the apoptotic cell. All PIs tested showed at least some inhibition of caspases.

This work was supervised by Sylvie Le Gall (Ragon Institute/Harvard Medical School)

Cardiel, Allison '13

Peptide Interactions With Ti02 and Al203 Nanoparticles

Nanoparticles (particularly TiO2 and Al2O3 nanoparticles) are increasingly being used in the manufacturing of commercially available products (e.g. food, personal care products, munitions). Because of their size, nanoparticles can denature proteins, which are essential to life and biological function. Cardiel focused on the development of analytical techniques (involving confocal Raman microscopy, FTIR, and quartz crystal microbalance) that will be used to study the kinetics and thermodynamics of peptide binding to nanoparticles. Such information will provide insight into the long and short-term effects of peptide binding in the environment or biological systems.

This work was supervised by Robert J. Hamers (University of Wisconsin-Madison)

Carruthers, Sam '13

A simulation - based examination of locally weighted regression

This project was to culminate in a peer-reviewed article examining LWR as a modeling tool in a simulated environment and inform future empirical researchers on LWR's behavior. Carruthers conducted a literature review in order to assess the state of the LWR literature and to help determine possible areas in which Prof. Swoboda's article could advance the field. He then worked with Prof. Swoboda in designing a Monte Carlo LWR simulation in order to examine LWR's behavior in different parameter and error scenarios.

This work was supervised by Aaron Swoboda

Carter, Sarah '13

Thymoquinone, a bioactive component of Nigella Sativa, modulates I_2-cell redox status and insulin secretion

Insulin secretion from pancreatic Î_-cells is dependent upon glucose metabolism inside these cells. Glycolysis is central to the metabolic signaling pathways which lead to glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), and requires continuous re-oxidation of glycolytically-derived NADH back to NAD+. Thymoquinone, a main active ingredient of plant Nigella sativa can regenerate NAD+ in the Î_-cell cytosol via glucose-dependent redox cycling, a process which utilizes NAD(P)H and generates H2O2. In the rat Î_-cell line, INS-1 832/13 cells, thymoquinone, applied at low micromolar levels, was found to decrease NAD(P)H/NAD(P)+ ratio and generate low levels of H2O2, a novel coupling factor required for GSIS. In parallel, same doses of thymoquinone enhanced GSIS. This supports the hypothesis that thymoquinone amplifies GSIS via 1) generation of low levels of H2O2 and 2) enhancement of glycolytic flux via regeneration of NAD+.

This work was supervised by Emma Heart (Marine Biological Labs)

Chael, Andrew '13

Weaving an Effective Web of Writing Center Relationships at Small Liberal-Arts Colleges

At the 2011 Midwest Writing Centers Association Conference in Madison Wisconsin, Chael presented research on the multiple roles and divergent constituencies of writing centers at small liberal arts colleges. With Debbie Wong ('13), ASC director Kathy Evertz, and writing center directors and consultants from Coe and Illinois colleges, Chael discussed the opportunities and special rhetorical, cultural, political, and intellectual challenges of "spinning a web" of relationships with other community agencies.

This work was supervised by Kathy Evertz

Chael, Andrew '13

Orthagonal Modes and Polarization Statistics of PSR J1456-6843

Pulsars are rapidly rotating neutron stars that emit regular pulses of radio emission. Individual pulses vary wildly in brightness and shape, but average to a stable pulsar fingerprint. In collaboration with Ryan Shannon at CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science in Sydney, Australia, I developed a pipeline to process data from tens of thousands of single pulses to investigate their radio polarization characteristics. In the pulses of PSR J1456-6843, I discovered the presence of orthogonally polarized emission modes, a phenomenon never before observed in this pulsar. I found that the dominant polarization mode of the single pulses at a given pulse longitude is correlated to the total pulse energy, but with a high degree of variation. Intriguing regions of non-orthogonal emission suggest the presence of overlapping emission regions in the pulsar magnetosphere with distinct mode energy distributions. This new data further complicates the already poor understanding of the pulsar emission process.

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

This work was supervised by Ryan Shannon (CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science)

Chandra, Raghav '14

Chamaecrista fasciculata Genomics

Chamaecrista fasciculata, commonly known as the Partridge Pea, has emerged as a potential model organism for the study of plant development. Our research, in the broadest sense, focuses on the role of temperature leading to differential flowering patterns of C. fasciculata. We sampled three sites in Minnesota, namely Weaver Dunes, McKnight Prairie, and Grey Cloud Dunes. We constructed two one hundred-meter transects at Weaver Dunes, four fifty-meter transects at McKnight Prairie, and two fifty-meter transects at Grey Cloud Dunes. We tagged several hundred individual C. fasciculata plants in all transects and recorded height, node of first floral initiation (hereafter referred to as NFI), node of first open flower (hereafter referred to as NFOF), and number of expanded leaves and axillary buds for each site. Data was collected on a weekly basis over the course of ten weeks. Additionally, twenty plants were obtained from Weaver Dunes and McKnight Prairie for DNA extraction and amplification of nine specific flowering genes through PCR for sequencing and analysis. We then sent the PCR results to Elim Bio-Pharmaceuticals so that the sequences could be analyzed. When we received the sequencing results, we aligned the sequences using Tree of Life to assess whether or not genetic or environmental factors has a stronger effect on flowering patterns in C. fasciculata. We are awaiting sequencing results from Elim and will analyze as soon as possible.

This work was supervised by Susan Singer

Chavez, Julissa '13

How to Cheat at Sex and Win: Meiotic Drive in Fission Yeast

Speciation occurs when related organisms evolve to no longer interbreed and produce fertile offspring. S. pombe(Sp) and S. kambucha(Sk) are normally haploid species, but can mate to produce viable hybrid diploids. Although viable, the hybrid diploids are largely infertile when compared to pure species diploids. This decreased fertility is partially due to unfair sexual reproduction through which the Sk alleles are transmitted at greater than 50% to the progeny, exhibiting meiotic drive. Meiotic drive leads to genetic conflict though an evolutionary arms race between the driving alleles and suppressors, causing rapid evolution and eventually speciation. Sp/Sk hybrids produce progeny that inherit Sk alleles at a greater frequency than Sp alleles, but this Sk drive is not due to differential viability of haploids. This brings to question the basis of this biased inheritance. Is drive drive phenotype genetically or epigenetically inherited? Various recombination-independent haploid S. kambucha, S. pombe, and hybrids were mated to produce genotypically identical diploids and then put through meiosis to assay their progeny. The progeny had different genotype frequencies despite genotypically identical diploids, depicting that meiotic drive phenotype has an epigenetic basis. One haploid cross did not exhibit drive, suggesting that meiotic drive phenotype can be eliminated epigenetically and that the genotypes of the haploid parents, rather than the genotype of the diploid, affects the meiotic phenotype of the progeny.

This work was supervised by Harmit Malik (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center & the HHMI)

Chen, Rose '15

Effects of PRMT5 Inhibitor on Lung Cancer Cell Lines

The p53 gene is a tumor-suppressor gene, which keeps cell numbers down by preventing cell birth, or promoting programmed cell death. In cancer cells, this gene is usually mutant. It’s also been found that another gene, PRMT5, is overexpressed in different malignancies and is involved in cell proliferation. To see how PRMT5 affects cancer cells, we used western blots to measure the expression level of p53, and other genes associated with cell proliferation after treating cells with PRMT5 inhibitor. Also since p53 plays an important role in radiation damage repair and cell cycle arrest, we plated several plates of cells with PRMT5 inhibitor and treated them with different drug/radiation treatments. Then we used clonogenic assays to see if PRMT5 inhibition can make the cells more sensitive to the treatments. Chen assisted in running gels and data analysis.

This work was supervised by Meng Welliver and Smitha Sharma (Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center)

Christenson, Catherine '14

Geochemical Analysis of Surface Water in Rice County, Minnesota

Monitoring the quality of surface water is essential to protecting freshwater systems from pollution. For the past four years, Rice County, located in southeastern Minnesota, has been subject to continuous research with the objective of determining the long-term effects of farmland runoff in the water systems. During the summer of '12, 105 samples were collected from lakes, rivers, and streams. The samples were analyzed for conductivity, nitrate, chloride, calcium, and phosphate. Results show nitrate levels exceeding EPA restrictions (ranging 10-25 ppm) at some locations in the streams along farmlands in the southeast corner of the county. These findings are consistent with past results correlating nitrate levels with farmland runoff, with potential impact on contamination of surficial aquifers as well as significant lake eutrophication observed in the state. ICP-MS results on 67 samples exhibit complex geographical trends across the county not readily attributed to anthropogenic sources. Our findings should inform residents and policy makers taking measures to improve water quality in the county. In addition, annual studies should be continued to monitor water quality in Rice County. Rose Prullage (’13) and Mary Reagan Harvey (’14) collaborated on this project.

This work was supervised by Bereket Haileab

Chu, Jennie '14

T-P and depth conditions of the basalt suites from the Crescent Formation on the Olympic Peninsula

This project examines the geochemical analyses of basalt samples of the Crescent Formation in Coastal Washington. By using a set of geothermobarometers, Chu was able to determine the pressure, temperature, and depth in which certain crystals in the basalts formed. Chu did the calculations.

This work was supervised by Bereket Haileab

Cvitkovic, Milan '13

Computational Investigations of Organocatalysts for Biorenewable Desymmetrization

Organocatalysis, the use of small, organic molecules as catalysts for chemical reactions, is a burgeoning area of research due to its synthetic utility and environmental sustainability. This project used computational quantum mechanical techniques to model a useful organocatalytic reaction in order to improve the methodology and study the action of the catalyst, quinine, a prototypical organocatalyst. Our calculations resulted in the identification of four most stable catalyst conformations and revealed that the mechanism of reaction is likely a concerted nucleophilic attack, in contrast to what was predicted in previous literature.

This work was supervised by Daniela Kohen, Gretchen Hofmeister, Daved Alberg

Dossa, Scott '14

Glitch Detection Program Comparison

This project looks to analyze Gravitational Wave data using two primary glitch detection programs. These programs are necessary in searching for both gravitational waves and noise in signals. Once the supercomputers were set to run these programs, Dossa began designing head to head statistical comparisons of the data in order to compare program efficiency under different conditions.

This work was supervised by Nelson Christensen

Duggins, Peter '13

Chasing Quantum Butterflies: Chaotic Behavior in the Quantum-Classical Transition

Systems that display extreme sensitivity in their long-term behavior to small perturbations are chaotic, and a variety of physical, biological, and mathematical systems exhibit this behavior. However, chaos is a classical phenomenon, and microscopic systems governed by quantum mechanics do not behave chaotically. This raises the question: since the world is fundamentally quantum mechanical, why and how does chaos only emerge in classically-sized systems? We investigated the quantum-classical transition of a classically chaotic system, the Double Well Duffing Oscillator. Using the Lyapunov Exponent, a metric for chaotic behavior, we mapped out the details of the transition regime by varying the system size (through the effective Planck's Constant) as well as the strength of environmental effects. We found that in the transition regime, the Lyapunov shows a non-monotonic dependence on h-bar and an incomplete correspondence to the classical limit. These results indicate that quantum effects induce chaotic behavior.

This work was supervised by Arjendu Pattanayak

English, Lydia '13

Effects of Field Age, Herbivory, and Fire Frequency on Soil Nutrient Availability in a Restored Prarie

Both biotic and abiotic factors may affect soil nutrient availability. Herbivores can affect nutrient availability through selective foraging and the deposition of waste. Additionally soil nutrient availability may also be affected by factors such as successional stage and time since fire. This study examined soil nutrient availability across different herbivore treatments in a restored Minnesota tallgrass prairie. Herbivore treatments excluded a combination of rabbits, voles, and deer and were located across a successional gradient that varied in time since burning. Ion exchange resin bags were used to determine the quantity of nitrate, phosphate, and ammonium within the soil in order to assess the relative important of each of these factors.

This work was supervised by Daniel Hernandez

Epping, Madeline '13

Role of Xanthine Dehydrogenase in Sceloporus Lizard Color Polymorphism

This project is designed to determine the genetic basis for the sexually dimorphic color polymorphism displayed by Sceloporus undulatus erthyrocheilus lizards. Males of this species exhibit orange, yellow or white pterin-based pigmentation along the anterior ventral surface. Mating behavior has been previously shown to correlate with coloration. Xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) is currently being examined as a potential candidate for the phenotypic color differences. XDH is a member of the pterin-synthesis pathway whose final product is additionally involved in neurotransmitter synthesis. The XDH gene is being sequenced to detect any variations in the code between color morphs. Differences in expression between the morphs or alternative splicing of the mRNA product are also being examined as possible mechanisms.

This work was supervised by Matt Rand

Farry-Thorn, Molly '13

Clitoral-Vaginocervical Lidocaine Alters Paced Mating Behavior in Female Rats

Paced mating behavior, the approach and withdrawal behavior of female rats during a sexual interaction with a male, is modulated by sensory input. More intense mating stimulations (mount < intromission < ejaculation) result in longer contact-return latencies. Paced mating behavior is influenced by sensory integration, but the specific input of the clitoris, vagina and cervix remain unclear. Research has shown that Lidocaine applied to the genital region can influence paced mating behavior. Our two experiments examined whether the location of Lidocaine application affected paced mating behavior in Long-Evans rats. When the ointment was applied to the clitoral+vaginocervial area, contact-return latencies following ejaculation differed significantly between rats treated with Lidocaine or Vaseline on the 5th test. No difference was observed when the ointment was applied to the vaginocervical area only suggesting sensory input from both the clitoral and vaginocervical areas is important. Farry-Thorn helped with surgeries, behavioral tests and data entry.

This work was supervised by Sarah Meerts

Funk, Derek '13

Investigating the Water Quality of Lake Lillinonah

Lake Lillinonah, located in Western Connecticut, has been experiencing harmful seasonal algal blooms. In this project, statistical techniques such as regression and time series methods were used to investigate the water quality of the lake and to produce models that explain the seasonal patterns of algal blooms. Statistical analysis was performed on variables measuring water quality and atmospheric conditions, using chlorophyll and dissolved oxygen at 15 meters below the water surface as the main dependent variables of interest. Autocorrelation of the errors was a persistent problem in simple and multiple ordinary least squares regression, which was addressed using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average models and Generalized Least Squares. Using these latter two time series methods, several statistically significant models were produced.

This work was supervised by Laura McSweeny (Fairfield University)

Gage, Lily '15

Investigating the Role of Water and Nitrogen Stress in White Clover Cyanogenesis Clines

The purpose of this research was to investigate the role of water and nitrogen stress in Trifolium repens clines. Trifolium repens maintain a defense polymorphism for the production of hydrogen cyanide. Greenhouse studies indicate a fitness tradeoff for cyanogenesis where cyanogenic plants are more fit under abiotic, stressful conditions. We used a factorial design to manipulate water and nitrogen stress and cyanotype in growth chambers. We predicted cyanogenic plants would show higher fitness than acyanogenic plants under stressful conditions in growth chambers. We found higher total plant reproductive output for cyanogenic plants under water stress than acyanogenic plants under the same conditions. Cyanogenic plants fared better than acyanogenic plants under high fertilizer conditions. This could be because having high fertilizer placed less stress on the cyanogenic plants, leaving more energy for the production of defense chemicals. Gage cared for the plants, collected fitness data, and assisted in preliminary analyses.

This work was supervised by Nicholas Kooyres & Kenneth Olsen (Washington University in St. Louis)

Gourevitch, Jesse '14

Increased Abundance of Russula spp. Amoenolens in a Nitrogen-Enriched Oak Savanna

Nitrogen deposition can greatly impact mycorrhizal fungal communities by altering plant-fungal symbioses, in which mycorrhizal fungi supply soil nutrients to plants in return for carbon. This study examined the effects of nitrogen fertilization on Russula spp. amoenolens, a complex of mycorrhizal fungi, in a temperate oak savanna. Starting in 1987, nine 1000 m2 plots were biannually fertilized with 0, 5.4, or 17 g N m-2 yr-1. During the summer of '12, R. amoenolens mushrooms were counted every two weeks and compared with data from 2000-2002. Total mushroom abundance was significantly correlated with nitrogen supply, while there was no significant difference in the relative number of mushrooms found in each treatment in 2000-2002 and '12. This suggests that some species of mycorrhizal fungi may receive long-term benefits from high nitrogen supply.

This work was supervised by Peter Avis (Indiana University Northwest), David McLaughlin (University of Minnesota), and Peter Reich (University of Minnesota)

Granowski, Brooke '13

Printmaking and Bookbinding Apprenticeship with Professor Fred Hagstrom

Granowski worked as a research assistant for Professor Fred Hagstrom in the Studio Art department. She worked with Professor Hagstrom, a printmaker and book artist, on a production-level book project, acting as an apprentice and studio assistant. For most of the month Granowski helped him print and assemble his book Paradise Lost. This book tells the story of the American atomic bomb tests in the Bikini Atoll and the tragic consequences for the Bikini Islanders, who lost their home and way of life, as well as for the sailors, who were some of the first atomic veterans. Hagstrom taught her high-quality serigraphy, and she printed some of the text pages for the book. She also assisted in printing some of the images and then assembled the signatures and sewed and bound the books. For the remaining time in the month, Granowski helped Hagstrom with another artist’s book project, The Little Book of Slavery, a letterpress book that juxtaposes slave ship diagrams with photographs of American slaves. Granowski helped by mounting pages on board to prepare them for wire-edge binding.

This work was supervised by Fred Hagstrom

Greenstein, Rebecca '13

Defining Changes in Plasmodium falciparum Virulence Under Oxidative Stress

Infection with Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for the most severe cases of malaria, killing approximately 600,000 people yearly. Malaria-infected patients with high levels of inflammation have more severe disease outcomes than those with low inflammation. Var genes are upregulated in patients with high inflammation, and are involved in virulence and sequestration. Data in model organisms Arabidopsis and S. cerevisiae show that reactive oxygen species, an important component of inflammation, enhances genetic recombination, resulting in antigenic diversification. We thus examined the effect of ROS on var gene recombination and parasite growth. We defined lethal and sub-lethal concentrations of xanthine oxidase (XO), a reactive oxygen inducing agent. XO was added in varying concentrations to in vitro cultures. Parasites treated with high concentrations of XO (20 mU/mL) demonstrated extracellularity, sexual stages, and death. Using a sub-lethal dose of XO, 0.25 mU/mL, we identified an increase in parasite division and parasite growth. This is consistent with previous transcriptome work showing that parasites exposed to oxidative stress upregulate DNA replication and repair gene sets. We determined that treatment with XO at the identified sub-lethal dose results in recombination of the var genes when genomic DNA is cut with certain combinations of restriction enzymes.

This work was supervised by Johanna P. Daily (Albert Einstein College of Medicine)

Gregoire, Alexandria '14

Development of an in Vivo DNA Cleavage Selection System for the I-Pcal Homing Endonuclease

Homing endonuclease genes are considered to be selfish genetic elements, similar to transposons. Selfish DNAs are defined as sequences that have two distinct features; they spread by forming additional copies of themselves within the genome and they provide no obvious beneficial contribution to the reproductive success of their host organisms. These DNA endonucleases cut DNA at specific recognition sequences, and are typically encoded by introns or inteins. Since homing endonucleases recognize and cleave long DNA sequences (14-40bp), their target sites occur infrequently in the genome, making them ideal for site specific manipulation of DNA. This project studies homing endonuclease I-PcaI which cuts the same target site as already studied homing endonuclease I-SceI. Gregoire set up an in vivo bacterial genetic selection system for I-PcaI modeled after I-SceI. The genetic system will be used to determine whether I-PcaI cleaves DNA faster in vivo than I-SceI.

This work was supervised by Frederick S. Gimble (Purdue University)

Gruber, Emily '13

Robust Analysis of Metabolic Pathways

This research group created an updated mathematical model for the metabolism of a cell. It adds an uncertainty measurement to an already widely studied model. The new model is more biologically realistic and may help future researchers study metabolism. Gruber proved facets of the stability of the model and tested the model for accuracy.

This work was supervised by Allen Holder (Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology)

Hailu, Yonas '13

Trust Relationships in the Lives of Missionaries

Hailu is examining the different trust relationships that Missionaries had to develop during the nineteenth century as well as today with different groups of people, such as the indigenous people they are working with, the religious and political leaders of the area, the organizations that send the missionaries, and other fellow missionaries working along with them. He is also looking at how trust with one group of people might either positively or negatively affect the development of trust with another group of people.

This work was supervised by Thabiti Willis and Bill North

Halbach, Courtney '13

Cows, Culture and Community: Sustainable Agriculture in Luxembourg

Halbach traveled to Luxembourg where she lived with a host family and worked on their dairy farm to compare her understanding of sustainable agriculture as practiced in the United States and Western Europe. She observed how sustainable agricultural practices were implemented on local farms, the effect government policies had on these practices, and the Luxembourgish culture. The main difference she observed between agriculture in the United States and Western Europe was the important role community played in establishing area-wide sustainable standards.

Haug, Karlie '13

MG132 Alters microRNA Expression Profiles in MCF7 Human Breast Cancer Cells

This project looked into the relationship amoungst the proteasome, microRNA, and gene expression. The hypothesis driving this project was that upon 26S proteasome inhibition with MG132, distinct sets of microRNAs play important roles in regulating specific mRNAs which are implicated in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Haug performed Western blots, microarray analysis, immunofluorescence, and analyzed data.

This work was supervised by Harriet Kinyamu (National Institute of Environmental Health Services)

Hellwig, Luke '15

Looking for Colossal Magnetoresistance in EuO Thin Films

Thin films of europium-rich europium oxide (EuO) potentially display colossal magentoresistance behavior (CMR), which consists of a semiconductor to metal transistion as the film undergoes a ferromagnetic transition, between 70-120 K. We are currently developing a reliable parameter space for the growth of these films. Over the summer, we grew seven CMR samples, establishing fused silica as an appropriate substrate for CMR growth. Initial characterizations also indicate that these samples do not show the typical phase-inhomogeneous behavior of manganite CMR films.

This work was supervised by Melissa Eblen-Zayas

Heywood, Oliver '15

Optical Signal Processing

The goal of this project is to build a table-top system with both optical and electrical parts that can perform Independent Component Analysis on audio signals. ICA is a signal processing computation traditionally done by extremely slow computer algorithms that takes a mixture of independent information signals, songs in our case, and separates it into its additive sub-components. Our system would be able to accomplish this in real time as the mixture signal is received, which gives it practical applications. For example, Lockheed Martin has indicated interest in this research to counter radar-jamming in military airplanes.

This work was supervised by Marty Baylor

Hiranuma, Naozumi '14

Evolution of Cooperation and Communication in Robot Hunting

The original idea for our research comes from a paper published by Yong and Miikkulainen from the University of Texas. In their experiment, three predators and one prey were prepared. The predators were tasked to catch the prey that runs directly away from the closest predator in a toroidal world. The predators were evolved in several different ways using the ESP method. Their conclusion was that non-communicating predators can evolve faster and acquire more robust ways of catching a prey compared to communicating predators. The goal of our study was to recreate their experiment because we hypothesized that communicating predators would actually perform better with more complex prey and environment. Thus, we extended their experiment by using a prey that runs away from the two or three closest preys. We found that non-communicating predators still perform better in our setting as well. Naozumi coded the prey-predator simulator in C++.

This work was supervised by Sherri Goings

Hope, Soren '15

Study in Oil Paint Portraiture

This project was a study in oil paint portraiture, using both friends and internet strangers as subjects. The paintings were done on different materials, such as cardboard, plexiglass, and found wood. In this study, Hope explored different ways in which the subject could be detached or concealed from the viewer.

This work was supervised by David Lefkowitz

Jayaraman, Mallika '13

Traffic Noise and Inequality in the Twin Cities, Minnesota

Literature indicates that prolonged exposure to high levels of traffic noise has several health effects. However, whether the spatial distribution of traffic noise is equitable among different racial and socioeconomic groups has rarely been explored. This article examines this relationship in the Twin Cities Metro Region, Minnesota. Traffic data from the Minnesota Department of Transportation were used to model the propagation of traffic noise over the study area. Aircraft noise contour lines were added to account for aircraft noise. Inequities associated with exposure to chronic traffic noise were investigated using selected demographic and socioeconomic variables from the U.S. Census 2000. Statistical analysis was based on a regression model that addressed spatial autocorrelation. Results indicate that there is an association between noise levels and household income, median household value, the percentage of non-white residents, and the percentage of the population less than 18 years of age.

This work was supervised by Tsegaye Nega

Johnson, Elliott '13

Female rats without ovarian hormone exposure during puberty demonstrate higher sexual receptivity after subprime hormone administration

This project studies whether exposure to ovarian hormones during puberty defeminizes female sexual behavior in rats. This behavior is often measured by assessing level of receptivity during a 10 stimulation lordosis quotient (LQ) test with a male rat. Normally developed and fully hormone-primed female rats show high levels of receptivity (an LQ >90). To examine the connection between hormonal exposure during puberty and receptivity, rats that experienced puberty in the presence (O@P) or absence (No O@P) of ovarian hormones received an LQ test under subprime hormonal conditions. No O@P rats showed higher levels of receptivity than O@P rats, supporting a role of ovarian hormones in defeminizing the brain during puberty. Johnson conducted research of subprime hormone dosage for this experiment, designed the experiment with the help of Professor Sarah Meerts, conducted behavioral testing, entered data, and ran statistics on the findings.

This work was supervised by Sarah Meerts

Johnson, Jeweletter '13

Implicit Bias and The Cross-Race Effect

The present study replicated the Cross-Race Effect (CRE) phenomenon and examined the influence of high levels of knowledge about the Trayvon Martin shooting in Florida on the robustness of the CRE. Study 1 used White and Black photos in a face recognition paradigm and Study 2 was an online-based survey assessing the influence of media exposure to the Trayvon Martin shooting on participants’ cross-race face identification accuracy. Results indicate that participants were more accurate in their identification of White than Black faces for all accuracy indicators (p<.001), thus replicating the CRE. However, the magnitude of the CRE wanes as a function of actual and self-reported knowledge. Actual and self-reported knowledge of the shooting did influence discrimination accuracy of White and Black faces (p<.001). Studies 1 and 2 suggest that the CRE is generally a robust phenomenon and eyewitness evidence for cross-racial identification remains vulnerable to error. Johnson’s involvement was mainly in part 2 of the study concerning the media influences of the Trayvon Martin case on the Cross-Race Effect. She collected, organized, coded, and statistically analyzed data.

This work was supervised by Eugene Borgida (University of Minnesota)

Kansakar, Shamir Amir '14

Detection of a Guanine Base Analog 6-MI to Study How DNA Breathes

The idea of DNA as a static double helical macromolecule has long been challenged by its many dynamical conformations, which have great biological relevance. DNA breathing is one of such transient processes that describe the local conformation change of DNA when it interacts with macromolecules like proteins. At Marcus’s lab, Kansakar worked towards detecting and stabilizing a guanine base analog: 6-methyl isoxanthopterin (6-MI) as a probe for conducting single molecule fluorescence spectroscopy. Using meticulous alignment of optics for an optimum excitation of DNA samples and a proper combination of photo-stabilizing agents, he was able to successfully detect and stabilize the 6-MI fluorescence signals. This finding will allow us to study the real-time DNA-protein dynamics and gain insightful information about the mechanism of interaction at the molecular level.

This work was supervised by Andrew H. Marcus (University of Oregon)

Kapsar, Kelly '14

Flowering Phenology of the Prairie Forb Echinacea angustifolia in Fragmented Populations

In Western Minnesota, the tall-grass prairie landscape has been extensively fragmented by agriculture. Spatial isolation may limit gene flow among remnant populations and the resulting genetic drift has the potential to exacerbate any disparities in flowering time of prairie plants, leading to temporal isolation. This study analyzes the flowering phenology (timing and duration of flowering) of Echinacea angustifolia, the pale purple coneflower, at five differently sized prairie remnants in Douglas County, Minnesota. Kapsar observed the first and last day of flowering for 260 E. angustifolia heads. She hypothesized that the flowering time, as characterized by the first, last, and peak flowering dates, would differ among the remnant populations. Differences in the genetic makeup in these populations, genetic drift, and unique environmental factors are the probable causes of variation. This research has the potential to help conservationists better understand and remediate the effects of isolation on prairie plants.

This work was supervised by Stuart Wagenius (The Echinacea Project)

Kieffer, Daria '13

Summer of Solutions: Youth, Identity and Place in Minneapolis

This project investigated how youth working on environmental justice initiatives in South Minneapolis conceptualize their work in relation to place. In order to complete this research, Kieffer did participant observation, as well as 20 interviews with an environmental justice organization called Summer of Solutions. Her aim was to answer questions such as: How does relationship to place affect youth activism, and what does this reveal about the importance of locality and home in large-scale movements? In light of recent studies that seek to connect individual and communities to structural activism, she analyzed people’s connection to place and look at how this leads them to participate in collective action in different ways.

This work was supervised by Adrienne Falcon

King, Shantrice '13

The Link between National Sex Education Programs in Jamaica and Young Women's Health

This project examines how national sex education programs in Jamaica impact young women’s understanding of sex and their sexuality. This summer, King conducted field research in Jamaica, interviewing directors and program managers of pertinent organizations, analyzing relevant advertisements, and reading research reports. This project allowed King to see the complexity of constructing national sex education programs in a country where open discussions about sex are taboo. It also highlighted how the effects of inadequate sex education programs can turn into a public health issue.

This work was supervised by Pamela Feldman-Savelsberg

Klages-Mundt, Naeh '14

Application of Host-Introduced RNA Interference as a Means of Silencing Haustoria-Specific Puccinia graminis Genes and Conferring Resistance in Wheat

Stem rust (Puccinia graminis) presents a crucial challenge to the future of many agricultural crops as it infects and causes disease in many important cereals. Since the outbreak of Ug99, a relatively new strain of extremely virulent stem rust in Uganda, the call for a means of resistance to this fungal pathogen has become ever more pressing. The objective of this research was to silence rust genes highly expressed in their haustorial cells using host-induced RNA interference. Candidate genes were identified and amplified with PCR. This project entailed the construction of barley stripe mosaic virus-derived vectors in preparation for inoculations in wheat and subsequent assessment of virulence. Klages-Mundt worked in the lab as well as in the greenhouse for the beginning of this ongoing study. The study is not yet complete.

This work was supervised by Chuntao Yin and Scot Hulbert (Washington State University)

Kravitz, Stephanie '13

Chamaecrista fasciculata Genomics

Chamaecrista fasciculata, commonly known as the Partridge Pea, has emerged as a potential model organism for the study of plant development. Our research focuses on the role of temperature leading to differential flowering patterns of C. fasciculata. We sampled three sites in Minnesota (Weaver Dunes, McKnight Prairie, and Grey Cloud Dunes) and constructed several research transects at each site. We tagged several hundred individual C. fasciculata plants in all transects and recorded height, node of first floral initiation (hereafter referred to as NFI), node of first open flower (hereafter referred to as NFOF), and number of expanded leaves and axillary buds for each site. Data was collected on a weekly basis over the course of ten weeks. DNA extraction and amplification of nine specific flowering genes were sequenced and analyzed to assess whether or not genetic or environmental factors has a stronger effect on flowering patterns in C. fasciculata.

This work was supervised by Susan Singer

Lai, Alexandra '13

Enantioselective Organocatalysis

This project explores the utility of small, chiral organic molecules as organocatalysts in enantioselective desymmetrization reactions on an anhydride derivative of citric acid, an inexpensive and biorenewable chemical feedstock. Organocatalysis is a promising alternative to more environmentally harmful or synthetically challenging methods of catalysis, and the introduction of synthetically useful chirality into biorenewable achiral starting materials is widely applicable in green chemistry. We synthesize the citric acid anhydride and known quinine-based organocatalysts, and observe the enantioselectivity of anhydride reactions with various nucleophiles in the presence of the organocatalysts. Lai synthesized starting material, set up reactions with various nucleophiles, and collected and analyzed products.

This work was supervised by Gretchen Hofmeister and David Alberg

Latt, Kyaw Zin '14

Studying optical properties of nanowires as part of opto-fluidic research

This project studies the optical properties of nanowires and the implementation of them in the fluid-channel devices. Latt worked in the Professor Marty Baylor's lab, where he carried out the experiment for nanowire blinking effect and incident beam polarization dependence, collected and organized data and performed data analysis. He was also responsible for making sample fluid channels.

This work was supervised by Marty Baylor

Leibowitz, Evan '13

Knowledge Base Constructing Using Casual Words

This project attempts to create a knowledge base for artificial intelligence, using sentences from online texts containing words like "so" and "because" that show causal relationships. The project reconstructs syntax trees for these sentences in memory and breaks them into cause and effect segments, to teach the computer causal links. For example, in the sentence, "It is raining, so I should bring an umbrella," the computer would learn to link "rain," the cause, to "bring an umbrella," the effect.

This work was supervised by Ping Chen (University of Houston - Downtown)

Levitt Ades, Rachel '13

The Ethics of Cochlear Implants: Examining the Value of Hearing

This project explores the ethics of cochlear implants for deaf children, aiming to separate the instrumental value of hearing (e.g. for better speech communication) from the intrinsic value of hearing (e.g. the joy of music). The research examines Deaf history and culture, as well as examining arguments for and against the classification of deafness as disability. In terms of phenomenological experience, the project surveys and analyzes a variety of philosophical literature and first-person stories to consider what it might be like to be deaf, taking note also of the complicated epistemological implications involved in even asking this question. Ultimately, this project discusses what ethical considerations are important for considering implant decisions for those personally involved; however, it also aims to spark a larger conversation about identity for people who are born deaf. perspectives from a wide range of sources.

Long, Alexandra '13

The Role of Actomyosin Contractility in the Mechanical Dispersion of Suspended Cells

The ability to measure mechanical properties of single cells will enable novel devices that identify and sort therapeutically valuable cells by mechanical phenotype. However, a major barrier to separating cellular subpopulations based on mechanical properties is that cells are mechanically disperse, exhibiting a wide distribution of stiffness values. Here we employed optical stretching, a photonic technique, to deform individual murine fibroblasts in the suspended state. To probe whether mechanical heterogeneity across cells arises from actomyosin interactions, we treated cells with blebbistatin, a selective inhibitor of non-muscle myosin IIa, before measuring their deformability. We found that the heterogeneity of cellular stiffness increased after treatment with blebbistatin, while cellular fluidity, a measure of viscoelastic hysteresivity, remained unchanged. Future studies will include treatment with other actomyosin inhibitors. This work aims to increase our understanding of cytoskeletal biophysics and to provide insight into controllable aspects of the cytoskeletal network that generate cell-to-cell mechanical heterogeneity.

This work was supervised by Krystyn Van Vliet (Massachusetts Institute of Technology)

Xydes-Smith, Marika '13

Regulating T Cell-Mediated Immune Responses in GVHD through Inhibiting C3 Complement Protein

Worked in an in vitro system to specifically target C3 convertase protein complex within the complement pathway using a new class of peptide inhibitors. Identification and characterization of the new complement pathway inhibitor compstatin may be used in the future to prevent Host-vs-Graft-Disease development post bone marrow transplant procedures. Results helped support further research and development of the inhibitor Compstatin for clinical use, as well as providing new insight into how lymphocyte proliferation and responses are controlled within the context of GVHD.

This work was supervised by Qing Ma (MD Anderson Cancer Center)

McClellan, Michael '13

Cyclodextrin-Containing Air Fresheners: A New Pathway for Inhaling Pollutants?

The indoor environment contains many pollutants that can be damaging to health and offensive to human senses. A new generation of air fresheners contains beta-cyclodextrin (Î_-CD), a cyclic glucose oligomer that is reported by manufacturers to eliminate odors ”rather than masking them with fragrances” by trapping offensive-smelling molecules in its core, rendering them scent-free. In this study, the equilibrium and mechanism of cyclodextrin-pollutant complexation were studied in solution and in the aerosol phase using spectroscopy and mass spectrometry techniques. Aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry was used to analyze aerosolized mixtures of modified Î_-CD and simulated indoor pollutants, which were shown to complex in solution. Samples were also taken on fabrics in an enclosed environment to simulate air freshener use in the home. Markers that indicate complexation of the pollutant simulants in cyclodextrin-containing mixtures have been identified in the ATOFMS spectra, leading to the possibility of identifying beta-cyclodextrin-pollutant complexes in real-world environments.

This work was supervised by Deborah Gross

McDuffie, Erin '13

Development of a New Single-Particle Research Instrument: The Coupling of ATOFMS and LIBS

The understanding and analysis of health and environmental effects of atmospheric particulate matter requires measurements that can provide detailed information about particle composition. An Aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (ATOFMS) is used for the semi-quantitative analysis of the composition of individual atmospheric particles upon laser-induced desorption and ionization. Integration of the spectroscopic technique of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), in which light is emitted by the elemental components of the particle upon irradiation with a laser, should increase the quantitative data provided by this instrument. Due to the similarities between both spectroscopic techniques, integration of the two should be straightforward and requires only minor additions to the ATOFMS. This presentation will focus on the challenges inherent in coupling these two techniques, both physical and electronic. These challenges have been systematically addressed and are presented here as evidence of the range of issues that arise in producing a new quantitative single-particle analysis instrument.

This work was supervised by Deborah Gross

McMurry, Reid '13

Using Mitochondrial DNA Sequences to Determine Relatedness Among Subspecies of the Eastern Indigo Snake

The eastern indigo snake, Drymarchon couperi, and the Texas indigo snake, Drymarchon melanurus erebennus, are the two largest nonvenomous snakes in North America. Indigo snakes are members of a genus that range from Florida to Paraguay. Based on morphological characters such as head scalation and pigment patterns, herpetologists divide members of the genus Drymarchon into three or four species, and a variable number of poorly defined subspecies. The goal of this project is to generate a phylogeny based on DNA homology at the cytochrome oxidase I (COX1) gene. Genomic DNA was isolated from shed skins obtained from breeders and the COX1 gene was amplified with PCR primers. The DNA sequence of each amplification product was determined, and relatedness was assessed based on DNA sequence alignment. (The indigo snakes provided the shed skins; RM isolated genomic DNA, amplified the COX1 fragments, and analyzed the alignments)

This work was supervised by Matt Rand and Stephan Zweifel

Miller, David '13

High Energy Telescopes in the Advanced Detector Network

The detection of gravitational waves from compact binary coalescence mergers are likely when the Advanced LIGO/Virgo detector network goes online as early as '15. To maximize the science returns and confirm gravitational wave detection, an electromagnetic counterpart must be detected. Miller examines the ability of present and future high-energy telescopes to detect short gamma-ray bursts in coincidence with gravitational wave signals.

This work was supervised by Larry Price and Leo Singer (California Institute of Technology)

Minette, Annaliese '14

Investigating the Relationship Between Health and Dramatic Roles

This project, conducted through ActHappy.com, examines the relationship between medicine and acting. Dr. Dale Anderson, a Carleton alumnus, began this study in order to determine the effect that "playing a positive character" may or may not have on an actor's health. Minette designed the Minnesota Act of Health Survey, which targets MN actors, asking them to elaborate on their careers, particular roles, and health trends. Minette is in the process of collecting and analyzing the survey results, in hopes of publishing an article in the MN Medical Journal sometime in the near future. Ideally, the information gathered in this study will help to generate a dramatic change in medicine and help the population at large to improve its health by "acting happy."

This work was supervised by Dale Anderson (Carleton '56)

Mullen, Cassie '13

Engineering Graft Content to Improve Outcomes for Hematopoetic Cell Transplant Patients

Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a potentially curative treatment for leukemia and other diseases that are otherwise incurable. The infused product is composed of a variety of cell types. It is not clear what impact different amounts of these cells have on outcome following HCT. This analysis used Cox regression to examine the association between cell dose and outcome. Cell dose was modeled in several ways: as a continuous linear variable, by quartiles, and as a non-linear function using cubic splines. Outcomes included overall mortality, relapse, and chronic graft-vs-host disease (cGvHD). Results showed that among patients who received reduced-intensity conditioning and whose donor was an HLA-identical sibling, rates of cGvHD increased as T-cell doses increased, but an accompanying reduction in relapse led to lower overall mortality. The results of this study can be used as a platform to manipulate the graft content in an effort to improve outcomes following HCT.

This work was supervised by Ted Gooley (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Munger, Nora '15

Filtered or Unfiltered? That is the Question. NMR Analysis of Brewed Coffee.

Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Munger identified 24 chemical components in brewed coffee based on previous studies. She compared filtered and unfiltered brewing methods. Also, she analyzed the effect of rebrewing grounds on relative component concentration. Munger developed sample preparation, ran NMR machinery, and analyzed the data.

Clinical and Pharmaceutical Solutions via Analysis (CPSA) Conference

This work was supervised by Istvan Pelczer (Princeton University)

Neuwirth, Henry '13

Contemporary Disputes of Native American Religious Freedom in the United States

Neuwirth researched legal case studies regarding Native American sovereignty and religious freedom as part of the Harvard Pluralism project. The cases were mostly in state courts and involved wildlife and archaeological preservation, trademark law, religious freedom, and mining disputes on sacred lands.  The primary method of research was reading cases, hearings and associated articles. However, for some of the more complicated cases, interviews were conducted with relevant stakeholders. The final drafts will be published online by the Harvard Pluralism Project.

This work was supervised by Michael McNally

Ngamnithiporn, Aurapat (Fa) '15

Transformation of oxygenated compounds to hydrocarbons catalyzed by nanocatalysts

The project focuses on the transformation of biomass-derived oxygenated compounds to hydrocarbons, which can be used as transportation fuel. The transformation of biomass-derived oxygenated compounds to hydrocarbons was carried out in the presence of catalsysts. First, aldol adducts were synthesized by aldol condensation of furfural and acetone and the obtained aldol adducts were hydrogenized in presence of nanocatalysts in a reaction flask and a Parr reactor. It turned that the system using furfural to acetone in the ratio of 1/10 and catalyzed by Ba(OH)2 yielded the highest percent selectivity for furfural-acetone product. Hydrogenation in a reaction flask using NaBH4 as a hydrogen source resulted in two positions hydrogenated product as the most reduced form, and hydrogenation using Parr reactor with Pd/PVP yielded the highest percent conversion and selectivity for the total hydrogenated product.

This work was supervised by Ekasith Somsook (Mahidol University, Thailand)

Nisi, Anna '14

Plant Density Effects on Herbivory Levels for Six Carleton Arboretum Legume Species

This study examines the effects of plant density on the level of herbivory experienced by six legume species in the Carleton Arboretum. In particular, we looked at whether deer preferentially browse certain species, which would be reflected by comparing how herbivory changes for varying densities of each legume. Six 25m by 2m transects were used in six fields to survey over 2,000 plants and the data will be used to characterize the relationship between density (plants/meter in each field) and level of herbivory experienced (percent browsed), and may also address questions of whether a field has been recently burned and its proximity to forest have an effect on herbivory levels.

This work was supervised by Dan Hernandez

Norden, Justin '13

Rituximab Is Associated with Prolonged Immunoglobulin Deficiency in Newly Diagnosed Aggressive B-Cell Lymphoma Patients Undergoing Immunochemotherapy

Hypogammaglobulinemia (with a resultant increased risk of infections) following rituximab therapy has been widely reported in patients with follicular lymphoma. We undertook a study to investigate if rituximab was associated with prolonged hypogammaglobulinemia in previously untreated patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and Burkitt lymphoma who received immunochemotherapy. We compared immunoglobulin levels in this group to another group of matched patients who received chemotherapy alone. This analysis demonstrates that front line immunochemotherapy in aggressive B-cell lymphoma greatly increases the risk of hypogammaglobulinemia for at least a year following treatment. Of 80 patients who underwent immunochemotherapy, more than 50% experienced some form of hypogammaglobulinemia at 6 or more months out of treatment. Patients who received chemotherapy alone had an increased rate of hypogammaglobulinemia at the completion of treatment, but not at 6 or 12 months out of treatment. Norden collected data, analyzed data, and wrote the study to be submitted.

This work was supervised by Kieron Dunleavy and Wyndham Wilson (National Cancer Institute)

Ohl, Tanwaporn '14

Skin Whitening in Thailand: Influences of the Thai Media on Beauty Ideals and Class Identity

Ohl is studying the influence of the Thai media on beauty ideals and class identity on Thai youth. She is focusing on the usage of skin whitening products as a means to achieve these ideals within their social class. Ohl’s research questions are: How has the use of mixed race or light skinned models/actors in various media sources influenced Thai youth to use skin whitening products? How has the ability to purchase skin whitening products influenced the perceptions of class identity? To answer these questions, Ohl is pursuing two different tracks of research. She is first completing a review of literary and media sources. Second, she has participated in intensive Thai language study in order to interview participant Thai youth for a documentary that will provide an honest, inside look into their opinions regarding skin whitening, race, social class and the influence of the media.

This work was supervised by Adriana Estill

Padilla, Christian '13

Synthesis and Characterization of Metal Nitrenes

This summer was spent probing the reactivity of Iridium (III) and Nickel (II) complexes in conjunction with lithium silylamides in an attempt to isolate and characterize a stable metal-amide and subsequently a metal-nitrene. These complexes are useful in C-H amination and aziridination reactions, with notable applications in polymer and pharmaceutical synthesis. Padilla and Kosanovich were responsible for all inert-atmosphere syntheses as well as the spectroscopic characterization of all intermediates.

This work was supervised by Matt Whited

Kosanovich, Alex '14

Synthesis and Characterization of Metal Nitrenes

This summer was spent probing the reactivity of Iridium (III) and Nickel (II) complexes in conjunction with lithium silylamides in an attempt to isolate and characterize a stable metal-amide and subsequently a metal-nitrene. These complexes are useful in C-H amination and aziridination reactions, with notable applications in polymer and pharmaceutical synthesis. Padilla and Kosanovich were responsible for all inert-atmosphere syntheses as well as the spectroscopic characterization of all intermediates.

This work was supervised by Matt Whited

Pang, Yansong '13

Cross-Race Effects Diminished by Fame

This project studies the effects of fame on cross-race effects for face-recognition. We presented participants with photos of famous and non-famous African and Caucasian faces on a computer screen by using Psy-scope and measured the time and accuracy of successfully identifying the races of those people in the photo. Data suggested that fame judgment preceded race judgment, and that fame helped people to individualize people from other races thus decreasing cross-race effects. Pang assisted to design the experiment, recruited research participants through personal contacts and campus advertisements, utilized Psy-scope to conduct experiments, collected data and designed R scripts to accelerate data collection and analysis.

This work was supervised by Seth Greenberg

Piazza, Amelia '14

Lynching As Lesson: Context, Causes, and Consequences of Informal Justice in an Indegenous Guatemalan Town

Focusing on the 1997 lynching of a young thief by a mob of civilians, this research explored social order and deviance in San Antonio Palopo, a highland indigenous town in Guatemala. Piazza examined the town’s history of policing and justice systems over the past several decades, analyzing the syncretism between local, customary law and the state-imposed models of social order, finding that the resulting systems have been largely ineffective. In this context, the lynching can be understood as a public rejection of civil authorities; indeed, because it was followed by a period of more adherence to the law instead of less, the lynching demonstrates that the enduring forces that deter social deviance in San Antonio are generally not institutionalized. Ultimately, Piazza found that ways of thinking about crime and culpability in San Antonio emphasize the crucial communal knowledge and informal social obligations that maintain social order in this small town.

This work was supervised by Jay Levi

Raghavan, Shraddha 16

Neuronal Sexual Dimorphism in C. elegans: The Phenotypes of cam-1 RNAi and Mutants

This research explores how sexual dimorphism arises during neuronal development of the ventral nerve cord in C. elegans. The cam-1 gene is involved in locomotion, cell migration, asymmetric cell division, axon outgrowth, and dauer formation in C. elegans (Teichmann et al., 2000). Previous studies showed that cam-1 mutants have multiple polarity reversals between male-specific CA and CP neurons and an extended anterior axon from CP 1 (Forrester et al., 1999).. In this study, we used a two-color reporter gene technique to determine the extent to which cam-1 mutant and RNA interference (RNAi)-treated males exhibit polarity reversals and missing CP neurons. Our results demonstrate that cam-1 genetic mutants show varying percentages of missing CPs, overall more CA/CP reversals, and fewer anterior axons than previously reported. Our RNAi results showed that the number of missing CP neurons was not distinguishable from the trends in wild-type strains. With further research on cam-1 and other genes affecting sex-specific neurons, there is a possibility of finding applications of this knowledge on sexual dimorphism in other vertebrates, even humans.

This work was supervised by Jennifer Wolff and Andrea Kalis

Ranum, Jorde '15

Chamaecrista fasciculata Genomics

Chamaecrista fasciculata, commonly known as the Partridge Pea, has emerged as a potential model organism for the study of plant development. Our research focuses on the role of temperature leading to differential flowering patterns of C. fasciculata. We sampled three sites in Minnesota (Weaver Dunes, McKnight Prairie, and Grey Cloud Dunes) and constructed several research transects at each site. We tagged several hundred individual C. fasciculata plants in all transects and recorded height, node of first floral initiation (hereafter referred to as NFI), node of first open flower (hereafter referred to as NFOF), and number of expanded leaves and axillary buds for each site. Data was collected on a weekly basis over the course of ten weeks. DNA extraction and amplification of nine specific flowering genes were sequenced and analyzed to assess whether or not genetic or environmental factors have a stronger effect on flowering patterns in C. fasciculata.

This work was supervised by Susan Singer

Rempel, Sarah '13

A Zebrafish Model for Chemotherapeutic-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy

This project begins to establish a larval zebrafish model for chemotherapeutic-induced peripheral neuropathy. We treated 3dpf zebrafish with cisplatin or paclitaxel and observed impairments to swimming activity, a predator avoidance response, and peripheral nerve density at 4-7dpf.

This work was supervised by John R. Henley (Mayo Graduate School)

Rogers, Emily '13

The Effects of Deer Herbivory on Prairie Legumes Reproductive Success

Damage by herbivores may affect the reproductive timing and success of plant species. The effect of deer herbivory on three legume species - Dalea candida, D. purperea and Desmodium canedensis - was measured inside and outside experimental exclosures in the restored prairies in the Carleton Arboretum. Plants were placed one of four treatments: clipped plants inside the exclosure (to simulate herbivory), unclipped inside the exclosure, plants eaten by deer outside the exclosure and uneaten plants outside the exclosure. The timing of flowering, infloresence length, and plant size were compared among the four treatments. Deer presence delayed the flowering time and deer selected for larger individuals of all three species. In conclusion, deer significantly impact these legumes and could possibly be altering the composition of the prairie.

This work was supervised by Dan Hernandez

Roth, Aurora '13

Modeling Past and Future Mass Changes of all High Asian Mountain Glaciers

We projected the mass changes of all glaciers in the High Asian Mountains (>110,000 km2). More than 30,000 glaciers were modeled individually based on data from the World Glacier Inventory, including glacier area and minimum/maximum elevation. Glacier melt was hindcasted using an elevation-dependent temperature-index model based on monthly re-analysis data. The model was calibrated using mass-balance data from >40 individual glaciers. The model was then run using downscaled GCM based temperature and precipitation projections to model the mass changes over the coming 100 years. Results are presented for the three subregions Himalaya, Karakoram and Tien Shan. This research is part of a larger study determining the effects of climate change on the hydrology and land use of the region.

This work was supervised by Regine Hock (University of Alaska Fairbanks, Geophysical Institute)

Rownd, Henry '13

Being There… as a Tessering, Morphing, Avater Hyperbody: The Viewer in Contemporary CG, 3D, and 4D/Ridefilm Technologies

In seeking to understand embodied experience in current "cutting edge" attraction technologies, this research fellowship led Rownd to US destination theme parks where the body has returned hyperbolically in 3D ridefilm attractions like Transformers: The Ride. These rides incorporate bodily movement with computer-generated, stereoscopic 3D imagery. At once the viewer experiences the ride from within her lived-in body strapped to a roller coaster, while also experiencing the ride as a robot that helps battle the evil Decepticons in a seemingly inhabitable embodied computer-generated world. The paper theorizes this dual embodiment as creating a gazed-through body-in-the-representation, or hyperbody that is at once structured as an unnatural, electronic ghost in the machine, but is also dialectically engaged with the viewer’s more natural physical body sitting safely in the "real" world roller coaster.

This work was supervised by Carol Donelan, Jay Beck, and Scott Schott

Russell, Ruby '13

Quantitative Measurement of OA and RA Progression

Russell helped to develop and refine methods for measuring the progression of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis using software designed by Jeffrey Duryea, PhD. Duryea specializes in creating software to quantitatively assess the development and progression of arthritis. The methods allow for greater sensitivity in measuring change over time, and provides useful data for statistical analysis. Ruby's role involved measuring cartilage deterioration, bone marrow lesion volume, osteophyte size, and erosion development. She also helped streamline the reading process, allowing for rapid analysis and larger studies in the future.

This work was supervised by Jeffrey Duryea (Harvard, Brigham and Women's Hospital)

Schairer, Rosemary '12

Female Rat Sexual Experience Must be Paced to Affect and Alter Paced Mating Behavior

Paced mating occurs under conditions that allow a female rat to control the timing and frequency of receipt of sexual stimulations from a male rat. The male rat controls the mating interaction in nonpaced mating conditions. Female rats return to the male more quickly following less intense mating stimulations (mount

This work was supervised by Sarah Meerts

Scott, Alec '13

The Effect of Guano Deposition of I_ _15N Ratios in Intertidal Communities

Seabirds play an important role in marine and coastal ecosystems. They are top predators in pelagic food webs, but roost and breed on island or coastal systems in high density. In these communities, they serve as a nutrient vector by depositing nitrogen rich guano, which has a high ratio of 15N to 14N. Scott sampled algae (Ulva spp. and Mazaella flaccida), and California mussel Mytilus californianus from the intertidal zone beneath offshore rocks that seabirds were roosting on and from adjacent shoreline rocky intertidal, and collected water samples near and far from roosts. He analyzed algal and mussel samples for percent nitrogen and stable isotope ratio of δ15N. Cross-ecosystem subsidies are an important and increasingly studied factor in ecological communities.

This work was supervised by Susanna Honig (Coastal Conservation Action Lab, University of California, Santa Cruz)

Skinner, Ryan '13

Redefining Resolution: As Simple Metric

The recently opened Precision Imaging Facility (PIF) at NIST Boulder houses four of the world’s most powerful electron and ion imaging systems, which we need to ensure are consistently providing the highest-quality metrology possible. Though one of the most-quoted properties of a microscope, resolution is oft measured by non-generalizable metrics specialized for a particular instrument. Most notably, characteristics of the beam and electromagnetic lenses used in charged particle microscopes introduce complications that preclude simple optical analyses of the systems. We present a simple, robust method for characterizing the resolution of arbitrary images, regardless of the source microscope. Our algorithm fits the pixel intensities of image slices along light-dark edges to a sigmoid, and determines the minimum distance over which a variation in intensity can be resolved from the background noise. Our approach constitutes a unified framework for comparing the performance of vastly dissimilar imaging systems.

This work was supervised by Aric Sanders (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder)

Solis, Angel '14

Digestion of Gastrokine-1, a Protein Absent in Gastric Cancers

(GKN1) is a novel protein that is made exclusively in the mucus of the stomach. Production of GKN1, which is normally expressed in large quantities in healthy patients, is down-regulated in gastric cancer. In addition, GKN1 knockout mice have higher tendencies to display colitis, implying that GKN1 is important for maintenance throughout the GI tract. This suggests that GKN1 remains undigested as it traverses the GI tract. Thus, GKN1 appears to have high levels of stability against proteases that commonly digest proteins. The stability of GKN1 was tested by exposing recombinant protein to various pancreatic enzymes.

This work was supervised by David Boone (University of Chicago)

Sterrett, Maria '14

The Expression of the Endocannabinoid System During Adipogenesis and its Effects on Glucose Uptake

The Endocannabinoid system shows potential as having a key role in an organism's energy balance. Such a role could play an effect on such diseases as obesity. Sterrett worked closely with Dr. Yao Yao of the University of Michigan in his research project of testing the Endocannabinoid System's effects during Adipogenesis. Her project observed the system's expression during Adipogenesis in cells (from pre-Adiopocytes to mature Adipocytes) and its possible implications in glucose uptake. To observe expression of the system during Adipogenesis, RNA samples of 3T3-L1 cells induced into Adipogenesis were taken each day of differentiation. The samples were then analyzed for Endocannabinoid protein expression using qPCR methods. Glucose uptake was measured in Endocannabinoid agonist and inhibitor treated Adipocytes. Uptake was quantitatively measured using 2-Dexoyglucose and its decay property. Further research into the EC system’s effects was to be pursued by over expressing Endocannabinoid expression in Adipocytes.

This work was supervised by Yao Yao and Ormond MacDougald (University of Michigan Physiology)

Still, Brady '13

In-Line Probing of Human Mitochondrial Alanyl-tRNA

Human mitochondria contain several transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules critical to the assembly of proteins. tRNA molecules carry amino acids, the constituent components of proteins, to the site of protein synthesis. Mutations in these mitochondrial tRNA molecules and in the synthetase enzymes that attach amino acids to them have been linked to progressive myopathy and death. We have hypothesized that these mutations in the tRNA molecules are pathogenic because they lead to changes in the molecules’ three-dimensional structures. Still has been using a method known as in-line probing to examine the structures of pathogenic tRNA-Ala mutants to better understand their pathogenicity.

This work was supervised by Joe Chihade

Stoll, Isaama '14

The History and Development of Ethical Monotheism in American Reform Judaism

This project looks at the history and development of ethical monotheism in American Reform Judaism. In doing so, the project aims to define the theology of ethical monotheism, and understand how it came to be a part of American Reform Judaism. The project also analyzes the ways the theology of ethical monotheism allowed American Reform Judaism to flourish in the late 19th and early 20th .

This work was supervised by Louis Newman and Bill North

Suleiman, Anisa '13

Use of Bone Marrow Derived Dendritic Cells as an Alternative to Ascites Derived Dendritic Cells in the study of the NFkB Pathway

This project studies the NFkB pathway in dendritic cells. This pathway begins with program death receptor-1 (PD-1) and ultimately leads to cytokine release that has an effect on immune response. Knowledge of elements of the pathway is then used to create immunotherapy techniques for ovarian cancer patients. Anisa studied the effectiveness of replacing ascites-derived dendritic cells with the simpler model of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells to conduct these experiments. She focused on the use of confocal microscopy.

This work was supervised by Keith Knutson and James Krempski (Mayo Clinic)

Sutton, Kao '14

Sinuosity of the Cannon River From 1850 - Present

This project studies the change in sinuosity of the Cannon River over a time period extending just before the establishment of Northfield to the present. Using historical surveyor maps, recent Minnesota DNR maps and aerial images Kaopua Sutton was able to map the changes in channel paths of the Cannon and Straight Rivers and calculate sinuosities. Throughout the summer she collected daily precipitation and streamflow measurements for all gages within the Cannon River watershed in order to better understand how recent floods altered channel beds and banks of the Cannon River.

This work was supervised by Mary Savina

Taitt, Brandon '14

Gold Nanocluster and TB Anion Films on 3DOM Carbon in Solid Contact Ion-Selective Electrodes

The cost-effective fabrication, durability, maintenance-free operation, and high analytical performance of solid contact ion-selective electrodes (SC-ISEs) make them the most promising generation of potentiometric ion sensors to date. Tetrakis(3-chlorophenyl)borate (TB-) anion doped nanocluster films as solid contacts (SCs) have been shown to perform well when faced with most of the signal stability problems of ion-selective electrodes. Furthermore, monolayer-protected Au cluster (MPC) films have proven to be particularly capable SC transducers— yielding low potential drift and stable and reproducible linear range, sensitivity, and standard potential. We synthesized MPC and TB- films and plan to integrate them into three-dimensionally ordered macroporous (3DOM) carbon substrates, which have been shown to exhibit excellent long-term stabilities and good resistance to interferences from oxygen and light, in our SC-ISEs.

This work was supervised by Phil Buhlmann (University of Minnesota Chemistry Department)

Tanamoto, Nana '13

Calcium-Oxalate Stones: In Vivo Drosophila Model to Identify Regulatory Mechanisms and Inhibitory Compounds

Kidney stones (nephrolithias), with ~70% cases being calcium oxalate (CaOx) stones, are an expensive and painful disease with a complex etiology that is poorly understood. Slc26a6 is an ion transporter that is responsible for absorbing oxalate ions in the kidney tubules, and may play a role in kidney stone formation. Tsanamoto developed a Drosophila model to study Slc26a6, and have shown that OSR1 and WNK kinases negatively regulate the protein in vivo, which is contrary to their enhancing effect in in vitro systems. She has also found that thiosulphate and tannic acid can act as inhibitors of Slc26a6, which may have clinical implications in treating kidney stones.

This work was supervised by Michael Romero (Mayo Clinic)

Taxier, Lisa '13

Clitoral-Vaginocervical Lidocaine Alters Paced Mating Behavior in Female Rats

Paced mating behavior, the approach and withdrawal behavior of female rats during sexual interaction with a male, is modulated by sensory input. The specific input of the clitoris, vagina and cervix in paced mating behavior remains unclear. The goal of this study was to determine whether the application location of the topical analgesic, lidocaine, affected paced mating behavior in ovariectomized, hormone-primed female Long-Evans rats. Contact-return latencies following ejaculation differed significantly between rats treated with lidocaine or Vaseline on the 5th test for rats receiving application to both clitoral and vaginocervical areas. No difference in paced mating behavior was observed when ointment was applied to the vaginocervical area only. These results suggest that display of paced mating behavior requires sensory input from both clitoral and vaginocervical areas, and sexual experience may be necessary to observe differences between rats in the lidocaine or Vaseline condition. Taxier conducted behavioral testing and processed data.

This work was supervised by Sarah Meerts

Tetreault, Breanna '13

Nematode Species Ecology

The goal of this ecological study is to determine whether differences in above-ground herbivory affect below-ground nematode populations. This project is in collaboration with an ongoing ecology study being done by the Hernandez lab in the Carleton Arboretum. They are measuring the effects of altered animal herbivory on soil nutrient content and plant growth. We are interested to see whether the relative numbers and species representation of nematodes are influenced by herbivory as well. After nematodes have been collected and extracted from soil samples, we will use morphological and molecular genetic techniques to identify them. By sequencing the genes for the small ribosomal subunit in individual nematodes, we hope to separate them into groups based on what they feed on, to investigate for the correlation between below- and above-ground feeders.

This work was supervised by Jennifer Wolff and Andrea Kalis

Thappa, Sarah '13

Cell Cycle Influence on Magnetic Nanoparticle Uptake

This research project is part of Dartmouth's Center of Cancer Nanotechnology Excellence (CCNE) National Institutes of Health/National Cancer Institute grant. Specifically, this research was part of the CCNE's Project 3: Optimization of Magnetic Nanoparticle Breast Cancer Treatment. The lab focuses on creating additive cancer therapeutics through relevant, clinically translatable models. Thappa designed, developed, performed, and analyzed in vitro and in vivo studies focusing on the efficacy, kinetics, and uptake of magnetic nanoparticles in breast cancer tumor cells.

This work was supervised by P. Jack Hoopes (Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, Thayer School of Engineering, Geisel School of Medicine)

Vang, Andrea '13

Emission Line Survey of Different Ha Regions in M33

Local group galaxies allow astrophysicists to study individual stars as well as gas and dust in order to better understand the interplay between stars and a galaxy’s interstellar medium. As part of the Local Group Galaxy Survey, emission-line and continuum images were obtained of M31, M33, and seven dwarf galaxies. We analyzed these emission-line images to determine fluxes of ionized hydrogen regions in M33. We have also begun looking at the interior structure of these ionized hydrogen regions by breaking up larger, complex ones, and comparing its luminosity function with that of the regular normal and faint regions.

This work was supervised by Cindy Blaha

Vue, Mo '14

An Exploration of the Personal Experiences with the Social Division Between Hmong Immigrants and Hmong Americans in Saint Paul, Minnesota

This work was supervised by Kelly Scheuerman and Meera Sehgal

Wadleigh, Laura '14

Examining the Effects of Film Thickness on the Superfluid Transition in Thin Helium Films on Rough Serfaces

We studied the superfluid transition in thin Helium films on CaF2 rough surfaces. When gaseous Helium is cooled it becomes a fluid. When it is cooled even farther in does not freeze but rather it becomes a superfluid, a quantum state of matter in which the fluid has no viscosity. The temperature at which this transition occurs and the nature of the transition depend on the roughness of the surface to which the Helium is adsorbed. We studied this effect by observing the transition in a series of Helium film thickness.

This work was supervised by Dwight Luhman

Schwarz, Marty '14

Examining the Effects of Film Thickness on the Superfluid Transition in Thin Helium Films on Rough Serfaces

We studied the superfluid transition in thin Helium films on CaF2 rough surfaces. When gaseous Helium is cooled it becomes a fluid. When it is cooled even farther in does not freeze but rather it becomes a superfluid, a quantum state of matter in which the fluid has no viscosity. The temperature at which this transition occurs and the nature of the transition depend on the roughness of the surface to which the Helium is adsorbed. We studied this effect by observing the transition in a series of Helium film thickness.

This work was supervised by Dwight Luhman

Walter, Elissa '13

An Ethical and Biological Analysis of Biodiversity in Contemporary Conservation: Is the Preservation of Biodiversity a Justified Conversation Target?

In recent years, human activities, such as clearing land, draining wetlands, harvesting timber, and overfishing, have resulted in unprecedented declines in biodiversity on both local and global scales. While many scientists, philosophers, and policy makers agree that biodiversity should serve as a principle conservation target, philosophical and biological arguments professing the value of biodiversity are often flawed and incomplete because they exist in isolation from one another. This project integrates both philosophical and biological ideas and evidence in order to construct a theoretically and empirically justified argument that proves that biodiversity is an ethically and biologically justified conservation target. Ultimately, this research concludes that humans have an ethical obligation to preserve the biodiversity of Earth’s ecosystems. Walter designed this research project, conducted the research, and wrote the paper justifying the value of biodiversity as a conservation target.

Waltz, Alex '13

Estimate of the Ecological Footprint of Road Traffic Noise in the Conterminous United States

The vast road network chiseled into the landscape facilitates the safe and efficient movement of people and goods. One of the unintended consequences of such a transportation system, however, is the production of chronic noise, which has a tremendous social and ecological cost. Yet, little is known about the footprint of road traffic noise for the conterminous United States. The paper addresses this lacuna using a combination of modeling and extrapolation techniques. We first modeled the propagation of traffic noise over the landscape for the Twin Cities Metro Region and used the resulting average road-effect zone for each road class to determine the footprint of road traffic noise for the entire country. Results indicate that as much as 9% of the country is affected by road traffic noise ≥65dBA. The area affected reaches 13%, 19%, and 28% when the noise threshold levels are 60dBA, 55dBA, and 50dBA, respectively.

This work was supervised by Tsegaye Nega

Phillips, Greg '13

Estimate of the Ecological Footprint of Road Traffic Noise in the Conterminous United States

The vast road network chiseled into the landscape facilitates the safe and efficient movement of people and goods. One of the unintended consequences of such a transportation system, however, is the production of chronic noise, which has a tremendous social and ecological cost. Yet, little is known about the footprint of road traffic noise for the conterminous United States. The paper addresses this lacuna using a combination of modeling and extrapolation techniques. We first modeled the propagation of traffic noise over the landscape for the Twin Cities Metro Region and used the resulting average road-effect zone for each road class to determine the footprint of road traffic noise for the entire country. Results indicate that as much as 9% of the country is affected by road traffic noise ≥65dBA. The area affected reaches 13%, 19%, and 28% when the noise threshold levels are 60dBA, 55dBA, and 50dBA, respectively.

This work was supervised by Tsegaye Nega

Timm, Max '13

Estimate of the Ecological Footprint of Road Traffic Noise in the Conterminous United States

The vast road network chiseled into the landscape facilitates the safe and efficient movement of people and goods. One of the unintended consequences of such a transportation system, however, is the production of chronic noise, which has a tremendous social and ecological cost. Yet, little is known about the footprint of road traffic noise for the conterminous United States. The paper addresses this lacuna using a combination of modeling and extrapolation techniques. We first modeled the propagation of traffic noise over the landscape for the Twin Cities Metro Region and used the resulting average road-effect zone for each road class to determine the footprint of road traffic noise for the entire country. Results indicate that as much as 9% of the country is affected by road traffic noise ≥65dBA. The area affected reaches 13%, 19%, and 28% when the noise threshold levels are 60dBA, 55dBA, and 50dBA, respectively.

This work was supervised by Tsegaye Nega

Williams, David '14

Casual Determinism and its Implications

This project investigates the philosophical idea of causal determinism and to what extent the effects of causal determinism problematize the phenomenon of existence. Primarily, causal determinism is put forth as a hypothesis to explain the relationship between events; for any given thing that happens, there is always a cause, whether knowable or not. If this is the case, what are the human concerns that follow? Our notions of responsibility, agency and justice assume that individuals with the capacity to make significant choices do in fact make choices. If, however, the pervasiveness of external causes is significant enough to overshadow human agency, a serious conversation must be held about whether or not such things as responsibility can persist. In researching this project, Williams seeks to defend the hypothesis and propose a solution to the humanistic concern.

This work was supervised by Anna Moltchanova

Wilson, Erin '14

The Effects of Environmental Factors on Evolving Complex Tasks in Artificial Life

This summer we ran experiments with the software Avida, a digital evolution research platform that manages populations of digital organisms. These organisms are simple self-replicating computer programs with “genomes,” or lists of computer instructions. Through random mutation these organisms can develop the ability to perform more complex tasks and are rewarded with digital energy, which enables them to reproduce more frequently. By changing the various environmental parameters, the researcher can observe different evolutionary trends within a population.

This work was supervised by Sherri Goings

Duvall, Quill '14

The Effects of Environmental Factors on Evolving Complex Tasks in Artificial Life

This summer we ran experiments with the software Avida, a digital evolution research platform that manages populations of digital organisms. These organisms are simple self-replicating computer programs with “genomes,” or lists of computer instructions. Through random mutation these organisms can develop the ability to perform more complex tasks and are rewarded with digital energy, which enables them to reproduce more frequently. By changing the various environmental parameters, the researcher can observe different evolutionary trends within a population.

This work was supervised by Sherri Goings

Wong, Deborah '13

Weaving an Effective Web of Writing Center Relationships at Small Liberal Arts Colleges

Wong researched strategies for building effective relationships between writing centers and other campus units and initiatives given the various tensions that exist. Presented on a panel at the Midwest Writing Centers Association Conference, October 21, 2011 in Madison, Wisconsin. She spoke about difficulties that arise from different people holding different views about what constitutes good writing, and how writing consultants might combat that.

This work was supervised by Kathy Evertz

Wyss, Julian '13

Islamic Mobilization in Mali: An Examiniation of Religious Social Movements in Developing Countries

This project aims to employ social movement theory, and theories of perceived political opportunities in particular, to explain the development and success of religious social movement in developing countries. Wyss used the French Studies in Mali Off-Campus Studies program with Professor Cherif Keita as a platform to conduct independent political science research on a religiously based social mobilization against a series of proposed amendments to the Malian Family Code. Seen by many as social progress for one of the few secular, democratic Muslim-majority countries in the world, unprecedented social upheaval in the capital city of Bamako eventually forced the government to dilute and modify the amendments. He interviewed a number of important societal figures in Mali, including politicians, womens rights activists, anthropologists and religious scholars, to gain a better understanding of the impetus and success of the religious mobilization.

This work was supervised by Devashree Gupta (Political Science) and Bruce Whitehouse (Department of Anthropology, Lehigh University)

Yang, Zheyue '13

The Dependence of Density Functional Theory on the Size of Basis Sets

In this project, we focused on the dependence of density functional theory (DFT) on basis sets. Some DFT functionals are parameterized with respect to a specific basis set, which makes it controversial whether increasing the size of the basis set will necessarily result in a better computational result. To figure out if there is any systematic correlation between the size of basis sets and DFT results, we studied metal carbonyls along with 35 different DFT functionals and 4 dunning basis sets, computed the metal-carbon and the carbon-oxygen bond lengths, and compared the results with experimental data as well as previous computational work. Zheyue did the computation on Co(CO)6 and it turned out that the carbon-oxygen bond length always decreases with larger basis sets, regardless of the functional used. However, there is currently no consistent trend found in the metal-carbon bond length.

This work was supervised by Henry Schaefer (University of Georgia)

Zillig, Kenneth '13

Murine Melanoma Vaccine Modification

This research focused on using murine Pmel-1 t-cells to target and destroy human melanoma cancers in mice. The Covax vaccine has been developed to improve the tumor suppression of the Pmel-1 t-cells. Previous experiments have shown that the Covax vaccine can exhibit anti-tumor effects in mice, and in some instances cure the cancer. The purpose of this experiment was to examine if the addition of Anti-VEGF would condone increased tumor suppression when compared to the accepted Covax treatment. Anti-VEGF has been shown to prevent tumor growth by preventing the development of new vascular tissue and therefore prevent nutrients from reaching the tumor. Despite promising results of tumor suppression by Anti-VEGF, and Covax controls when combined with Covax there appeared to be no decrease in tumor growth over time.

This work was supervised by Willem Overwijk (MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Melanoma Oncology)

Zimmerman, Charlotte '15

Developing Polymer Lenses by Liquid-based Curing Methods

This project is focused on developing a liquid curing method for making polymer lenses. As the polymer used is hydrophobic, when it is dropped on water based liquids of varying densities, a lens shape is formed. By using a UV-curable polymer, the lens can then be cured by placing the liquid container under UV lamps. We are focused on testing the shape formed, and how it is formed, by different liquids by varying defining characteristics such as density and polarity.

This work was supervised by Marty Baylor

Hubbert, Benjamin '14

The Dance of Death of Binary Black Hole Systems

We tested a simulated data set representing the gravitational waves emitted by binary black-hole systems with a varying range of parameters for consistency and accuracy.

This work was supervised by Alberto Vecchio (University of Birmingham)

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