Chemistry provides the connection between molecular concepts and the complex systems found in nature. Chemistry courses stress the understanding of chemical principles, as well as the experimental basis of the science. The curriculum provides a strong foundation for graduate work in chemistry, biochemistry, and other chemistry-related areas, for positions in industry, for high school teaching, and for studies in the medical and health sciences. The department is on the list of those approved by the American Chemical Society (ACS). Students may choose to pursue an ACS certified degree. For more information about ACS certification refer to the Professional preparation section of this catalog. Detailed course requirements for certification can be found at http://apps.

Prospective chemistry majors should begin their study of mathematics, physics and chemistry in the first year. Majors are encouraged to participate in summer or fall term scientific research programs off campus or in the Chemistry Department Summer Research Program at Carleton.

The Introductory Courses

Most first-year students will take Chemistry 123, Principles of Chemistry or Chemistry 128, Principles of Environmental Chemistry. Both are one-term courses designed for students who have had a good high school chemistry preparation. Although taught from slightly different perspectives, all sections of Chemistry 123 or Chemistry 128 will cover the fundamental topics that prepare students for further work in chemistry, biology, geology, or medicine. When scheduling permits, we also offer a section of Chemistry 123 with problem solving. This smaller section will have additional class meetings for problem solving and review and is appropriate for students who have had a high school chemistry course but want to ease into the study of college-level chemistry.

Students who have not had a high school chemistry course should take Chemistry 122, An Introduction to Chemistry, which is designed to prepare students with little or no prior work in chemistry for further study in the discipline. This course also includes class sessions with problem solving and review.

Students planning to take Chemistry 122, 123, or 128 should take the self-administered chemistry placement evaluation, available on the chemistry department home page. This evaluation covers topics dealing with simple formulas, equations, stoichiometry, gas laws, and the properties of solutions. It also includes a list of topics for you to review before you take the placement exam.

Requirements for the Chemistry Major

Chemistry 123 or 128, 224 or 230, 233, 234, 301, 302, 343, 344; one of the following: 320, 324, 330, 348, 350, 351, 353, 354, 358, 359, 362, 363; and one of the following lab courses: 306, 321, 331, 338, 349, 352, 355, 364; Physics: two three-credit courses or one six-credit course from courses 131-165 and Mathematics 120 or 211. One additional 200-level physics course is strongly recommended (Physics 228, 235). Chemistry 400 is required of all majors.

Major under Combined Plan in Engineering

In addition to completing the requirements for the chemistry major listed above, the student should also take the following courses required for admission to the engineering schools: Physics 165 or 228, Mathematics 241, and Computer Science 111. At the discretion of the department, one advanced course may be waived in some instances to allow the student more latitude in selection of courses.

Chemistry Courses

CHEM 113 Concepts of Chemistry & Lab A one-term chemistry course designed for non-science majors. In this course we examine what gives rise to three-dimensional shapes of molecules and we explore how the structure and composition of molecules gives rise to chemical reactivity. Our goal is to understand readily observable phenomena (e.g. removal of grease by soap, storage of toxins in fat tissues, cancer, viruses, etc.). Topics include those of current global interest such as anthropogenic forces on the environment and energy producing technologies. The course includes one four-hour lab per week. 6 credits; LS, QRE; Spring; Steven M Drew
CHEM 122 An Introduction to Chemistry An introduction to the fundamentals of chemistry to prepare students to enter subsequent chemistry courses (Chemistry 123 or 128). Atoms and molecules, stoichiometry, and gases will be covered in the course. Although learning through discovery-based processes, small groups, and short laboratory experimentation will occur, this is not a lab course and doesn't fulfill the requirements for medical school. This course assumes competence with simple algebra, but no prior chemistry experience. Prerequisite: Students with high school chemistry should probably take Chemistry 123 or 128. (Determined by the self-administered Chemistry Placement Evaluation, Chemistry Home Page). 6 credits; QRE, NE; Fall; Marion E Cass
CHEM 123 Principles of Chemistry I and Lab An introduction to chemistry for students who have taken high school chemistry or Chemistry 122. Topics include the electronic structure of atoms, periodicity, molecular geometry, thermodynamics, bonding, equilibrium, reaction kinetics, and acids and bases. Each offering will also focus on a special topic(s) selected by the instructor. Students cannot receive credit for both Chemistry 123 and 128.

A section of Chemistry with problem solving is periodically offered (123-53 for Fall 2017) for students who wish to further develop their general analytical and critical thinking skills. This smaller section will have additional class meetings for problem solving and review. Chemistry 123 with problem solving is appropriate for students who would like to have more scheduled time to work with a faculty member on developing their scientific reasoning skills and understanding of the foundations of chemistry.

  Prerequisite: Adequate secondary school preparation as indicated by the self-administered Chemistry Placement Evaluation (Chemistry Home Page) or Chemistry 122. 6 credits; LS, QRE; Fall, Winter; Daniela L Kohen, Chris Calderone, Steven M Drew

CHEM 128 Principles of Environmental Chemistry & Lab The core topics of chemistry (i.e. thermodynamics, kinetics, equilibrium, and bonding) are central to understanding major environmental topics such as greenhouse warming, ozone depletion, acid-rain deposition, and general chemical contamination in air, water, and soil. These topics and the chemical principles behind them are addressed through an emphasis on the earth's atmosphere. One four-hour laboratory per week. Because this course covers the major topics of Chemistry 123 (but with an environmental emphasis), students cannot receive credit for both Chemistry 123 and 128. Prerequisite: Adequate secondary school preparation as indicated by the self-administered Chemistry Placement Exam (Chemistry Home Page) or Chemistry 122. 6 credits; LS, QRE; Spring; Will Hollingsworth
CHEM 224 Principles of Chemistry II and Lab A more advanced study of several core introductory chemistry principles. This course is suitable for students with advanced placement in chemistry or students who have completed Chemistry 123 or 128. Topics include coordination chemistry, advanced bonding models, spectroscopy, advanced acid/base and redox equilibria, and electrochemistry. The topics will be taught from varying perspectives using examples from biochemistry, the environment, energy, or materials chemistry. The lab will focus on developing computational, quantitative, and synthetic skills and will prepare students for more advanced laboratory work in chemistry. Prerequisite: Chemistry 123 or Chemistry 128. 6 credits; LS, QRE; Fall, Spring; Steven M Drew, Joe Chihade
CHEM 233 Organic Chemistry I & Lab Theoretical aspects of carbon chemistry are examined with reference to structure-reactivity relationships, functional groups, stereochemistry, reaction mechanisms and spectroscopy. Laboratory work concentrates on modern techniques of organic chemistry, inquiry-based projects, and spectroscopic analysis. One laboratory per week. Prerequisite: Chemistry 123 or 128. 6 credits; LS, QRE; Fall, Winter; David G Alberg, Alexei V Novikov
CHEM 234 Organic Chemistry II & Lab The chemistry of functional groups is continued from Chemistry 233, and is extended to the multifunctional compounds found in nature, in particular carbohydrates and proteins. The laboratory focuses upon inquiry-based projects and spectroscopic analysis. One laboratory per week. Prerequisite: Chemistry 233. 6 credits; LS, QRE; Winter, Spring; Matt Whited
CHEM 300 Chemistry Research Mentored Chemistry research in areas related to a faculty member’s research program. Students will collaborate with a faculty member and peers to develop and carry out research projects. The class will meet regularly to discuss relevant primary literature and provide updates on research progress. The majority of the course will consist of laboratory research and a final report summarizing findings will be submitted.  Students wishing to register for the course must contact the supervising faculty member to express interest and request an application. Admission to the class will be based on an application and meeting with the faculty supervisor. Prerequisite: Chemistry 234. Admission based on submitted application and interview. All students will waitlist. 6 credits; LS, QRE; Fall; Matt Whited
CHEM 301 Chemical Kinetics Laboratory A mixed class/lab course with one four hour laboratory and one lecture session per week. In class, the principles of kinetics will be developed with a mechanistic focus. In lab, experimental design and extensive independent project work will be emphasized. Prerequisite: Chemistry 224 (230) and 233 and Mathematics 120 (121). 3 credits; NE, QRE, WR2; Fall; Deborah S Gross, Will Hollingsworth
CHEM 302 Quantum Spectroscopy Laboratory This lab course emphasizes spectroscopic studies relevant to quantum chemistry, including experiments utilizing UV-VIS, infrared absorption spectroscopy, and visible emission spectroscopy. Corequisite: Chemistry 344. 3 credits; QRE, NE; Winter; Will Hollingsworth, Trish Ferrett
CHEM 306 Spectrometric Characterization of Chemical Compounds This combined lecture and lab course teaches students how to use modern spectrometric techniques for the structural characterization of molecules. Lectures will cover topics and problems in the theory and practical applications associated with GC-Mass Spectrometry, ESI-Mass Spectrometry, Infrared, and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1H, 13C, and 2D experiments). Students will apply all of these techniques in the laboratory for the structural characterization of known and unknown molecules. Prerequisite: Chemistry 234 or instructor permission. 2 credits; QRE, NE; Spring; David G Alberg
CHEM 320 Biological Chemistry This course involves the natural extension of the principles of chemistry to biological systems. The topics to be examined center around the biochemical formation and cleavage of chemical bonds, with an emphasis on the structure and function of the proteins that mediate these processes. Prerequisite: Chemistry 234 and either Chemistry 224 (230) or Biology 380. 6 credits; NE, QRE; Spring; Chris Calderone
CHEM 321 Biological Chemistry Laboratory Purification and characterization of proteins and nucleic acids, with a focus on enzyme kinetics and mechanism, macromolecular interactions with small molecules and the basis of specificity in biological systems. One laboratory per week. Corequisite: Chemistry 320. Prerequisite: Chemistry 234 and either Chemistry 224 (230) or Biology 380. 2 credits; NE, QRE; Spring; Chris Calderone
CHEM 324 Chemistry and Biology of Antibiotics This course will survey the mechanisms of antibiotic activity from a biochemical perspective, covering the major classes of antibiotics along with their respective biological targets using a combination of lecture and discussion of recent literature. We will also explore strategies for antibiotic discovery including combinatorial and rational approaches, as well as the molecular origins of the current crisis in antibiotic resistance. Prerequisite: Chemistry 234. 6 credits; NE, QRE; Winter; Chris Calderone
CHEM 330 Instrumental Chemical Analysis This course covers the basic principles of quantitative instrumental chemical analysis. Course topics include chromatography, electroanalytical chemistry, analytical spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. The background needed to understand the theory and application of these instrumental techniques will be covered. In addition, students will have the opportunity to explore current research in the field of analytical chemistry through the reading and presentation of articles from the primary literature. Prerequisite: Chemistry 224 (230) and Chemistry 233. Requires concurrent registration in Chemistry 331. 6 credits; NE, QRE; Winter; Deborah S Gross
CHEM 331 Instrumental Chemical Analysis Laboratory This laboratory provides students with experience in using instrumental methods for quantitative chemical analysis. Laboratory work consists of several assigned experiments that use instrumental techniques such as liquid and gas chromatography, UV spectrophotometry and fluorometry, mass spectrometry, and voltammetry. This laboratory concludes with an instrumental analysis project that is researched and designed by student groups. Prerequisite: Chemistry 224 (230), 233 and concurrent registration in Chemistry 330. 2 credits; NE, QRE; Winter; Deborah S Gross
CHEM 338 Introduction to Computers and Electronics in Chemical Instrumentation This laboratory serves to introduce students to the general components that make up any instrument useful in chemical analysis. These components include transducers, analog and digital electronic components, data transmission hardware, computers, and appropriate software. The specific topics to be covered are ion selective electrodes, fluorometry, analog and digital electronics, basic data acquisition principles, serial data communication, and LabVIEW programming. Prerequisite: Chemistry 224 (230). 2 credits; QRE, LS; Not offered 2017-18
CHEM 343 Chemical Thermodynamics The major topic is chemical thermodynamics, including the First and Second Laws, the conditions for spontaneous change, thermochemistry, and chemical equilibrium. To showcase how chemists utilize energy concepts to solve problems, thermodynamics will be regularly applied to a number of real-world examples and scientific problems. Prerequisite: Chemistry 123 or 128, Mathematics 210 or 211 and six credits from Physics courses number 131 to 165. 6 credits; NE, QRE; Fall; Will Hollingsworth
CHEM 344 Quantum Chemistry This course introduces quantum mechanics with an emphasis on chemical and spectroscopic applications. The focus will be on atomic and molecular quantum behavior involving electrons, rotations, and vibrations. The objective is to develop both a deeper understanding of bonding as well as an appreciation of how spectroscopy provides insight into the microscopic world of molecules. Prerequisite: Chemistry 123 or 128, Mathematics 210 or 211 and six credits from Physics 131 to 165. 6 credits; NE, QRE; Winter; Daniela L Kohen
CHEM 345 Statistical Thermodynamics Statistical mechanics is the field which bridges the gap between the modern microscopic world of quantum mechanics and the classical macroscopic world of thermodynamics. Starting with the allowed quantized energy levels for the different forms of molecular motion and then statistically averaging for a large collection of molecules, partition functions are developed which accurately predict thermodynamic properties such as free energy and entropy. Prerequisite: Chemistry 343 and 344. 2 credits; NE, QRE; Not offered 2017-18
CHEM 348 Introduction to Computational Chemistry This class will introduce students to computational chemistry with a focus on simulations in chemistry and biology. This course will include hands-on experience in running classical molecular dynamics and quantum chemistry programs, an introduction to methods to simulate large systems, and demonstrations of the use of more sophisticated software to simulate chemical and biological processes. It will also include a survey of the current literature in this area, as well as lecture time in which the background necessary to appreciate this growing area of chemistry will be provided. Prerequisite: Chemistry 343 and 344 or consent of the instructor and concurrent registration in Chemistry 349. 6 credits; NE, QRE; Spring; Daniela L Kohen
CHEM 349 Computational Chemistry Laboratory Credit for the laboratory portion of Chemistry 348. Prerequisite: Concurrent registration in Chemistry 348. 2 credits; QRE; Spring; Daniela L Kohen
CHEM 350 Chemical and Biosynthesis This seminar course considers nature's biosynthetic pathways in conjunction with how organic chemists design the chemical synthesis of complex organic molecules. Important metabolic pathways for biochemical syntheses, as well as the methodology of chemical synthesis, will form the focus of the course. Prerequisite: Chemistry 234. 6 credits; NE, QRE; Not offered 2017-18
CHEM 351 Inorganic Chemistry Symmetry, molecular orbital theory and ligand field theory will provide a framework to explore the bonding, magnetism and spectroscopic properties of coordination complexes. Topics in reactivity (hard and soft acids and bases), bioinorganic chemistry, reaction mechanisms, and organometallic chemistry, will also be introduced. Prerequisite: Chemistry 234 and 344. 6 credits; NE, QRE; Spring; Marion E Cass
CHEM 352 Laboratory in Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Synthesis, purification and spectroscopic characterization of transition-metal complexes with an emphasis on methods for preparing and handling air-sensitive compounds. One laboratory per week. Corequisite: Chemistry 351. Prerequisite: Chemistry 234 and 344. 2 credits; QRE, NE; Spring; Marion E Cass
CHEM 353 Organic Chemistry III The correlation of structure and reactivity in organic molecular systems is studied through the analysis of reaction mechanisms. Topics will include linear free energy relationships, isotope effects, and molecular orbital theory. We will use these theories to analyze reactions, such as pericyclic, enantioselective, and organometallic transformations. Prerequisite: Chemistry 234; Concurrent registration in Chemistry 301, 343 or 344. 6 credits; NE, QRE; Not offered 2017-18
CHEM 354 Lasers and Spectroscopy Understanding the principles of lasers in conjunction with the framework provided by spectroscopy provides a powerful way to advance a deeper understanding of the molecular basis of chemical reactivity. Important experimental techniques such as Raman scattering methods and molecular beams are explored in addition to a wide range of specific laser applications. Readings are taken from both texts and literature. Prerequisite: Chemistry 302 and 344. 6 credits; NE, QRE; Not offered 2017-18
CHEM 355 Lasers and Spectroscopy Laboratory This project-based lab uses both continuous-wave and pulsed lasers to explore not only the basic principles of laser operation but also spectroscopic applications and excited-state phenomena using techniques such as laser-induced fluorescence and Raman scattering. Corequisite: Chemistry 354. 2 credits; QRE, LS; Not offered 2017-18
CHEM 358 Organometallic Chemistry This course covers the bonding and reactivity of organometallic complexes in the context of their applications to industrial catalysis, the synthesis of complex organic molecules, and energy science. We will use simple yet powerful tools such as the eighteen-electron rule and isoelectronic arguments to rationalize and predict observed reactivity, and current literature will be extensively utilized. Prerequisite: Chemistry 234. 6 credits; NE; Not offered 2017-18
CHEM 359 Molecular Orbital Theory This course will focus on the construction and understanding of molecular orbital (MO) diagrams using symmetry and energy arguments. Conceptual constructs will be contrasted to computational output to support theoretical tenets. We will begin with the construction of the MO diagrams of small molecules and proceed to larger molecules culminating in dimers and asymmetric molecules using the Hoffmann Fragment Approach. Prerequisite: Chemistry 351 or instructor permission. 6 credits; QRE, NE; Not offered 2017-18
CHEM 362 Chemistry at the Nanoscale This discussion-based seminar involves critical examination of research literature authored by prominent investigators in the interdisciplinary field of nanochemistry. Learning will draw upon the multiple disciplines of chemistry (physical, analytical, inorganic, and organic), physics, and biology. Includes a focus on the integrative themes of design, size, shape, surface, self-assembly, and defects. Novel and emerging applications in technology, biology, and medicine will be explored. Prerequisite: Chemistry 343 or 344 & 1-300 level Chemistry course. Any of these courses can be taken concurrently. 6 credits; NE; Not offered 2017-18
CHEM 363 Biophysical Chemistry This course examines the chemical and physical underpinnings of biology at the molecular level. Principles of thermodynamics will be applied to problems in biochemistry, including protein structure, folding, and dynamics, ligand binding, membrane transport, and metabolism. Biophysical methods for the characterization of the structure and function of macromolecules will also be discussed. Prerequisite: Mathematics 120 (121), Chemistry 234, and either Biology 126 or Chemistry 320, or by instructor permission. 6 credits; NE, QRE; Not offered 2017-18
CHEM 364 Biophysical Chemistry Lab This lab course introduces biophysical techniques, including crystallography, magnetic resonance, and various fluorescence spectroscopy methods, used to study the structure, dynamics, and function of biological macromolecules. Prerequisite: Mathematics 120 (121), Chemistry 234 & either Biology 126 or Chemistry 320, or Instructor Permission; Requires concurrent registration in Chemistry 363. 2 credits; QRE; Not offered 2017-18
CHEM 394 Student-Faculty Research Independent and group projects related to faculty research programs, supervised by faculty in all areas of chemistry and typically associated with summer or winter-break research projects. Activities include: original inquiry, laboratory and/or theoretical work, literature reading, formal writing related to research results, and preparing talks or posters for research conferences. Regular meetings with a faculty advisor and/or research group are expected. Students conducting research that is not directly tied to ongoing faculty research programs should enroll in Chemistry 391/392. Prerequisite: Instructor Permission. 1-6 credit; S/CR/NC; NE; Fall; Deborah S Gross, Steven M Drew, Matt Whited, Daniela L Kohen, Joe Chihade
CHEM 395 Research Experience Seminar in Chemistry This seminar course is intended for students who have completed a summer research project or internship in the chemical sciences. The intent of the course is to provide students with the opportunity to discuss their research experience, learn from the experiences of other members of the class, read relevant primary literature, and prepare a poster for a student research symposium. 3 credits; S/CR/NC; NE, QRE; Fall; Sarah Deel
CHEM 400 Integrative Exercise Three alternatives exist for the department comprehensive exercise. Most students elect to join a discussion group that studies the research of a distinguished chemist or particular research problem in depth. Other students elect to write a long paper based on research in the primary literature, or write a paper expanding on their own research investigations. Most of the work for Chemistry 400 is expected to be accomplished during winter term. Students should enroll for five credits of Chemistry 400 during the winter, receive a "CI" at the end of that term, and then enroll for one credit during the spring, with the final evaluation and grade being awarded during spring term. 5 credits; S/NC; Fall, Winter, Spring; Deborah S Gross, David G Alberg, Chris Calderone, Joe Chihade, Will Hollingsworth