History

The History major introduces students to major civilizations of the past while it develops skills of research, analysis and expression that are essential to students in the Liberal Arts environment. History majors learn not only what happened in the past, but also how to explain significant elements of continuity and how to analyze moments of profound rupture. Thus a History major develops a deep appreciation for the durable phenomena of world cultures (the persistence of poverty, the transcendence of genius, the corruption of political power), as well as a keen analytical framework for understanding transformative moments in time (the American, Mexican and French Revolutions, the Civil Rights Movement, etc.)

In view of the variety of departmental offerings, History majors are allowed to design their own mix of courses. The department offers guidelines, attentive advising, and carefully selected requirements to ensure coherence in the student's growing mastery of the discipline. Still, much of the choice on specific courses is left up to the individual student. The student's pathway through the major should reflect his or her particular interests, abilities and career plans.

See History Department Web site: https://apps.carleton.edu/curricular/history/

Requirements for the History Major

The major requires a total of 72 credits from courses taken in the history department. History 100's and the comprehensive exercise count toward the total number of credits. Courses in ancient history are taught in the Classics department and count toward the history major. Certain courses offered outside the history department also count toward the major; these courses are specified in the course catalog.

Primary Field

Courses must be taken in at least three of the following eight fields:

  • 1) United States
  • 2) Ancient and Medieval
  • 3) Early Modern and Modern Europe
  • 4) the Middle East and Asia
  • 5) Africa and Its Diaspora
  • 6) Latin America
  • 7) Atlantic World
  • 8) Environment and Health

Students choosing fields 1-4 as their primary field will take four courses; those choosing 5-8 may take four courses in that field, or take three courses in the field and one additional course that is of relevance to the field. This additional course will be chosen in consultation with the adviser.

Self-designed Thematic Field Option

In consultation with the faculty, students may also propose a self-designed thematic field as their primary field (e.g., Gender and History, Colonialism, Environmental History, Communism, Economic History). Interested students should consult the department chair for further details and procedures.

Additional Requirements

In addition to four courses in a primary field, all majors must also take

  • at least two courses in each of two secondary fields
  • at least two courses at the 300-level in any of the student's three fields
  • the History Colloquium (History 298)
  • Advanced Historical Writing (History 398)  Students prepare for the senior integrative exercise by submitting an acceptable proposal, normally in fall term of the senior year and writing a senior thesis (History 400), normally in the winter term of the senior year. See History Comps Web page.

History majors who are interested in study and research in a major library should consider the Newberry Library Seminar program. Other additional off-campus programs and graduate studies programs and information can be found in the History department lounge and on the History Department Off-Campus Programs and the Off-Campus Studies office web pages.

Courses from other departments

(may be included in the seventy-two credits total and count towards fields).

  • AMST 115 Introduction to American Studies: Immigration and American Culture
  • AMST 115 Introduction to American Studies
  • CLAS 122 The Archaeology of Mediterranean Prehistory: From the Beginning to the Classical Age (not offered in 2017-18)
  • CLAS 227 Greek History: The Greek Polis (not offered in 2017-18)
  • CLAS 228 The Roman Republic (not offered in 2017-18)
  • CLAS 230 The World of Alexander (not offered in 2017-18)
  • CLAS 231 The Roman Principate (not offered in 2017-18)
  • ECON 232 American Economic History: A Cliometric Approach (not offered in 2017-18)
  • ECON 277 An Economic History of Financial Crises (not offered in 2017-18)
  • EDUC 245 The History of American School Reform
  • EUST 100 Allies or Enemies? America through European Eyes
  • LTAM 270 Chile's September 11th: History and Memory since the Coup (not offered in 2017-18)
  • MELA 230 Jewish Collective Memory (not offered in 2017-18)
  • POSC 245 Politics of the Middle East I (1918-67) (not offered in 2017-18)
  • RELG 140 Religion and American Culture (not offered in 2017-18)

Please ask the history department chair or your adviser about any courses in Africana Studies, American Studies, Asian Studies, Classics, Cross Cultural Studies, Economics, Education, European Studies, Environmental and Technology Studies, Latin American Studies, Religion, Women's and Gender Studies, or other special courses offered by an historian in another department if you wish to apply them toward the history major.

History Courses

HIST 100 Confucius and His Critics An introduction to the study of historical biography. Instead of what we heard or think about Confucius, we will examine what his contemporaries, both his supporters and critics, thought he was. Students will scrutinize various sources gleaned from archaeology, heroic narratives, and court debates, as well as the Analects to write their own biography of Confucius based on a particular historical context that created a persistent constitutional agenda in early China. Students will justify why they would call such a finding, in hindsight, "Confucian" in its formative days. Themes can be drawn from aspects of ritual, bureaucracy, speech and writing 6 credits; AI, WR1, IS; Fall; Seungjoo Yoon
HIST 100 Exploration, Science, and Empire This course provides an introduction to the global history of exploration. We will examine the scientific and artistic aspects of expeditions, and consider how scientific knowledge--navigation, medicinal treatments, or the collection of scientific specimens--helped make exploration, and subsequently Western colonialism, possible. We will also explore how the visual and literary representations of exotic places shaped distant audiences’ understandings of empire and of the so-called races of the world. Art and science helped form the politics of Western nationalism and expansion; this course will explore some of the ways in which their legacy remains with us today. 6 credits; AI, WR1, IS; Fall; Tony Adler
HIST 100 Migration and Mobility in the Medieval North Why did barbarians invade? Traders trade? Pilgrims travel? Vikings raid? Medieval Europe is sometimes caricatured as a world of small villages and strong traditions that saw little change between the cultural high-water marks of Rome and the Renaissance. In fact, this was a period of dynamic innovation, during which Europeans met many familiar challenges—environmental change, religious and cultural conflict, social and political competition—by traveling or migrating to seek new opportunities. This course will examine mobility and migration in northern Europe, and students will be introduced to diverse methodological approaches to their study by exploring historical and literary sources, archaeological evidence and scientific techniques involving DNA and isotopic analyses. 6 credits; AI, WR1, IS; Fall; Austin P Mason
HIST 100 Soot, Smog and Satanic Mills: Environment & Industrialization Soot, smog, water pollution, cholera, asthma... all of these and many more are environmental and health problems that we associate with industrialization. In this course, we trace the history of industrialization through the the lens of the impact of this major social and economic change on the built and natural environment and on public health. The course will focus on eighteenth- and nineteenth-century England, with significant comparative work on France, and a broader chronological and regional view where appropriate. 6 credits; AI, WR1, IS; Fall; Susannah R Ottaway
HIST 120 Rethinking the American Experience: American History, 1607-1865 A survey of the American experience from before Christopher Columbus' arrival through the Civil War. Some of the topics we will cover include: contact between Native and European cultures; the development of the thirteen mainland British colonies; British, French, and Spanish imperial conflicts over the Americas; slavery; the American Revolution; religious awakenings; antebellum politics; and the Civil War. 6 credits; HI, IDS, QRE; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 121 Rethinking the American Experience: American Social History, 1865-1945 This course offers a survey of the American experience from the end of the Civil War through World War II. Although we will cover a large number of major historical developments--including Reconstruction, the Progressive movement, World War I, the Great Depression, the New Deal and World War II--the course will seek to emphasize the various beliefs, values, and understandings that informed Americans' choices throughout these periods. A particular theme will be individual Americans' varied personal experiences of historical trends and events. We will seek to understand the connections (and sometimes the disconnections) between the past and present. 6 credits; HI, IDS; Not offered 2017-18; Harry M Williams
HIST 122 U.S. Women's History to 1877 Gender, race, and class shaped women's participation in the arenas of work, family life, culture, and politics in the United States from the colonial period to the late nineteenth century. We will examine diverse women's experiences of colonization, industrialization, slavery and Reconstruction, religion, sexuality and reproduction, and social reform. Readings will include both primary and secondary sources, as well as historiographic articles outlining major frameworks and debates in the field of women's history. 6 credits; HI, IDS; Fall; Annette Igra
HIST 123 U.S. Women's History Since 1877 In the twentieth century women participated in the redefinition of politics and the state, sexuality and family life, and work and leisure as the United States became a modern, largely urban society. We will explore how the dimensions of race, class, ethnicity, and sexuality shaped diverse women's experiences of these historical changes. Topics will include: immigration, the expansion of the welfare system and the consumer economy, labor force segmentation and the world wars, and women's activism in civil rights, labor, peace and feminist movements. 6 credits; HI, IDS; Winter; Annette Igra
HIST 124 History of the City in the United States This course introduces modern United States urban history in social, cultural, political, and economic perspective. Our particular focus will be the period from 1865-present, but we will also consider earlier trends of urbanization in the U.S.  Major course themes will include: life in the city, the rise, fall, and renewal of the American city, urban history and public memory, the economic and political history of the city, the culture of cities, and immigration, race, and ethnicity. We will also examine approaches to studying U.S. urban history. 6 credits; HI, IDS; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 125 African American History I This survey begins with the pre-enslavement history of African Americans in West Africa. It proceeds to the transition of the slave from an African to an African American either directly or indirectly through the institution of slavery until 1865. Special attention will be given to black female activists, organizations, and philosophies proposing solutions to the African-American and Euro-American dilemma in the antebellum period. 6 credits; HI, IDS; Not offered 2017-18; Harry M Williams
HIST 126 African American History II The transition from slavery to freedom; the post-Reconstruction erosion of civil rights and the ascendancy of Booker T. Washington; protest organizations and mass migration before and during World War I; the postwar resurgence of black nationalism; African Americans in the Great Depression and World War II; roots of the modern Civil Rights movement, and black female activism. 6 credits; HI, WR2, IDS; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 130 The History of Political Thought, 300-1600: Power, Authority, and Imagination The period between 300-1600 witnessed extensive and dynamic experimentation in political thought. The nascent and fluid polities and institutions of the period created a laboratory in which thinkers grappled with fundamental political issues: the nature and function of sovereignty and consensual rule; proper social order; and the nature and rule of law. Thinkers also debated the relative importance of reason, religion, tradition, and experience as sources of legitimate power and authority. Through a series of rich case studies, this course will explore the principles and preoccupations that shaped the political and institutional orders on the eve of the modern State. HI, WR2, IS Not offered 2017-18
HIST 131 Saints, Sinners, and Philosophers in Late Antiquity In Late Antiquity, Christians and pagans asked with particular intensity: How should I live? What should be my relationship to wealth, family, power, and the world? How are mind and body related in the good life and how can this relationship be controlled and directed? What place had education in the pursuit of the good life? Was the best life to be achieved through material renunciation, psychological transformation, or both? We will ask these and many other questions of a wide array of primary sources written originally in Latin, Greek, Syriac, Coptic, and Armenian while employing the insights of modern scholarship. 6 credits; HI, WR2, IS; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 133 Crisis, Creativity, and Transformation in Late Antiquity This course investigates the dramatic transformations that shaped the eastern Mediterranean world and surrounding regions between ca. 250-850 CE. We will focus in particular on how people in late antiquity used environmental, institutional, socio-economic, and cultural resources to address an ongoing series of changes and challenges in their worlds. It also examines these responses from multiple perspectives: winners and losers, elites and non-elites, people of different ethnicities and cultures, urban and rural populations, and diverse religious groups and sects within these groups. The emergence and implications of Christianity and Islam as major organizing identities will also be explored. 6 credits; HI, WR2, IS; Spring; William L North
HIST 137 Early Medieval Worlds Through the intensive exploration of a variety of distinct "worlds" in the early Middle Ages, this course offers an introduction to formative political, social, religious, and cultural developments in Europe between c.450 and c.1050. We will pay special attention to the structures, ideologies, practices, and social dynamics that shaped and energized communities large and small and will develop skills in the historical interpretation of various kinds of primary sources. The development of a student-designed public exhibition on "Word and Image in the Middle Ages" is an essential element of the course and includes outreach projects in the public schools. 6 credits; HI, IS, WR2; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 138 Crusades, Mission, and the Expansion of Europe This course examines the complex and sometimes contradictory roles of crusade and mission in the gradual expansion of Europe (eleventh -fifteenth century) into the eastern Mediterranean, the Iberian peninsula, the Baltic, and even Central Asia. We will examine questions like: What did "crusade" or "mission" mean? How did people respond to, resist, or co-opt these enterprises? Did crusade and mission expand Europeans' knowledge of other cultures? In addition to critical analysis of primary sources and current scholarship, the course will offer opportunities to share knowledge with a broader public. 6 credits; HI, WR2, IS; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 139 Foundations of Modern Europe A narrative and survey of the early modern period (fifteenth through eighteenth centuries). The course examines the Renaissance, Reformation, Contact with the Americas, the Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment. We compare the development of states and societies across Western Europe, with particularly close examination of the history of Spain. 6 credits; HI, IS, WR2; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 140 The Age of Revolutions: Modern Europe, 1789-1914 This course traces the evolution of Europe from the French Revolution to the outbreak of World War I, and examines some of the political, social, economic, intellectual, and cultural forces that have shaped and reshaped European society. We will cover the growth of modern nation-states, the industrial revolution and its effects on society, changes in the family and gender roles, and the evolution of modern consciousness in the arts, literature, and philosophy. The course will strive to look at both Western and Eastern Europe, and will conclude with a close examination of the causes of the First World War. 6 credits; HI, IS; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 141 Europe in the Twentieth Century This course explores developments in European history in a global context from the final decade of the nineteenth century through to the present. We will focus on the impact of nationalism, war, and revolution on the everyday experiences of women and men, and also look more broadly on the chaotic economic, political, social, and cultural life of the period. Of particular interest will be the rise of fascism and communism, and the challenge to Western-style liberal democracy, followed by the Cold War and communism’s collapse near the end of the century. 6 credits; HI, IS; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 142 Women in Modern Europe An exploration of women’s lives in Europe from 1700 to the present. We will focus on changes in women’s work before and after the industrial revolution, women as revolutionaries in 1789, 1848, and 1871, and campaigns for women’s rights. Why did Virginia Woolf say it was worse “perhaps” to be locked in than to be locked out? Why did Bertolt Brecht’s character known simply as "the mother" take up the flag of revolution in Russia in 1905? We will investigate these questions from the Early Modern era to the European Union through a variety of sources: philosophical treatises, novels, plays, and political tracts, as well as historical monographs. 6 credits; HI, IS; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 151 History of Modern Japan This course explores the modern transformation of Japanese society, politics, economy and culture from the Meiji Restoration of 1868 to the present. It is designed to provide students with an opportunity to explore basic issues and problems relating to modern Japanese history and international relations. Topics include the intellectual crisis of the late Tokugawa period, the Meiji Constitution, the development of an interior democracy, class and gender, the rise of Japanese fascism, the Pacific War, and postwar developments. 6 credits; HI, IS; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 153 History of Modern China This course offers a critical survey of the modern transformation of the trajectory of China's recent past spanning from the eighteenth century through the present. Students will analyze deep structural issues that cut across political narratives of Chinese elites. Themes for discussion will include the debates on Chinese "capitalism," new religious currents as a form of legitimation (e.g., Tibetan Buddhism), bureaucratic behaviors, cultural refinements, peasant and sectarian rebellions, the interaction with the West, the (non-)existence of civil society, nationalism, party politics, the dynamics of Communist rule, and alternative Chinese societies both inside and outside of Mainland China. 6 credits; HI, IS, WR2; Spring; Seungjoo Yoon
HIST 156 History of Modern Korea A comparative historical survey on the development of Korean society and culture from the nineteenth century to the present. Key themes include colonialism and war, economic growth, political transformation, socio-cultural changes, and historical memory. Issues involving divided Korea will be examined in the contexts of post-colonialism and Cold War. Students are also expected to develop skills to analyze key historical moments from relevant primary sources against broader historiographical contexts. 6 credits; HI, IS; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 158 Cold War in East Asia How is the Cold War in East Asia related to the global Cold War? Many argue that Cold War came prematurely in East Asia and outlasts the collapse of the Berlin Wall. Students will examine evolving patterns of the region's engagement with global dimensions of war, diplomacy, and trade and conduct a case study (e.g., Roosevelt on China, Stalin on North Korea, Kennedy on Japan, Khrushchev and Nixon on China, or Bush on North Korea). Themes may be drawn from sports and pop culture or urban renewal projects in terms of post-colonial nation building, market fundamentalism, and new empire formation. 6 credits; HI, IS; Winter; Seungjoo Yoon
HIST 161 From the Mughals to Mahatma Gandhi: An Introduction to Modern Indian History This is an introductory survey course; no prior knowledge of South Asian History required. The goal is to familiarize students with some of the key themes and debates in the historiography of modern India. Beginning with an overview of Mughal rule in India, the main focus of the course is the colonial period. The course ends with a discussion of 1947: the hour of independence as well as the creation of two new nation-states, India and Pakistan. Topics include Oriental Despotism, colonial rule, nationalism, communalism, gender, caste and race.  6 credits; HI, IS, WR2; Spring; Amna Khalid
HIST 162 Politics and Public Culture in Modern South Asia This course examines the intersection of politics and culture in the public sphere in South Asia. We will look at the impact of British colonial rule, social hierarchies and caste, gender and the public sphere, race, religion and secularism. We'll also examine movements for independence, including Gandhian nationalism, left- and right-wing movements, and religious nationalism. Lastly, we will look at contemporary issues of popular culture, identity, gender, social justice, and militarism in the age of globalization. In addition to scholarly books and articles, course material includes music, poetry, journalism, popular Bollywood cinema and "art films." 6 credits; HI, IS; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 165 From Young Turks to Arab Revolutions: A Cultural History of the Modern Middle East This course provides a basic introduction to the history of the wider Muslim world from the eighteenth century to the present. We will discuss the cultural and religious diversity of the Muslim world and its varied interactions with modernity. We will find that the history of the Muslim world is inextricably linked to that of its neighbors, and we will encounter colonialism, anti-colonialism, nationalism, and socialism, as well as a variety of different Islamic movements. 6 credits; HI, IS; Spring; Adeeb Khalid
HIST 167 Nuclear Nations: India & Pakistan as Rival Siblings At the stroke of midnight on August 15, 1947 India and Pakistan, two new nation states emerged from the shadow of British colonialism. This course focuses on the political trajectories of these two rival siblings and looks at the ways in which both states use the other to forge antagonistic and belligerent nations. While this is a survey course it is not a comprehensive overview of the history of the two countries. Instead it covers some of the more significant moments of rupture and violence in the political history of the two states. The first two-thirds of the course offers a top-down, macro overview of these events and processes whereas the last third examines the ways in which people experienced these developments. We use the lens of gender to see how the physical body, especially the body of the woman, is central to the process of nation building. We will consider how women’s bodies become sites of contestation and how they are disciplined and policed by the postcolonial state(s). 6 credits; HI, IS, WR2; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 170 Modern Latin America 1810-Present This course focuses on the legacy of colonial rule and asks how nascent nation-states dealt with new challenges of political legitimacy, economic development, and the rights of citizens. Case studies from the experiences of individual nations will highlight concerns still pertinent today: the ongoing struggle to extend meaningful political participation and the benefits of economic growth to the majority of the region's inhabitants, popular struggles for political, economic, and cultural rights, and the emergence of a civic society. 6 credits; HI, IS; Winter; Luis A Herran Avila
HIST 171 Latin America and the U.S. This course provides an introduction to the rugged and highly contentious political and cultural history of Latin America--U.S. relations, from the era of Atlantic revolutions to the present. With a critical lens, we examine the forms and limits of U.S. imperial domination and coercion, as well as different strategies of collaboration, negotiation, and resistance devised by Latin Americans, from nineteenth century U.S. expansionism, to the challenges of the Mexican, Cuban and Nicaraguan Revolutions, to U.S. support for dictatorial regimes, and the evolution of neoliberal globalization, as well as recent disputes in the realms of the economy and migration. 6 credits; HI, IS; Fall; Luis A Herran Avila
HIST 172 Latin America’s Global Migrations This course looks at Latin America as a site of global migrants and migrations. Alongside better-known cases of Latin American migration to the United States, we examine the long history of African, European, Asian, and Middle Eastern diasporas in the region. The course stresses the global interconnections of the region’s circuits of mobility, as well as the various economic, political, and cultural factors informing the movement and settlement of diverse populations throughout the hemisphere. 6 credits; HI, IS; Spring; Luis A Herran Avila
HIST 181 West Africa in the Era of the Slave Trade The medieval Islamic and the European (or Atlantic) slave trades have had a tremendous influence on the history of Africa and the African Diaspora. This course offers an introduction to the history of West African peoples via their involvement in both of these trades from the fifteenth to the nineteenth century. More specifically, students will explore the demography, the economics, the social structure, and the ideologies of slavery. They also will learn the repercussions of these trades for men's and women's lives, for the expansion of coastal and hinterland kingdoms, and for the development of religious practices and networks. 6 credits; HI, IS; Winter; Thabiti Willis
HIST 182 Living in the Colonial Context: Africa, 1850-1950 This course considers major actors and developments in sub-Saharan Africa from the mid-nineteenth through the mid-twentieth centuries. With a critical awareness of the ways that Africa's past has been narrated, it balances coverage of the state and economy with attention to daily life, families, and popular culture. The majority of the reading assignments are drawn from contemporary documents, commentaries, interviews, and memoirs. These are supplemented by works produced by historians. Students will analyze change, question perspectives, and imagine life during the age of European imperialism. Written assignments include a book review, examinations, and identifying and editing a primary source text. 6 credits; HI, IS; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 183 History of Early West Africa This course surveys the history of West Africa during the pre-colonial period from 790 to 1590. It chronicles the rise and fall of the kingdoms of Ancient Ghana, Mali, and Songhai. We will examine the transition from decentralized to centralized societies, the relations between nomadic and settler groups, the institution of divine kingship, the emergence of new ruling dynasties, the consolidation of trade networks, and the development of the classical Islamic world. Students will learn how scholars have used archeological evidence, African oral traditions, and the writings of Muslim travelers to reconstruct this important era of West African history. 6 credits; HI, IS; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 184 Colonial West Africa This course surveys the history of West Africa during the colonial period, 1860-1960. It offers an introduction to the roles that Islam and Christianity played in establishing and maintaining colonial rule. It looks at the role of colonialism in shaping African ethnic identities and introducing new gender roles. In addition, we will examine the transition from slave labor to wage labor, and its role in exacerbating gender, generation, and class divisions among West Africans. The course also highlights some of the ritual traditions and cultural movements that flourished in response to colonial rule. 6 credits; HI, IS; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 194 The Making of the "Pacific World" The Pacific is the largest ocean on our planet, covering thirty percent of the Earth’s surface and bordered by four continents. This course will explore how a “Pacific World” framework can help us understand the movement of peoples, goods, and ideas across an oceanic space. Can we describe the history of the Pacific as having a unified history? This course will explore various topics in Pacific history including the history of exploration and migration, cross-cultural encounters, science and empire, and environmental history from 1750 to the present. While this course will be transnational in scope, it will focus primarily on U.S. exploration, trade, and the making of an American Pacific frontier.  6 credits; HI, IS; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 201 Rome Program: Community and Communication in Medieval Italy, CE 300-1250 Through site visits, on-site projects, and readings, this course explores the ways in which people in Italy from late antiquity through the thirteenth century sought to communicate political, religious, and civic messages through combinations of words, images, objects, and structures. What are the "arts of power and piety" and when and why are they used? How do people use spaces and images to educate, to challenge, to honor, to remember, or to forget? How can materials create and transmit meaning and order? How do people combine creativity and tradition to maintain and enrich the worlds they inhabit? 6 credits; HI, IS; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 202 Icons, Iconoclasm, and the Quest for the Holy in Byzantium and Its Neighbors This course examines the nature, theory, and functions of religious images in Byzantium and surrounding regions (Armenia, Coptic Egypt, Ethiopia, the Slavic world, and the Latin West) as well as the perspectives of those who criticized them. Special attention will be paid to debates over the nature of icon veneration within Byzantine society itself and across religious boundaries; the role of images in the cult of saints; and the role of icons in the formation of religious, social, and political identities. Projects in this class will support a special exhibition in Winter 2018. History 203 winter term 2018 will require History 202 Fall 2017. 3 credits; WR2, HI, IS; Fall; William L North
HIST 203 Icons for All: A Public Humanities Practicum In this course, students will focus on all aspects of mounting a successful public exhibition. They will develop the didactic materials for an exhibition on icons, including educational materials for K-12 and programming and docent training for adults. Students will gain experience transforming their academic knowledge into forms that enrich and enlighten a variety of publics. Attention will also be paid to the development of print, web, and direct outreach materials that will connect with the Northfield and Twin Cities communities. Prerequisite: History 202 or instructor permission. 3 credits; HI, IS; Winter; William L North
HIST 204 Jews, Christians and Muslims in the Medieval Mediterranean The Mediterranean was a dynamic hub of cultural exchange in the Middle Ages. We will draw on Jewish, Muslim, and Latin Christian sources to explore this contact from 1050-1492 and the role of the sea itself in joining and separating the peoples who surrounded it. What did it mean to be a Muslim pilgrim in Christian-held Palestine? A Jewish vizier serving a Muslim ruler in Spain? A Christian courtier courting martyrdom in North Africa? We will explore lives led between coexistence and violence, intellectual and legal structures that helped to negotiate difference, and the textures of daily life. 6 credits; HI, WR2, IS; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 205 American Environmental History Environmental concerns, conflicts, and change mark the course of American history, from the distant colonial past to our own day. This course will consider the nature of these eco-cultural developments, focusing on the complicated ways that human thought and perception, culture and society, and natural processes and biota have all combined to forge Americans' changing relationship with the natural world. Topics will include Native American subsistence strategies, Euroamerican settlement, industrialization, urbanization, consumption, and the environmental movement. As we explore these issues, one of our overarching goals will be to develop an historical context for thinking deeply about contemporary environmental dilemmas. 6 credits; HI, IDS; Fall; George Vrtis
HIST 206 Rome Program: Eternal City in Time: Structure, Change, and Identity This course will explore the lived experience of the city of Rome in the twelfth-sixteenth centuries. We will study buildings, urban forms, surviving artifacts, and textual and other visual evidence to understand how politics, power, and religion (both Christianity and Judaism) mapped onto city spaces. How did urban challenges and opportunities shape daily life? How did the memory of the past influence the present? How did the rural world affect the city and vice versa? Students will work on projects closely tied to the urban fabric. Prerequisite: Enrollment in OCS program. 6 credits; HI, IS; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 207 Rome Program: Roman Journal: The Traveler as Witness This course examines travel as an occasion for investigation, encounter, and reflection and as an opportunity to document and communicate these observations of people and place. Through select readings drawn from a range of disciplines and genres, travel accounts, and ongoing discussion of their own travel experiences, students will seek better to understand the traveler as observer and recorder of other peoples and places. The course will also examine the nature of public memory and commemoration and the role of travelers as audiences for sites of memory. As part of the course, students will maintain their own travel journals, prepare several reflections, and contribute to the Program Blog. Prerequisite: Enrollment in OCS program. 3 credits; HI, IS; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 208 The Atlantic World: Columbus to the Age of Revolutions, 1492-1792 In the late fifteenth century, the Atlantic ocean became a vast highway linking Spain, France, Britain, and the Netherlands to the Americas and Africa. This course will examine the lives of the men and women who inhabited this new world from the time of Columbus to the eighteenth-century revolutions in Haiti and North America. We will focus on the links between continents rather than the geographic segments. Topics will include the destruction and reconfiguration of indigenous societies; slavery and other forms of servitude; religion; war; and the construction of ideas of empire. Students considering a concentration in Atlantic History are particularly encouraged to enroll. Emphasis on primary sources. 6 credits; HI, IS; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 209 The Revolutionary Atlantic Students in this course will investigate social conflicts, political struggles, and protest movements from the Age of Revolution, 1776-1848 ranging over four continents. We will read pamphlets from the Dutch Patriot Revolution, eye witness accounts of slave insurrections in the Caribbean, novels and plays describing/provoking changes in families on both sides of the Atlantic, and newspaper articles written by Karl Marx. We will compare histories of revolutions on both sides of the Atlantic, including the newest research on West Africa and Latin America. 6 credits; HI, IS; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 210 The Boston Massacre in 3D: Mapping, Modeling and Serious Gaming In this highly experimental, demanding, and project-orientated Digital Humanities Lab, we will research, design, and produce immersive 3D experiences based on the events of the Boston Massacre. We will leverage all the critical, creative, and technical skills we can assemble to bring this pivotal moment in early American history to life in 3D. Tools will include GIS and CityEngine procedural mapping software, 3D modeling programs, and the Unity game engine. No technical experience necessary, but a willingness to learn independently. Prerequisite: Requires concurrent registration in History 212. 2 credits; ARP; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 211 Puritans, Sex and Slavery An intensive exploration of particular topics in early American history in its context as part of an Atlantic world. Topics will include voluntary and involuntary migration from Europe and Africa, personal, political, and military relationships between Europeans and Native Americans, the pattern of colonial settlement and politics, concepts of family and community, strategies of cultural adaptation and resistance, slavery, religion, the making of racial, rank, and gender ideologies, and the development of British and American identities. 6 credits; HI, IDS; Spring; Serena R Zabin
HIST 212 The Era of the American Revolution How Revolutionary was the American Revolution? This class will examine the American Revolution as both a process and a phenomenon. It will consider the relationship of the American Revolution to social, cultural, economic, political, and ideological change in the lives of Americans from the founding fathers to the disenfranchised, focusing on the period 1750-1790. Students currently enrolled in History 212 are eligible to take the optional 2-credit digital lab, History 210, “Boston Massacre in 3D.” We will use 3D modeling and GIS to create a Boston Massacre digital game. 6 credits; HI, IDS; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 213 The Age of Hamilton This course will examine the social, political, and cultural history of the period 1783-1830 with special consideration of the framing and ratification of the U.S. Constitution and the new nation’s transnational connections, especially to France and Haiti. Other topics include partisan conflict, political culture, nation-building, the American character, and domestic life. We will also consider the contemporary interest in this period in both politics and musical theater. Some previous knowledge of American history assumed. 6 credits; HI, IDS; Fall; Serena R Zabin
HIST 214 Rethinking the American Civil War The Civil War, in which more than 620,000 died, was a cataclysmic event that reshaped American life. Using both original sources and the most recent scholarship, we will explore the causes, leadership, battles, and consequences of the war for ordinary Americans. Topics include the war's impact on men, women, slavery, legal rights, the economy, the confederacy, the presidency, and American memory. Special attention will be paid to Civil War photography, the problems of mapping the conflict, and the attempt to understand the war through modern movies and documentaries, including those of Ken Burns. 6 credits; HI, IDS, WR2; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 215 Carleton in the Archives: Studies in Institutional Memory and Culture Ours is a world of institutions--schools, corporations, non-profits, government agencies--that shape the way we act, think, and remember. The memory [and amnesia] of institutions themselves, the records they keep and throw away, and the way these repositories are organized and used are crucial elements in their function and survival. How do institutions remember? What is the relationship between "official" and "individual" memory in the making of an institutional world? How do past and present connect? We will explore this and related questions through readings, discussion, and a hands-on project based upon material in Carleton's own archives. 6 credits; HI, IDS; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 216 History Beyond the Walls This course will examine the world of history outside the walls of academia. Looking at secondary-school education, museums, and public policy, we will explore the ways in which both general and specialized publics learn and think about history. A central component of the course will be a civic engagement project. Prerequisite: One History course, first year students require instructor permission. 6 credits; HI, WR2, IDS; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 217 Engaging Youth in the Past The course centers on a civic engagement project mentoring sixth grade students at the Northfield Middle School as they research and produce projects for a local version of National History Day. In addition to mentoring, we will also meet once a week to discuss readings on public history and issues such as the controversies over national history standards. Prerequisite: One college level history course. 3 credits; HI; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 219 Is Obama Black?: American Mixed Race History This course explores the historical political, social, philosophical, and cultural problems related to mixed-race identity since the late nineteenth century, with emphasis on the U.S. government's 2000 decision allowing Americans to define their racial makeup as one race or more. Life stories, literature, and film investigate identity formation, stratification based on race, and the particular ways mixed-raced people articulate their identities in various contexts. Final projects beyond black and white mixed-race people encouraged. 6 credits; HI, WR2, IDS; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 224 Divercities: Exclusion and Inequality in Urban America This course examines the twentieth-century history of the United States city in global comparative perspective. It will focus on how exclusion, difference, inequality, and segregation have evolved along with diversity and heterogeneity in the modern city. We will explore this basic contradiction of the U.S. city in history as a contested site of opportunity and foreclosure, asking: how have American cities been both zones of exclusion and inequality while at the same time places in which diverse groups of people have interacted? 6 credits; HI, IDS; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 225 James Baldwin and Black Lives Matter This course offers an understanding of American racial history and culture at the intersection of James Baldwin’s ideas during the Civil Rights Movement about himself, the “Negro problem,” American myth, human dignity, and love and the current state of local activism and campaigns under the slogan Black Lives Matter. Final papers may explore social identities beyond race. Prerequisite: One History course. 6 credits; HI, WR2, IDS; Not offered 2017-18; Harry M Williams
HIST 226 U.S. Consumer Culture In the period after 1880, the growth of a mass consumer society recast issues of identity, gender, race, class, family, and political life. We will explore the development of consumer culture through such topics as advertising and mass media, the body and sexuality, consumerist politics in the labor movement, and the response to the Americanization of consumption abroad. We will read contemporary critics such as Thorstein Veblen, as well as historians engaged in weighing the possibilities of abundance against the growth of corporate power. 6 credits; HI, IDS, WR2; Fall; Annette Igra
HIST 227 The American West Somewhere on the sunset-side of the Mississippi River, the American West begins. It is a region steeped in nostalgia and freighted with stories and longings that Americans have now cherished for many generations. It is also a place as complex and tangled in dynamic cultural, political, and environmental forces as any place on earth. Among the themes we will focus on are relationships among Native American and Euro-American peoples, the transition from imperial frontier to American territory, the shaping power of economic and cultural initiatives, and the centrality of nature and environmental change in forging our western past and present. 6 credits; HI, IDS; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 228 Civil Rights and Black Power This course treats the struggle for racial justice from World War II through the 1960s. Histories, journalism, music, and visual media illustrate black and white elites and grassroots people allied in this momentous epoch that ranges from a southern integrationist vision to northern Black Power militancy. The segregationist response to black freedom completes the study. 6 credits; HI, WR2, IDS; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 229 Working with Gender in U.S. History Historically work has been a central location for the constitution of gender identities for both men and women; at the same time, cultural notions of gender have shaped the labor market. We will investigate the roles of race, class, and ethnicity in shaping multiple sexual divisions of labor and the ways in which terms such as skill, bread-winning and work itself were gendered. Topics will include domestic labor, slavery, industrialization, labor market segmentation, protective legislation, and the labor movement. 6 credits; HI, IDS; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 231 Mapping the World Before Mercator This course will explore early maps primarily in medieval and early modern Europe. After an introduction to the rhetoric of maps and world cartography, we will examine the functions and forms of medieval European and Islamic maps and then look closely at the continuities and transformations in map-making during the period of European exploration. The focus of the course will be on understanding each map within its own cultural context and how maps can be used to answer historical questions. We will work closely with the maps in Gould Library Special Collections to expand campus awareness of the collection. 6 credits; HI, WR2, QRE, IS; Spring; Victoria Morse
HIST 232 Renaissance Worlds in France and Italy Enthusiasm, artistry, invention, exploration.... How do these notions of Renaissance culture play out in sources from the period? Using a range of evidence (historical, literary, and visual) from Italy and France in the fourteenth-sixteenth centuries we will explore selected issues of the period, including debates about the meaning of being human and ideal forms of government and education; the nature of God and mankind's duties toward the divine; the family and gender roles; definitions of beauty and the goals of artistic achievement; accumulation of wealth; and exploration of new worlds and encounters with other peoples. 6 credits; HI, WR2, IS; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 233 Cultures of Empire: Byzantium, 843-1453 Heir to the Roman Empire, Byzantium is one of the most enduring and fascinating polities of the medieval world. Through a wide variety of written and visual evidence, we will examine key features of Byzantine history and culture such as the nature of imperial rule; piety and religious controversy; Byzantium's evolving relations with the Latin West, Armenia, the Slavic North, and the Dar al-Islam (the Abbasids and Seljuk and Ottoman Turks); economic life; and Byzantine social relations. Extra time may be required for group projects. Prerequisite: No prerequisites, but History 137, 138, or 204 will be helpful. 6 credits; HI, IS, WR2; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 234 Papacy, Church, and Empire in the Middle Ages This course explores the dynamic interactions between three distinct centers of authority and power: the Roman papacy, the Church, and the heir to the legacies of Rome, the Holy Roman Empire from the tenth through thirteenth centuries. Among other topics to be covered: the rise of canon and Roman law; new religious orders; changing models of sanctity; the Church and local and 'national' identity; and the development of the papacy as a powerful, but controversial, European institution. The course will also consider the Holy Roman Empire as a cultural zone in which Church and Empire play vital roles as patrons and subjects. 6 credits; HI, IS; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 235 Bringing the English Past to (Virtual) Life This course will explore the history of England from the time of the Tudors through the Industrial Revolution, with a particular focus on the history of poverty and social welfare. We will use new technologies to develop innovative ways to teach and learn about the past. Using a specially designed digital archive, students will construct life stories of paupers, politicians and intellectuals. One day per week, the class will work in a computer lab constructing 3-Dimensional, virtual institutions and designing computer game scenarios that utilize their research to recreate the lived experience of the poor. 6 credits; HI, IS, WR2; Winter; Susannah R Ottaway, Austin P Mason
HIST 236 Women and Gender in Europe before the French Revolution What were women’s lives and experiences like in Europe before the modern era? What work did they do, how did they manage their private lives, their family commitments, their faith, and their intellectual lives? We will examine these questions through women’s own writings, writings about women, and secondary literature on family, gender, medicine, law, and culture. In 2016-17, we will have a special opportunity to think about Jewish women’s lives. Projects will include helping to create an exhibition related to William Shakespeare’s Merchant of Venice or working with Middle School students in the after school program. 6 credits; HI, IS, WR2, QRE; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 237 The Enlightenment This course focuses on the texts of Enlightenment thinkers, including Locke, Montesquieu, Voltaire, Diderot, Rousseau, Kant and Mesmer. Emphasis will be on French thinkers and the effect of the Enlightenment on French society. The course covers the impact of the Enlightenment on science, religion, politics and the position of women. Students will have the opportunity to read the philosophies in French. 6 credits; HI, WR2, IS; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 238 The Viking World In the popular imagination, Vikings are horn-helmeted, blood-thirsty pirates who raped and pillaged their way across medieval Europe. But the Norse did much more than loot, rape, and pillage; they cowed kings and fought for emperors, explored uncharted waters and settled the North Atlantic, and established new trade routes that revived European urban life. In this course, we will separate fact from fiction by critically examining primary source documents alongside archaeological, linguistic and place-name evidence. Students will share their insights with each other and the world through two major collaborative digital humanities projects over the course of the term. 6 credits; HI, IS; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 239 Health and Welfare in Industrializing Britain Historians disagree about the timing, causes and effects of the Industrial Revolution, but no one disputes that there were massive changes in England's population, economy and society from the seventeenth to the nineteenth century. In this course, we examine those transformations with a focus on the ways that social and economic changes related to social welfare policies, the health of the people, and the environment. 6 credits; HI, IS, QRE, WR2; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 240 Tsars and Serfs, Cossacks and Revolutionaries: The Empire that was Russia Nicholas II, the last Tsar-Emperor of Russia, ruled over an empire that stretched from the Baltic to the Pacific. Territorial expansion over three-and-a-half centuries had brought under Russian rule a vast empire of immense diversity. The empire's subjects spoke a myriad languages, belonged to numerous religious communities, and related to the state in a wide variety of ways. Its artists produced some of the greatest literature and music of the nineteenth century and it offered fertile ground for ideologies of both conservative imperialism and radical revolution. This course surveys the panorama of this empire from its inception in the sixteenth century to its demise in the flames of World War I. Among the key analytical questions addressed are the following: How did the Russian Empire manage its diversity? How does Russia compare with other colonial empires? What understandings of political order legitimized it and how were they challenged? 6 credits; HI, IS; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 241 Russia through Wars and Revolutions The lands of the Russian empire underwent massive transformations in the tumultuous decades that separated the accession of Nicholas II (1894) from the death of Stalin (1953). This course will explore many of these changes, with special attention paid to the social and political impact of wars (the Russo-Japanese War, World War I, the Civil War, and the Great Patriotic War) and revolutions (of 1905 and 1917), the ideological conflicts they engendered, and the comparative historical context in which they transpired. 6 credits; HI, IS; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 242 Communism, Cold War, Collapse: Russia Since Stalin In this course we will explore the history of Russia and other former Soviet states in the period after the death of Stalin, exploring the workings of the communist system and the challenges it faced internally and internationally. We will investigate the nature of the late Soviet state and look at the different trajectories Russia and other post-Soviet states have followed since the end of the Soviet Union. 6 credits; HI, IS; Winter; Adeeb Khalid
HIST 243 The Peasants are Revolting! Society and Politics in the Making of Modern France Political propaganda of the French Revolutionary period tells a simple story of downtrodden peasants exploited by callous nobles, but what exactly was the relationship between the political transformations of France from the Renaissance through the French Revolution and the social, religious, and cultural tensions that characterized the era? This course explores the connections and conflicts between popular and elite culture as we survey French history from the sixteenth through early nineteenth centuries, making comparisons to social and political developments in other European countries along the way. 6 credits; HI, IS, WR2; Spring; Susannah R Ottaway
HIST 245 Ireland: Land, Conflict and Memory This course explores the history of Ireland from Medieval times through the Great Famine, ending with a look at the Partition of Ireland in 1920. We examine themes of religious and cultural conflict and explore a series of English political and military interventions. Throughout the course, we will analyze views of the Irish landscape, landholding patterns, and health and welfare issues. Finally, we explore the contested nature of history and memory as the class discusses monuments and memory production in Irish public spaces. 6 credits; HI, WR2, IS, QRE; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 246 The Material World of the Anglo-Saxons This course explores the world of Anglo-Saxon England from Rome's decline through the Norman Conquest (c.400-1066) through the lens of material culture. These six centuries witnessed dramatic transformations, including changing environmental conditions, ethnic migrations, the coming of Christianity, waning Roman influence, the rise of kingdoms, and the emergence of new agricultural and economic regimes. We will look beyond the kings and priests at the top of society by analyzing objects people made and used, buildings they built, and human remains they buried alongside primary and secondary written sources. Students will gain experience in how to write history from "things." 6 credits; HI, IS; Spring; Austin P Mason
HIST 247 The First World War as Global Phenomenon On this centenary of the First World War, the course will explore the global context for this cataclysmic event, which provides the hinge from the nineteenth century into the twentieth. We will spend considerable time on the build-up to and causes of the conflict, with particular emphasis on the new imperialism, race-based ideologies, and the complex international struggles for global power. In addition to the fighting, we will devote a significant portion of the course to the home front and changes in society and culture during and after the war. 6 credits; HI, IS; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 248 Berlin Program: A German Crucible of European and Global Culture Berlin is the center of a transnational space that is German, European and global. This course will examine Berlin's complicated history and culture through its monuments, museums, and other sites of commemoration. Using Berlin as our text, we will gain insights into the significant historical events that shaped the society and culture of Germany's capital city. On visits to nearby cities, such as Vienna and Warsaw, we will also discuss developments in Germany and Europe more generally. Prerequisite: Enrollment in OCS program. 6 credits; HI, IS; Fall; David G Tompkins
HIST 249 Two Centuries of Tumult: Modern Central Europe An examination of the political, social, and cultural history of Central Europe from 1848 to the present day. We will explore the evolution of state and civil society in the multicultural/multinational regions of the present-day Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Hungary, as well as eastern Germany and Austria. Much of the course will focus on the common experiences of authoritarianism, anti-Semitism, fascism/Nazism, and especially the Communist era and its dissolution. 6 credits; HI, IS; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 250 Modern Germany This course offers a comprehensive examination of German history in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. We will look at the German-speaking peoples of Central Europe through the prism of politics, society, culture, and the economy. Through a range of readings, we will grapple with the many complex and contentious issues that have made German history such an interesting area of intellectual inquiry. 6 credits; HI, IS; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 250F Modern Germany-FLAC German Trailer This course is a supplement in German for History 250, Modern Germany, and will meet once weekly. Open to students who have completed German 103 or who have intermediate or advanced skills in German. Speaking in German, we will discuss German language primary sources, including documents, music and film clips. Prerequisite: German 103 or equivalent. 2 credits; HI, IS; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 253 The Cultural Revolution in China What is cultural about the Cultural Revolution in China? What is Chinese about it? This course explores the process of making the revolution that has left an indelible mark on the country that hosts a quarter of the world’s population. Students will examine tabloids, wall posters, cartoons, photographs, pamphlets, play scripts, rumor mills, memoirs, films, and party documents to independently assess the official CCP verdict on it as a “failure.” Themes include democracy and development in making a revolution, social stratification, spectacles and story-telling, legitimatization of violence, personality formation, operations of memory, and competing notions of time in historical thinking. 6 credits; HI, WR2, IS; Spring; Seungjoo Yoon
HIST 254 Colonialism in East Asia This course explores the colonialisms in East Asia, both internal and external. Students examine Chinese, Inner Asian, Japanese, and European colonialisms from the seventeenth century to the present. Geographically, students cover borderlands of East Asian empires (Tibet, Xinjiang, Mongolia, Manchuria, Fujian, Yunnan, Canton, Vietnam, Taiwan, Korea, Okinawa, and Hokkaido). Methodologically, students eschew power-politics and historical studies of "frontier" regions in order to analyze everyday aspects of colonial arrangements and communities in different historical moments from the bottom up. Topics include ethnic identities, racial discourses, colonial settlements, opium regimes, violence and memory (e.g. Nanjing massacre), and forced labor migrations (e.g. comfort women). 6 credits; HI, IS, WR2; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 255 Rumors, Gossip, and News in East Asia What is news? How do rumors and gossips shape news in modern China, Japan, and Korea? Is the press one of the sociocultural bases within civil society that shapes opinion in the public sphere in East Asia? Students will examine how press-like activities reshape oral communication networks and printing culture and isolate how the public is redefined in times of war and revolutions. Drawing sources from a combination of poems, private letters, maps, pamphlets, handbills, local gazetteers, rumor mills, pictorials, and cartoons, students will map communication circuits that linked authors, journalists, shippers, booksellers, itinerant storytellers, gossipers, listeners, and active readers. 6 credits; HI, IS, WR2; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 259 Women in South Asia: Histories, Narratives, and Representations The objective of this course is to analyze the historical institutions, practices and traditions that define the position of women in India. We consider the various ways in which the trope of the Goddess has been used for and by Indian women in colonial and post-colonial India; the colonial state's supposed rescue of Indian women; the position and role of European women in colonial India; how women's bodies come to embody and signify community honor and become sites of communal contest. We explore the making of Mother India; the connection between nation, territory and the female form; and the ways in which women have been represented in history as well as Indian cinema.  6 credits; HI, IS; Winter; Amna Khalid
HIST 260 The Making of the Modern Middle East A survey of major political and social developments from the fifteenth century to the beginning of World War I. Topics include: state and society, the military and bureaucracy, religious minorities (Jews and Christians), and women in premodern Muslim societies; the encounter with modernity. 6 credits; HI, IS; Fall; Adeeb Khalid
HIST 262 Public Health: History, Policy, and Practice This course will examine the rise of the institution of public health in the modern period. Locating public health within the social history of medicine we will consider how concepts of health and disease have changed over time and how the modern state's concern with the health of its population cannot be separated from its need to survey, police, and discipline the public. Topics covered will include miasma, contagion, quarantine, vaccination and the connection between European imperialism and the institutionalization of public health in colonial contexts. We will also consider how certain epidemics became the major drivers for public health. 6 credits; HI, IS; Spring; Amna Khalid
HIST 263 Plagues of Empire The globalization of disease is often seen as a recent phenomenon aided by high-speed communication and travel. This course examines the history of the spread of infectious diseases by exploring the connection between disease, medicine and European imperial expansion. We consider the ways in which European expansion from 1500 onwards changed the disease landscape of the world and how pre-existing diseases in the tropics shaped and thwarted imperial ambitions. We will also question how far Western medicine can be seen as a benefit by examining its role in facilitating colonial expansion and constructing racial and gender difference. 6 credits; HI, IS; Winter; Amna Khalid
HIST 265 Central Asia in the Modern Age Central Asia--the region encompassing the post-Soviet states of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, and the Xinjiang region of the People's Republic of China--is often considered one of the most exotic in the world, but it has experienced all the excesses of the modern age. After a basic introduction to the long-term history of the steppe, this course will concentrate on exploring the history of the region since its conquest by the Russian and Chinese empires. We will discuss the interaction of external and local forces as we explore transformations in the realms of politics, society, culture, and religion. 6 credits; HI, IS; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 266 History of Islam in South Asia While Islam is often associated primarily with the Arab world, eighty percent of the world--Muslim population resides elsewhere. The countries of South Asia--particularly India, Pakistan and Bangladesh--are collectively home to the largest number of Muslims. We will explore the expansion of Islam into South Asia, and look at specifically Indian forms of Islam. Our topics will include Muslim relations with non-Muslim communities, the Mughal Empire, colonial rule, gender and Islam, non-violent Islamic movements, Islamic art and architecture, jihad in history, Sufism, and Islamic notions of justice. Our class materials will include scholarly writings, poetry, music, slides, and film. 6 credits; HI, IS; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 268 India Program: History, Globalization, and Politics in Modern India Indian democracy presents a complicated social and political terrain that is being reshaped and remapped by a wide variety of efforts to bring about economic development, social change, political representation, justice, and equality. In this course we will examine, among other topics, the history of modern India with a focus on political movements centered on issues of colonialism, nationalism, class, gender, and caste. We will also examine changes in contemporary India brought about by globalization, and study how particular groups and communities have reacted and adapted to these developments. Prerequisite: OCS India Program. 6 credits; HI, IS; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 270 Nuclear Nations: India and Pakistan as Rival Siblings At the stroke of midnight on August 15, 1947 India and Pakistan, two new nation states emerged from the shadow of British colonialism. This course focuses on the political trajectories of these two rival siblings and looks at the ways in which both states use the other to forge antagonistic and belligerent nations. While this is a survey course it is not a comprehensive overview of the history of the two countries. Instead it covers some of the more significant moments of rupture and violence in the political history of the two states. The first two-thirds of the course offers a top-down, macro overview of these events and processes whereas the last third examines the ways in which people experienced these developments. We use the lens of gender to see how the physical body, especially the body of the woman, is central to the process of nation building. We will consider how women’s bodies become sites of contestation and how they are disciplined and policed by the postcolonial state(s). 6 credits; HI, IS; Fall; Amna Khalid
HIST 271 Political Violence and Human Rights in Latin America Rooted in earlier social struggles and influenced by the advent of the Cold War, political violence and war pervaded the Latin American landscape throughout the latter half of the twentieth century. This violence impacted political horizons, social relations, cultural representations, and the very memory of those who lived through this era. This course explores three different genres of violence through in-depth case studies: Southern Cone dirty wars (Argentina); Central American civil wars (Guatemala) and Andean civil wars (Peru). Writing assignments will involve multiple forms of analysis, while challenging students to think comparatively about the different case studies. 6 credits; HI, WR2, IS; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 272 The Mexican Revolution: History, Myth and Art As the twentieth century's first major social revolution, the Mexican Revolution represents a watershed moment in Latin American history. This course examines the origins of the conflict and its key domestic and international dimensions. It also explores how a collective memory of the Revolution was crafted and contested by the post-revolutionary state, artists, intellectuals, and peasants through the means of photography, murals, education, popular protest, commemorations, and shrines. Emphasis will be placed on agrarian leader and rebel chieftain Emiliano Zapata as both historical figure and myth. 6 credits; HI, IS, WR2; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 273 Go-Betweens and Rebels in the Andean World This course examines the dynamics of imperial rule in the vertical world of the Andes from the time of the Inca, through Spanish rule, and beyond. Of particular interest will be the myriad roles played by indigenous intermediaries who bridged the social, political and cultural gap between their communities and the state. While critical for maintaining the imperial order, these individuals also served as a galvanizing source of popular resistance against the state. Emphasis will be placed on the reading of translated primary sources written by a diverse group of Andean cultural intermediaries and rebels. 6 credits; HI, IS, WR2; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 274 Drugs, Violence & Rebellion in Mexico: From the Dirty War to the Drug War Since 2006, some 100,000 lives have been lost as a result of the Mexican government's decision to unleash its army against the powerful cartels supplying the United States with marijuana, cocaine, heroin, and crystal methamphetamine. This course situates the bloodshed within a broader historical and transnational context. It traces the conflict's roots to a longer struggle against Mexico's authoritarian political culture and the state's repression of dissent, including a little known "dirty war" that raged during the 1960s-1970s. It also examines evolving attitudes toward drugs, the emergence of a narco culture in Mexico, and grassroots movements against the violence. 6 credits; HI, WR2, IS; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 277 Revolution, Rebellion, and Protest in Modern Mexico This course explores the afterlives and contemporary legacies of the Mexican Revolution of 1910. We engage with the history of those that rebelled against the “soft dictatorship” of Mexico’s postrevolutionary state: workers, peasants, students, intellectuals, women, indigenous peoples, and the urban poor. We examine the achievements and shortcomings of these actors and movements and their attempts to revitalize an “unfinished” revolution, and together we reflect on how old and new demands for social and political change coalesce in moments of crisis, often in radical ways. 6 credits; HI, IS; Winter; Luis A Herran Avila
HIST 279 Latin America and the Global Cold War This course explores the history, memory, and legacies of Latin America’s Cold War through a global lens. The course stresses the agency and autonomy of Latin American actors vis-à-vis U.S. and Soviet influence, and looks at the region as an active participant in larger global struggles over reform, revolution, and counterrevolution. Combining recent scholarly interpretations of the period and the use of primary sources for student projects, the course provides a grasp of how Latin Americans experienced the Cold War through resistance, consent, and negotiation in the realms of politics, culture, and the economy. 6 credits; HI, IS; Spring; Luis A Herran Avila
HIST 280 African in the Arab World This course examines African people's existence as religious, political, and military leaders, and as slaves and poets in Arab societies from ancient to modern times. It also interrogates the experiences of men as eunuchs, and of women as concubines and wives. Beginning with the pre-Islamic era, it highlights the movement of Africans from the Sahara Desert to the Nile valley, from the Red Sea to the Indian Ocean. It traces the experiences of peoples whose dark skin became equated with slave status (and the legacy of slavery) even as they became loyal followers of Islam in the Arab world. 6 credits; HI, IS, WR2; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 281 War in Modern Africa This course examines the causes, features, and consequences of wars across two critical phases of African history, colonial and post-colonial. It covers four cases studies from modern Central, East, and West Africa: the Congo (first under the rule of King Leopold and later the Belgian colonial government), Tanganyika (under German colonial rule), Nigeria (during the first republic through the civil war), and Uganda (under the rule of Idi Amin). Students will learn how certain memories or interpretations of events are narrated, fashioned, truncated, contested, forgotten, or silenced. Students also will learn how different historical actors participated in and experienced war. 6 credits; HI, IS; Fall; Thabiti Willis
HIST 283 Christian Encounter, Conversion, and Conflict in Modern Africa This course explores the nature of Christian mission in West, Central, and East Africa and its complex encounters with practitioners of Islam, other Christian sects, and indigenous religious traditions in modern Africa. Using scholarship and primary sources such as oral traditions, missionary writings, vernacular publications, newspapers, and ethnographic fieldnotes, we will focus on understanding religious encounter in a variety of case studies: the Akan in the Gold Coast (Ghana), the Hausa in Nigeria, the Bantu in Zambia, and the Maasai in Tanzania as well as Atlantic-Creoles in Angola and the Kongo. 6 credits; HI, WR2, IS; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 284 Crafting a History of Africa Since Independence The course begins as Europe's African empire unraveled, and ends with a look toward the future. Students engage in this history while joining the professor in the project of compiling a textbook collection of primary sources. The course is organized thematically into units. Each begins with research on and critical discussion of a broad topic considered within specific historical contexts. Students will identify, edit, and comment on primary sources that represent these major developments and themes. The class will assemble their collection into a narrative collage consisting of official documents, political commentaries, interviews, memoirs, transcripts, and visual records. 6 credits; HI, IS; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 287 From Alchemy to the Atom Bomb: The Scientific Revolution and the Making of the Modern World This course examines the growth of modern science since the Renaissance with an emphasis on the Scientific Revolution, the development of scientific methodology, and the emergence of new scientific disciplines. How might a history of science focused on scientific networks operating within society, rather than on individual scientists, change our understanding of “genius,” “progress,” and “scientific impartiality?” We will consider a range of scientific developments, treating science both as a body of knowledge and as a set of practices, and will gauge the extent to which our knowledge of the natural world is tied to who, when, and where such knowledge has been produced and circulated. 6 credits; HI, WR2; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 298 Junior-year History Colloquium In the junior year, majors must take six-credit reading and discussion course taught each year by different members of the department faculty. The general purpose of History 298 is to help students reach a more sophisticated understanding of the nature of history as a discipline and of the approaches and methods of historians. A major who is considering off-campus study in the junior year should consult with their adviser on when to take History 298. 6 credits; HI; Fall, Winter; Serena R Zabin, Adeeb Khalid
HIST 306 American Wilderness This course is part of the off-campus spring break program, involving two-linked courses in winter and spring. To many Americans, wild lands are among the nation's most treasured places. Yosemite, Yellowstone, the Grand Canyon, Joshua Tree--the names alone evoke a sense of awe, naturalness, beauty, even love. But, where do those ideas and feelings come from, and how have they both reflected and shaped American cultural, political and environmental history over the last four centuries? These are the central issues and questions that we will pursue in this seminar. Prerequisite: History 205 or instructor permission. 6 credits; HI, WR2, IDS; Winter; George Vrtis
HIST 307 Wilderness Field Studies: Grand Canyon This course is the second half of a two-course sequence focused on the study of wilderness in American society and culture. The course will begin with a two-week off-campus study program during spring break at the Grand Canyon, where we will learn about the natural and human history of the Grand Canyon, examine contemporary issues facing the park, meet with officials from the National Park Service and other local experts, conduct research, and experience the park through hiking and camping. The course will culminate in the spring term with the completion and presentation of a major research project. Prerequisite: History 306. 6 credits; HI, WR2, IDS; Spring; George Vrtis
HIST 308 American Cities and Nature Since the nation's founding, the percentage of Americans living in cities has risen nearly sixteenfold, from about five percent to the current seventy-nine percent. This massive change has spawned legions of others, and all of them have bearing on the complex ways that American cities and city-dwellers have shaped and reshaped the natural world. This course will consider the nature of cities in American history, giving particular attention to the dynamic linkages binding these cultural epicenters to ecological communities, environmental forces and resource flows, to eco-politics and social values, and to those seemingly far-away places we call farms and wilderness. Prerequisite: History 205 or permission of the instructor. 6 credits; WR2, IDS, HI; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 310 Black Women Intellectuals This seminar aims to expose students to intellectual history from the distinct standpoint of black women. The core question is how have the unique challenges that slavery, segregation, and racial discrimination posed to black women’s minds and bodies shaped their political, social and religious concerns? The course introduces some of the major primary and/or secondary readings in this paradigm-altering subfield in United States history. The major writing assignment is a long bibliographic essay or an intersectional biography on a black woman activist, artist, or scholar. Prerequisite: A history course is helpful, but not required. 6 credits; HI, WR2, IDS; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 316 History, Nature & Smartphones For the past two decades, historians have increasingly used digital tools to construct and deliver their research. This is particularly the case in public history, which aims to collaborate with public audiences in the co-construction of the past. This seminar will build on this trend, exploring the ways that Minnesota's environmental history can be imagined, understood, and expressed in the digital age. During the course, we will meet with specialists in public and digital history; we will conduct research at the Minnesota Historical Society; and we will develop several web- and smartphone-based stories for the Minnesota Environmental History Project. Prerequisite: Previous History course or instructor permission. 6 credits; HI, IDS; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 324 The Concord Intellectuals The social and intellectual history of the American Renaissance with focus on selected works of Emerson, Thoreau, Amos Bronson Alcott, and Margaret Fuller. Special emphasis will be placed on the one common denominator uniting these intellectuals: their devotion to the possibilities of democracy. Prerequisite: History 120 or instructor permission. Not offered 2017-18
HIST 341 The Russian Revolution: A Centenary Perspective The Russian Revolution of 1917 was one of the seminal events of the twentieth century. It transformed much beyond Russia itself. This course will take stock of the event and its legacy. What was the Russian revolution? What was its place in the history of revolutions? How did it impact the world? How was it seen by those who made it and those who witnessed it? How have these evaluations changed over time? What sense can we make of it in the year of its centenary? The revolution was both an inspiration (to many revolutionary and national-liberation movements) and used as a tale of caution and admonition (by adversaries of the Soviet Union). The readings will put the Russian revolution in the broadest perspective of the twentieth century and its contested evaluations, from within the Soviet Union and beyond, from its immediate aftermath, through World War II, the Cold War, to the post-Soviet period. The course is aimed at all students interested in the history of the twentieth century and of the idea of the revolution. Prerequisite: One course in Modern European History or instructor consent. 6 credits; HI, WR2, IS; Fall; Adeeb Khalid
HIST 346 The Holocaust This course will grapple with the difficult and complicated phenomenon of the genocide of the Jews of Europe. We will explore anti-Semitism in its historical context, both in the German-speaking lands as well as in Europe as a whole. The experience of Jews in Nazi Germany will be an area of focus, but this class will look at European Jews more broadly, both before and during the Second World War. The question of responsibility and guilt will be applied to Germans as well as to other European societies, and an exploration of victims will extend to other affected groups. 6 credits; HI, IS; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 359 Women in South Asia: Histories, Narratives, and Representations The objective of this course is to analyze the historical institutions, practices and traditions that define the position of women in India. We consider the various ways in which the trope of the Goddess has been used for and by Indian women in colonial and post-colonial India; the colonial state's supposed rescue of Indian women; the position and role of European women in colonial India; how women's bodies come to embody and signify community honor and become sites of communal contest. We explore the making of Mother India; the connection between nation, territory and the female form; and the ways in which women have been represented in history as well as Indian cinema. 6 credits; HI, IS; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 360 Muslims and Modernity Through readings in primary sources in translation, we will discuss the major intellectual and cultural movements that have influenced Muslim thinkers from the nineteenth century on. Topics include modernism, nationalism, socialism, and fundamentalism. Prerequisite: at least one prior course in the history of the Middle East or Central Asia or Islam. Not offered 2017-18
HIST 381 U.S. Relations with Ghana This seminar prepares students for, participation in, and reflection upon the winter-break field trip to Ghana. Assignments involve readings in history, the social sciences, and intercultural communication. Preliminary research on history or social science projects required. 6 credits; HI, IS; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 382 U.S. Relations with Ghana: The Field Trip and Beyond The first part of the seminar is the winter break field trip to three regional capitals in Ghana. Fieldwork and experiential living starts in Accra, continues in Kumasi, and ends in Cape Coast. The seminar resumes on campus with weekly reflection meetings. Public poster sessions on fieldwork will be held in Spring term. Prerequisite: History 381. 6 credits; HI, IS; Not offered 2017-18
HIST 386 Africa: Art, Nation, and Politics This course explores “Africa” as a historical construction, place, culture, artistic practice, commodity, and identity shaped by imperial ambitions, global trade, religious impulses, aesthetic forms, memory, and struggles for sovereignty. It illustrates how art, nationalism, and politics have been at the center of ideas about Africa and its relationship to colonialism and modernity from the nineteenth century to current times. In addition to select case studies, students will work with diverse sources such as missionary accounts, speeches, press releases, visual art, songs, and musical performances. Students will produce an original research paper of fifteen to twenty pages using primary and secondary resources.  6 credits; HI, WR2, IS; Spring; Thabiti Willis
HIST 395 Voyages of Understanding This seminar will focus on historical understandings of the experience of travel. We will look at motivations for travel; ideas about place, space, and geography; contacts with people of different religions, ethnicities, and cultures; the effect of travel on individual and group identity; and representations of travel, cultural contact, and geography in texts, maps, and images. Each student will conduct an original research project leading to a 25-30 page research paper.  6 credits; HI, WR2, IS; Winter; Victoria Morse
HIST 398 Advanced Historical Writing This course is designed to support majors in developing advanced skills in historical research and writing. Through a combination of class discussion, small group work, and one-on-one interactions with the professor, majors learn the process of constructing sophisticated, well-documented, and well-written historical arguments within the context of an extended project of their own design. They also learn and practice strategies for engaging critically with contemporary scholarship and effective techniques of peer review and the oral presentation of research. Concurrent enrollment in History 400 required. By permission of the instructor only. 6 credits; S/CR/NC; HI, WR2; Winter; Thabiti Willis, Susannah R Ottaway
HIST 400 Integrative Exercise Required of all seniors majoring in history. Registration in this course is contingent upon prior approval of a research proposal. 6 credits; S/NC; Winter