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Biology (BIOL)

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Potential biology majors should select a sequence of courses that will acquaint them with a variety of organisms, and their molecular and cellular structure, physiology, heredity, development, evolution, and ecological interactions. Biologists pursue courses in teaching at the college or high school level, biological research, study in the medical sciences, work in environmental sciences, or work in numerous commercial and industrial areas.

Requirements for a Major

Ten courses are required within the department.

1. Biology 125 and 126 (majors are required to complete both introductory courses, with a grade of "C-" or better before taking any other courses in the department)

2. One course from each of the following groups including their laboratories where listed separately:

a. Molecular and Cell Biology (230, 240/241, 278, 280/281, 310/311, 380/381, 382/383, 384)

b. Organismic Biology (Biology 232/233, 234, 236, 238/239, 242/243, 252/253, 342/343, 344, 386/387)

c. Ecology and Evolutionary Biology (Biology 221/222, 238, 250, 350, 352/353, 374)

3. Three electives, which may include a six-credit independent study, a junior/senior seminar, or any of the courses listed above. If you choose a course for an elective that offers a laboratory section, then the lab must be taken in order for the course to count toward the major.

4. One course must emphasize data interpretation and analysis of the primary literature. Courses that fulfill this include: Biology 344, 368, 370, 372, 374, 379, 382/383, 384, 385, 386, 389.

5. Critical Reading and Analysis of Primary Literature (Biology 399).

6. Integrative Exercise (Biology 400 two terms).

Laboratory work is an integral part of most biology courses. In courses in which registration for the laboratory is separable from the lecture portion of the course, all biology majors are required to register concurrently for laboratory and lecture in order for these courses to count toward requirements for the major. No course taken at another school may be used to meet the requirements for the major without prior approval of the Biology faculty.

Because of the close interrelationship of Biology to other sciences, supporting work in other areas is necessary. The minimum requirement includes 1) Physics: One five-week Newtonian mechanics course, 131, 132, 141, or 142, and one of the following five-week courses: 151, 152, 153, or 165 (6 credits); or Mathematics 215; and 2) Chemistry 123 or 128; and 3) Chemistry 230 or 233. The need for additional courses in allied sciences and mathematics will vary with the professional plans of the student.

The Introductory Sequence

The introductory Biology sequence consists of two courses, Biology 125 and 126. The two courses can be taken in either order. Both courses are required before any further upper-level course work in Biology, with one exception. Students who received a score of "5" on the AP exam or a score of "6" or "7" on the IB exam may elect not to take Biology 125. In this case Biology 126 is the only required introductory course. There are three versions of Biology 125 from which to choose, and students are urged to make a thoughtful choice of the proper offering for their background and learning style.

The winter term offering of Biology 125 is designed for students who 1) earned a score of 3 or higher in AP Biology, 2) earned a score of 5 or higher in IB Biology, or 3) earned a grade of B or higher in Honors or Advanced Biology in high school. In addition, these students are expected to have mastered basic concepts of chemistry in either a high school or college chemistry course. These same criteria would apply to any students who would like to take Biology 126 before taking Biology 125. One fall offering of Biology 125, a problem solving approach is appropriate for all students. In some years, a second fall term section of Biology 125 is offered for first-year students who are enrolled in the Dyad program (see Cognitive Science) but wish to explore biology in the context of other disciplines. This offering of Biology 125 covers the same concepts as the winter version.

Biology Courses

BIOL 101. Human Reproduction and Sexuality The myths surrounding human reproduction and sexuality may out weigh our collective knowledge and understanding. This course will review the basic biology of all aspects of reproduction--from genes to behavior--in an attempt to better understand one of the more basic and important processes in nature. Topics will vary widely and will be generated in part by student interest. A sample of topics might include: hormones, PMS, fertilization, pregnancy, arousal, attraction, the evolution of the orgasm, and the biology of sexuality. 6 cr., MS; NE, QRE, Not offered in 2012-2013.

BIOL 125. Genes, Evolution, and Development Emphasizes the role of genetic information in biological systems. Under this theme, we cover subjects from the molecular to the population levels of organization. Topics include the nature of inheritance and life cycles, structure/function of DNA, gene expression and regulation, the changing genetic makeup of species as they evolve, and the development of individual organisms from zygotes. 6 cr., MS; LS, QRE, Fall,WinterM. McKone, S. Singer, S. Zweifel

BIOL 125. Genes, Evolution, and Development: A Problem Solving Approach This offering of Biology 125 offers a problem solving approach and covers the same concepts as the winter version of Biology 125. The course format allows time in class to apply new concepts by working through case study type problems with faculty present. Students enter Carleton from a wide variety of academic experiences, and this offering of Biology 125 is designed to provide a level playing field for students regardless of previous science background. In addition, the active learning component of the course is beneficial for students who like to learn by doing. Students who complete this course are well-prepared to continue on to Biology 126. 6 cr., MS; LS, QRE, FallD. Walser-Kuntz, J. Wolff

BIOL 126. Energy Flow in Biological Systems Follows the pathways through which energy and matter are acquired, stored, and utilized within cells, organisms, and ecosystems. The focus moves among the different levels of organization from protein function to nutrient movement through ecosystems. 6 cr., MS; LS, QRE, Winter,SpringS. Guerrier, D. Hernandez, R. Mitra, J. Tymoczko

BIOL 210. Global Change Biology Environmental problems are caused by a complex mix of physical, biological, social, economic, political, and technological factors. This course explores how these environmental problems affect life on Earth by examining the biological processes underlying natural ecological systems and the effects of global environmental changes such as resource consumption and overharvesting, land-use change, climate warming, pollution, extinction and biodiversity loss, and invasive species. Prerequisite: One introductory science lab course (Biology 125, 126, Chemistry 123, 128, Geology 110 or 120). 6 cr., MS; NE, QRE, WinterJ. Becknell

BIOL 212. Australia Program: Biology Field Studies and Research Designed to complement Biology 250, the course teaches methods and approaches to the analysis of biological problems with emphasis on an ecological viewpoint. We will be studying animals and plants in both terrestrial and marine habitats, with a particular focus on the behavioral ecology of animals. 6 cr., MS; NE, QRE, WinterA. Bosacker

BIOL 221. Ecosystem Ecology This course examines major ecosystems on Earth, including terrestrial, wetland, lake, river, estuarine, and marine systems. Topics include the two major themes of energy flow and production and decomposition, microbial ecology and nutrient transformations, element cycles, ecosystems as a component of the Earth System, and global change. Current applied issues are emphasized as case studies, including clear cutting, rising atmospheric CO2, eutrophication of aquatic systems, acid rain, wetland delineation, and biodiversity effects on ecosystems. Prerequisite: Biology 126 and one of the following: Biology 125, Geology 110, Chemistry 123 or 128. 6 cr., MS; NE, QRE, FallJ. Becknell

BIOL 222. Ecosystem Ecology Laboratory 2 cr., ND; NE, FallJ. Becknell

BIOL 230. Introduction to Pharmacology This course will focus on the principles that underlie the effects of drugs on the human body. This course will begin with a discussion of receptor theory. We will then explore concepts of signal transduction with a focus on signaling pathways including, but not limited to, signaling by G-protein coupled receptors and receptor tyrosine kinases. Finally, we will discuss classes of drugs and their mechanisms of action in the treatment of various diseases and disorders. Prerequisite: Biology 125, 126, and Chemistry 233. 6 cr., MS; NE, QRE, WinterS. Guerrier

BIOL 232. Human Physiology Human Physiology seeks to understand the fundamental mechanisms responsible for the diverse functions of the body. Course topics include the function and regulation of the various physiological systems (nervous, circulatory, endocrine, excretory, respiratory, digestive, etc.), biochemistry, cellular physiology, homeostasis and acid-base chemistry. The study of human physiology provides the principal groundwork for internal medicine, pharmacology, and other related health fields. The laboratory includes a variety of experiments focusing on the function and regulation of the human body. Prerequisites: Biology 125 and 126. 6 cr., MS; NE, QRE, WinterA. Moore

BIOL 233. Human Physiology Laboratory 2 cr., ND; NE, WinterA. Moore

BIOL 234. Microbiology with Laboratory A study of the metabolism, genetics, structure, and function of microorganisms. While presented in the framework of the concepts of cellular and molecular biology, the emphasis will be on the uniqueness and diversity of the microbial world. The course integrates lecture and laboratory, and will fulfill requirements of a microbiology course with lab for veterinary or pharmacy schools. Prerequisite: Biology 125 and 126. 6 cr., MS; LS, QRE, Offered in alternate years. SpringR. Bergerson

BIOL 236. Plant Biology How do plants work? This course is framed in the context of advances in evolution and genomics, which offer insight into physiological, developmental, morphological, and anatomical adaptations to diverse environments. Emphasis is placed on experimental approaches to the study of plants. The biology behind current issues related to food and agriculture, including genetically modified organisms, will be investigated. Prerequisite: Biology 125 or 126. 6 cr., MS; NE, QRE, Not offered in 2012-2013.

BIOL 238. Entomology Insects are one of the most successful groups of organisms on the planet, playing major roles in all terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. In addition, since insects are ubiquitous they affect human endeavors on many fronts, both positively (e.g., crop pollination) and negatively (damage to crops and transmitting disease). This class will focus on the biology of insects, including physiology, behavior, and ecology. Many examples will highlight current environmental issues. Prerequisites: Biology 125 and 126. Concurrent registration in Biology 239 required. 6 cr., MS; NE, QRE, Offered in alternate years. FallD. Hougen-Eitzman

BIOL 239. Entomology Laboratory Field and laboratory investigation of living insects. Synoptic examination of the major orders of insects, including evolution of different groups, physiology, structure, and identification. Field labs will focus on insect ecology and collection techniques for making a comprehensive insect collection. 2 cr., ND; NE, Offered in alternate years. FallD. Hougen-Eitzman

BIOL 240. Genetics A study of the transmission of genetic information between generations of organisms, and of the mechanism of expression of information within an individual organism. The main emphasis will be on the physical and chemical basis of heredity; mutational, transmissional and functional analysis of the genetic material, and gene expression. Prerequisites: Biology 125 and 126 or permission of the instructor. 6 cr., MS; NE, QRE, Winter,SpringJ Petricka, J. Wolff

BIOL 241. Genetics Laboratory 2 cr., ND; NE, Winter,SpringJ. Petricka, J. Wolff

BIOL 242. Vertebrate Morphology Over 500 million years of evolution has produced a rich diversity of structure and functional morphology in vertebrates. We will use comparative methods to help us understand the various selective forces and constraints that produced the vertebrate forms living today. Laboratory dissection of a variety of preserved vertebrates will allow us to examine how these fascinating animals monitor and move through their environment, procure, ingest and circulate nutrients, respirate, and reproduce. Prerequisites: Biology 125 and 126. 6 cr., MS; NE, Not offered in 2012-2013.

BIOL 243. Vertebrate Morphology Laboratory 2 cr., ND; NE, Not offered in 2012-2013.

BIOL 248. Behavioral Ecology Behavioral ecologists strive to understand the complex ways that ecological pressures influence the evolution of behavioral strategies. It can be argued that animals face a relatively small set of basic challenges: they must acquire food, water, and mates, and they must avoid danger. Yet we see a rich diversity of solutions to these problems. Consider foraging behavior, for example. All animals must acquire energy, but some filter particles out of sea water, others graze on nearly inedible grasses, while still others hunt in cooperative packs. In this course we will consider such topics as foraging, communication, sociality, and conflict. By focusing on the functions and evolutionary histories of behaviors, we strive to better understand the puzzle of behavioral diversity. Prerequisite: Biology 125 and 126. 6 cr., MS; NE, QRE, Not offered in 2012-2013.

BIOL 250. Australia Program: Marine Biology We will study the biology of marine ecosystems with an emphasis on population and community ecology and the life histories and evolution of marine organisms. We will explore the diverse marine ecosystems of Australia through extensive field work in habitats including temperate oceans, mangrove forests, and tropical coral reefs. 6 cr., MS; NE, QRE, WinterA. Bosacker

BIOL 252. Environmental Animal Physiology This course explores the physiological adaptations animals employ to survive in a wide variety of environments. Animals maintain physiological functions in the face of environmental extremes in heat, cold, aridity, deep ocean pressure, salinity, and the lack of oxygen in water or at high altitude, to name a few. An organism’s ability to cope with environmental extremes has a large impact on the geographic distribution of many species. Associated laboratory will emphasize experimentation and application of physiological concepts in living organisms. Prerequisites: Biology 125 and 126. 6 cr., MS; NE, QRE, Not offered in 2012-2013.

BIOL 253. Environmental Animal Physiology Laboratory 2 cr., ND, Not offered in 2012-2013.

BIOL 255. Australia Program: Culture and Environment in Australia We will consider both the natural history of the Australian landscape and the cultural history of the people who have settled there. We will use readings, meetings with visiting lecturers, and visits to cultural centers, and students will synthesize what they have learned in reflective essays. 2 cr., S/CR/NC, ND; NE, WinterA. Bosacker

BIOL 260. Visiting Speakers Seminar Meets up to once per week for all three terms. Research presentations by distinguished visiting scholars in various areas of biology. Credit awarded during spring term after attendance of two-thirds of all the presentations. Not open to senior majors. 1 credit for all three terms cr., S/CR/NC, ND; NE, Fall,Winter,SpringStaff

BIOL 278. Introduction to Biochemistry This course presents an overview of the biochemical aspects of energy and information metabolism. This course is intended to provide students with the fundamental biochemical knowledge to support their further studies in biology. Questions such as the following are addressed: What defines a good fuel? How are metabolic pathways constructed and made to occur at rates sufficient to support life? Interwoven throughout the discussion of energy will be consideration of information processing. How do molecules recognize one another? How is the complex metabolic web of the cell regulated? How does this regulation change in response to signals such as hormones or environmental conditions, and to conditions such as exercise, starvation, alcohol consumption or disease states? This course does not fulfill requirements for the Biochemistry concentration. Prerequisites: Biology 125 and 126, Chemistry 123 or 128. 6 cr., MS; NE, QRE, SpringJ. Tymoczko

BIOL 280. Cell Biology An examination of the structures and processes that underlie the life of cells, both prokaryotic and eukaryotic. Topics to be covered include energy capture, storage, and utilization; cellular reproduction; organelles, membranes, and other cellular components; and cell-cell communication. Concurrent registration in Biology 281 required. Prerequisites: Biology 125 and 126. 6 cr., MS; NE, QRE, FallR. Mitra

BIOL 281. Cell Biology Laboratory The focus of the laboratory will be on current techniques used to study cellular structure and function. Concurrent registration in Biology 280 required. 2 cr., ND; NE, FallR. Mitra

BIOL 290. Australia Program: Directed Reading Participants are asked to read selected works that showcase the natural and cultural history of Australia. Understanding of these readings will be evaluated through discussion and written work. 4 cr., ND; NE, WinterA. Bosacker

BIOL 302. Methods of Teaching Science This course will explore teaching methods for the life and physical sciences in grades 5-12. Curricular materials and active learning labs will be discussed and developed. In addition, time outside of class will be spent observing and teaching in local science classrooms. Will not count toward a biology major. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor. 6 cr., ND; NE, WinterD. Walser-Kuntz

BIOL 310. Immunology This course will examine the role of the immune system in defense, allergic reactions, and autoimmunity. Topics to be covered include the structure and function of antibodies, cytokines, the role of the major histocompatibility complex in antigen presentation, cellular immunity, immunodeficiencies, and current techniques used to study immune responses. Prerequisites: Biology 125 and 126. 6 cr., MS; NE, QRE, WinterD. Walser-Kuntz

BIOL 311. Immunology Laboratory 2 cr., ND; NE, Not offered in 2012-2013.

BIOL 342. Animal Developmental Biology An analysis of animal development from fertilization to the establishment of the adult body form. Lectures and discussions will examine the key processes of animal embryogenesis, as well as the molecular and cellular mechanisms that control these developmental processes. Prerequisites: Biology 125 and 126. Biology 240 strongly recommended. 6 cr., MS; NE, QRE, WinterJ. Wolff

BIOL 343. Animal Developmental Biology Laboratory Laboratory will introduce descriptive and experimental embryological techniques using a variety of model organisms. 2 cr., ND; NE, WinterJ. Wolff

BIOL 344. Plant Development A study of the development of vascular plants. Topics including embryogenesis, meristem function, leaf morphogenesis, and reproduction will be investigated through the analysis of primary literature. Emphasis will be placed on the experimental basis for current concepts in plant development ranging from molecular mechanisms to evolution of developmental pathways. Prerequisites: Biology 125 and 126. 6 cr., MS; NE, QRE, SpringS. Singer

BIOL 350. Evolution Principles and history of evolutionary change in wild populations, with consideration of both microevolutionary and macroevolutionary time scales. Topics covered include causes of change in gene frequency, the nature of adaptation, constraints on evolutionary change, the evolution of genes and proteins, rates of speciation and extinction, and the major events in evolutionary history. Prerequisites: Biology 125 and 126. 6 cr., MS; NE, QRE, FallM. McKone

BIOL 352. Population Ecology An investigation of the properties of populations and communities. Topics include population growth and regulation, life tables, interspecific and intraspecific competition, predation, parasitism, mutualism, the nature of communities, and biogeography. Prerequisites: Biology 125 and 126; Mathematics 111 or other previous calculus course. Recommended course: Mathematics 215 or equivalent exposure to statistical analysis. Concurrent registration in Biology 353 required. 6 cr., MS; NE, QRE, SpringM. McKone

BIOL 353. Population Ecology Laboratory 2 cr., ND; NE, SpringM. McKone

BIOL 354. Human Cutaneous Biology The course will cover the cellular and molecular biology of human skin in its normal and diseased states as it relates to a clinical presentation. Clinical dermatology and pathology will also be reviewed. The course style will be patterned along the lines as if it were a medical school course. Additionally, students will be introduced to many aspects of successfully negotiating medical school including introductions and possible "field trips" to the Mayo Clinic Medical School and/or University of Minnesota Medical School(s). Prerequisites: Chemistry 233 and two upper division Biology courses (200 or 300-level) and instructor's permission required. 3 cr., S/CR/NC, ND; NE, SpringC. Crutchfield

BIOL 358. Evolution of Sex and Sexes The origin and maintenance of sexual reproduction remains a central enigma in evolutionary biology. This seminar course will explore contemporary primary literature that addresses a variety of evolutionary questions about the nature of sex and sexes. Why is sexual reproduction usually favored over asexual alternatives? Why are there no more than two sexes? What determines the characteristics of females and males within diverse species? How did sex chromosomes evolve and why do some species lack them? Prerequisite: Biology 125 and 126. 6 cr., MS; NE, QRE, Offered in alternate years. FallM. McKone

BIOL 365. Topics in Neuroscience We will focus on recent advances in neuroscience. All areas of neuroscience (cellular/molecular, developmental, systems, cognitive, and disease) will be considered. Classical or foundational papers will be used to provide background. Prerequisites: Biology 125 and 126. 6 cr., MS; NE, QRE, FallA. Moore

BIOL 367. The Molecular Basis of Human Disease The course will examine the biochemical basis of human disease. Although the focus will be on common diseases, such as metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, rare but instructive conditions will also be examined. An analytical approach, based on primary literature, will be used and the emphases will be placed on critical evaluation of experimental design and data interpretation. Prerequisite: Biology 232 or 240 or 242 or 278 or 380 or Chemistry 320 or consent of instructor. 6 cr., MS; NE, QRE, WinterJ. Tymoczko

BIOL 368. Developmental Neurobiology An examination of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying development of the nervous system. We will survey recent studies of a variety of model organisms to explore key steps in neuronal development including neural induction, patterning, specification of neuronal identity, axonal guidance, synapse formation, cell death and regeneration. The laboratory will focus on current techniques used to study neuronal development in invertebrate and vertebrate model systems. Prerequisites: Biology 240 or Biology 280. 6 cr., MS; NE, QRE, Not offered in 2012-2013.

BIOL 369. Developmental Neurobiology Laboratory 2 cr., ND; NE, Not offered in 2012-2013.

BIOL 370. Seminar: Selected Topics in Virology An examination of selected animal viruses. The course will focus on the most recent developments in HIV-related research, including implications for HIV-treatment and vaccines and the impact of viral infection on the immune system of the host. In addition to studying the structure and replication of particular viruses we will also discuss the current laboratory techniques used in viral research. Prerequisites: Biology 125 and 126. 6 cr., MS; NE, QRE, Not offered in 2012-2013.

BIOL 371. Seminar on Human Dominated Ecosystems Human dominated ecosystems occur wherever human activities become the prevailing force in ecological patterns and processes, including everything from a clear-cut tropical forest to your backyard. It also includes remote areas changing because of human alteration of nutrient cycles and the climate. As human population and impacts grow, so does the need to understand how ecosystems respond. This course will use recent scientific literature to explore this new field of ecology, the study of human dominated ecosystems. Topics include the ecology of cities, decimated ecosystems, ecology of the post-war landscape, preservation and restoration under a changing climate, and designed ecosystem. Prerequisite: Biology 125, 126 and one upper-level ecology course (Biology 210, 221, 236, or 352) or permission from the instructor. 6 cr., MS; NE, QRE, SpringJ. Becknell

BIOL 372. Seminar: Selected Topics in Exercise Biochemistry An examination of how basic biochemical and physiological systems respond to the demands of exercise, and how they are modified in response to training. Prerequisite: Biology 278 or 380. 6 cr., MS; NE, QRE, SpringL. Lunder, J. Tymoczko

BIOL 374. Seminar: Grassland Ecology Grassland ecosystems cover one third of the Earth’s surface and occur on every continent except Antarctica. Grasslands provide habitat for millions of species, play a major role in global carbon and nutrient cycles, and are the primary source of agricultural land, making them an important ecosystem both ecologically and economically. This course will utilize scientific literature to explore the environmental and biological characteristics of the world’s grasslands from population dynamics to ecosystem processes. Topics include competition and succession, plant-animal interactions, carbon and nutrient cycling, the role of disturbances such as fire and land use change, and grassland management and restoration. Prerequisites: Biology 125 and 126, and one upper-level course in ecology (Biology 221 or 352) or plant biology (Biology 236) or permission of the instructor. 6 cr., MS; NE, QRE, Not offered in 2012-2013.

BIOL 375. Natural History of Minnesota This course will explore the ecology of the ecosystems and organisms of Minnesota-- including lakes and rivers, grasslands, and deciduous and boreal forest--through the reading and analysis of the primary literature and independent field research projects. Students will gain skills in species identification, experimental design, scientific writing and presentation. In addition to scheduled class time, this course includes two weekend field trips. Prerequisite: Biology 125, Biology 126, and one upper-level course in ecology (Biology 221, 236, 238, or 352). 6 cr., MS; NE, QRE, Offered in alternate years. SpringD. Hernandez

BIOL 379. Seminar: Behavioral Genetics Recent advances in molecular biology have allowed researchers to test specific hypotheses concerning the genetic control of behavior. This course will examine information derived from various animal model systems, including humans, using a variety of techniques such as classical genetics, genome databases, transgenics, and behavioral neurobiology. Prerequisite: Biology 240. 6 cr., MS; NE, QRE, Not offered in 2012-2013.

BIOL 380. Biochemistry Biochemistry is an examination of the molecular basis of life processes. The course provides an indepth investigation of metabolic pathways, their interrelationships and regulation, protein structure and function with special emphasis on enzymes. Other topics include the techniques of protein analysis and how they are employed to examine problems of fundamental biochemical importance. This course meets the requirement for the Biochemistry concentration. Prerequisites: Biology 125 and 126 and Chemistry 233 and 234. 6 cr., MS; NE, QRE, FallJ. Tymoczko

BIOL 381. Biochemistry Laboratory 2 cr., ND; NE, FallS. Guerrier

BIOL 382. Molecular Biology The molecular basis of the structure, replication, stable inheritance, and expression of genetic material illustrated with examples from the primary literature. Topics include: DNA replication and recombination, chromosome stability, DNA mutation and repair, regulation of gene expression, methods of gene identification, and the impact of recombinant DNA technology on human genetics. Laboratory will focus on current techniques in molecular biology including: gene cloning, genome databases, DNA finger printing, DNA sequencing, and the polymerase chain reaction. Prerequisites: Biology 240 and Chemistry 233. Concurrent registration in Biology 383 required. 6 cr., MS; NE, QRE, FallS. Zweifel

BIOL 383. Molecular Biology Laboratory 2 cr., ND; NE, FallS. Zweifel

BIOL 385. Microbial Pathology Microbes are the most abundant organisms on earth, and microbial pathogens have caused human and plant disease epidemics worldwide. This course will focus upon the pathogenic strategy of a variety of well-studied microbes in order to illustrate our understanding of the molecular and cellular nature of microbial disease. We will analyze current and seminal papers in the primary literature focusing on mechanisms employed by microbes to attack hosts. Prerequisite: Biology 125 and 126 and either Biology 280 or 240. 6 cr., MS; NE, QRE, Not offered in 2012-2013.

BIOL 386. Neurobiology An analysis of the biology of neurons and the nervous system. Topics include the molecular basis of electrical excitability in neurons; neurons and muscle, transfer of information across synapses, mechanisms of sensation, learning, memory, and behavior. Prerequisites: Biology 125 and 126. 6 cr., MS; NE, QRE, SpringA. Moore

BIOL 387. Neurobiology Laboratory 2 cr., ND, SpringA. Moore

BIOL 389. Evo-Devo: Evolutionary Developmental Biology This seminar course is focused on introductory concepts in evolutionary developmental biology. We will use critical evaluation of primary literature to explore how the genetic mechanisms that control development have evolved the diversity of life on earth. Prerequisite: One of the following: Biology 240, 242, 280, 342, 350, or permission of instructor. 6 cr., MS; NE, QRE, FallA. Kalis

BIOL 394. Biology Research Laboratory and/or field investigation associated with an ongoing research program in the department of Biology. The project is undertaken with the direct supervision of a faculty member. Regular individual meetings, written progress reports, and public presentations should be expected. 1-6 cr., ND; NE, Fall,Winter,SpringStaff

BIOL 395. Research Experience Seminar in Biology This seminar course is intended for students who have completed a summer research project or internship in the biological sciences. The intent of the course is to provide students with the opportunity to discuss their research experience, learn from the experiences of other members of the class, read relevant primary literature, and prepare a poster for a student research symposium. Prerequisites: Biology 125 and 126. 3 cr., S/CR/NC, ND; NE, QRE, FallS. Deel

BIOL 399. Critical Reading and Analysis of Primary Literature Guided instruction in reading and interpretation of contemporary primary literature in Biology. Prerequisite: Completion of Biology 125, 126 and three upper-level biology courses. Concurrent registration in Biology 400 required. 3 cr., S/CR/NC, ND; NE, FallStaff

BIOL 400. Integrative Exercise Preparation and submission of the written portion of the Integrative Exercise. Continuing course (fall or winter). Oral examination, evaluation of the Integrative Exercise, and participation in visiting speakers seminars (spring). 3 cr., S/NC, ND; NE, Fall,Winter,SpringStaff