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Biology (BIOL)

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Potential biology majors should select a sequence of courses that will acquaint them with a variety of organisms, and their molecular and cellular structure, physiology, heredity, development, evolution, and ecological interactions. Biologists pursue careers in biological research, study in the medical sciences, teaching at the college or high school level, work in environmental sciences, or work in numerous commercial and industrial areas.

Requirements for a Major

1. Biology 125 and 126 (majors are required to complete both introductory courses, with a grade of "C-" or better before taking any other courses in the department)

2. One course from each of the following groups including their laboratories where listed separately:

a. Molecular and Cell Biology (240 Genetics/241 Genetics Laboratory, 280 Cell Biology/281 Cell Biology Laboratory, 310 Immunology/311 Immunology Laboratory, 380 Biochemistry/381 Biochemistry Laboratory, 382 Molecular Biology/383 Molecular Biology Laboratory)

b. Organismic Biology (234 Microbiology with Laboratory, 236 Plant Biology, 238 Entomology/239 Entomology Laboratory, 252 Environmental Animal Physiology/253 Environmental Animal Physiology Laboratory, 332 Human Physiology /333 Human Physiology Laboratory, 342 Animal Developmental Biology/343 Animal Developmental Biology Laboratory, 344 Seminar: The Molecular Basis of Plant Development, 386 Neurobiology/387 Neurobiology Laboratory)

c. Ecology and Evolutionary Biology (Biology 221 Ecosystem Ecology/222 Ecosystem Ecology Laboratory, 238 Entomology/239 Entomology Laboratory, 248 Behavioral Ecology, 250 Marine Ecology, 308 Ecology and Conservation in Ecology and New Zealand, 321 Ecosystem Ecology/322 Ecosystem Ecology Laboratory, 350 Evolution, 352 Population Ecology/353 Population Ecology Laboratory, 374 Seminar: Grassland Ecology)

3. Three electives, which may include six-credits of Biology 394, a seminar, or any of the courses listed above. If you choose a course for an elective that offers a laboratory section, then the lab must be taken in order for the course to count toward the major.

4. One course must emphasize data interpretation and analysis of the primary literature. Ideally, you should complete this seminar course prior to registering for Biology 400 (integrative exercise). Courses that fulfill this requirement include: 344, 358-379, 382/383, 384, 385, 389. A maximum of two courses may be taken from this category.

5. Critical Reading and Analysis of Primary Literature (Biology 399).

6. Integrative Exercise (Biology 400 two terms).

Laboratory work is an integral part of most biology courses. In courses in which registration for the laboratory is separable from the lecture portion of the course, all biology majors are required to register concurrently for laboratory and lecture in order for these courses to count toward requirements for the major unless otherwise noted. No course taken at another school may be used to meet the requirements for the major without prior approval of the Biology faculty.

Because of the close interrelationship of Biology to other sciences, supporting work in other areas is necessary. The minimum requirement includes 1) Physics: One five-week Newtonian mechanics course, 131, 132, 141, or 142, and one of the following five-week courses: 151, 152, 153, or 165 (6 credits); or Mathematics 215; and 2) Chemistry 123 or 128; and 3) Chemistry 230 or 233. The need for additional courses in allied sciences and mathematics will vary with the professional plans of the student.

The Introductory Sequence

The Introductory Biology sequence consists of two courses, Biology 125 and 126, both of which are required before any further upper-level course work in Biology. The two courses can be taken in either order. Students who received a score of 5 on the AP exam or a score of 6 or 7 on the IB exam are exempted from Biology 125, and only need to take Biology 126 before taking upper-level Biology courses.

There are two versions of Biology 125, and students are urged to make a thoughtful choice of the appropriate offering based on their background and learning style. The winter term offering of Biology 125 is designed for students who 1) earned a score of 3 or 4 in AP Biology, or 2) received a score of 5 in IB Biology, or 3) earned a grade of B or higher in Honors or Advanced Biology in high school. In addition, these students are expected to have mastered basic concepts of chemistry in either a high school or college chemistry course.

Biology Courses

BIOL 101. Human Reproduction and Sexuality The myths surrounding human reproduction and sexuality may out weigh our collective knowledge and understanding. This course will review the basic biology of all aspects of reproduction--from genes to behavior--in an attempt to better understand one of the more basic and important processes in nature. Topics will vary widely and will be generated in part by student interest. A sample of topics might include: hormones, PMS, fertilization, pregnancy, arousal, attraction, the evolution of the orgasm, and the biology of sexuality. 6 cr., NE, QRE, WinterM. Rand

BIOL 125. Genes, Evolution, and Development: A Problem Solving Approach This offering of Biology 125 offers a problem solving approach and covers the same concepts as the winter version of Biology 125. The course format allows time in class to apply new concepts by working through case study type problems with faculty present. Students enter Carleton from a wide variety of academic experiences, and this offering of Biology 125 is designed to provide a level playing field for students regardless of previous science background. In addition, the active learning component of the course is beneficial for students who like to learn by doing. Students who complete this course are well-prepared to continue on to Biology 126. Prerequisite: Concurrent enrollment in Biology 125L. 6 cr., LS, QRE, FallB. Jacques-Fricke, D. Walser-Kuntz

BIOL 125. Genes, Evolution, and Development Emphasizes the role of genetic information in biological systems. Under this theme, we cover subjects from the molecular to the population levels of organization. Topics include the nature of inheritance and life cycles, structure/function of DNA, gene expression and regulation, the changing genetic makeup of species as they evolve, and the development of individual organisms from zygotes. Prerequisite: Concurrent enrollment in Biology125L. 6 cr., LS, QRE, WinterM. McKone, S. Zweifel

BIOL 126. Energy Flow in Biological Systems Follow the pathways through which energy and matter are acquired, stored, and utilized within cells, organisms, and ecosystems. The focus moves among the different levels of organization from protein function to nutrient movement through ecosystems. Prerequisite: Concurrent enrollment in BIOL 126L; Chemistry 123 or 128; or AP Chemistry score of 4 or 5; or IB score of 5, 6, or 7. 6 cr., LS, QRE, Winter,SpringD. Hernandez, D. Hougen-Eitzman, M. Rand, R. Mitra

BIOL 210. Global Change Biology Environmental problems are caused by a complex mix of physical, biological, social, economic, political, and technological factors. This course explores how these environmental problems affect life on Earth by examining the biological processes underlying natural ecological systems and the effects of global environmental changes such as resources consumption and overharvesting, land-use change, climate warming, pollution, extinction and biodiversity loss, and invasive species. Prerequisite: One introductory science lab course (Biology 125, 126, Chemistry 123, 128, Geology 110, 115 or 120). 6 cr., NE, QRE, WinterD. Hernandez

BIOL 212. Australia/New Zealand Program: Ecological Field Research Designed to complement and extend Biology 307. This course emphasizes field research methodology, with emphasis on comparison on ecological characteristics among terrestrial habitats in Australia and New Zealand. Major topics will include design and analysis of experiments, as well as use of primary literature to inform research questions. Prerequisite: Biology 125 and 126 and at least one upper-level Biology course related to ecology, evolution or organismal biology. 6 cr., NE, QRE, WinterM. McKone, N. Braker

BIOL 234. Microbiology with Laboratory A study of the metabolism, genetics, structure, and function of microorganisms. While presented in the framework of the concepts of cellular and molecular biology, the emphasis will be on the uniqueness and diversity of the microbial world. The course integrates lecture and laboratory, and will fulfill requirements of a microbiology course with lab for veterinary or pharmacy schools. A one-credit trailing course, Philosophy 198, CRISPR and You, is available to interested students. Prerequisite: Biology 125 and 126. 6 cr., LS, QRE, Offered in alternate years. Spring

BIOL 236. Plant Biology How do plants work? This course is framed in the context of advances in evolution and genomics, which offer insight into physiological, developmental, morphological, and anatomical adaptations to diverse environments. Emphasis is placed on experimental approaches to the study of plants. The biology behind current issues related to food and agriculture, including genetically modified organisms, will be investigated. Prerequisite: Biology 125 and 126. 6 cr., NE, QRE, Not offered in 2015-2016.

BIOL 238. Entomology Insects are one of the most successful groups of organisms on the planet, playing major roles in all terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. In addition, since insects are ubiquitous they affect human endeavors on many fronts, both positively (e.g., crop pollination) and negatively (damage to crops and transmitting disease). This class will focus on the biology of insects, including physiology, behavior, and ecology. Many examples will highlight current environmental issues. Prerequisite: Biology 125 and 126 and concurrent registration in Biology 239. 6 cr., NE, QRE, Offered in alternate years. Not offered in 2015-2016.

BIOL 239. Entomology Laboratory Field and laboratory investigation of living insects. Synoptic examination of the major orders of insects, including evolution of different groups, physiology, structure, and identification. Field labs will focus on insect ecology and collection techniques for making a comprehensive insect collection. Prerequisite: Concurrent registration Biology 238. 2 cr., NE, Offered in alternate years. Not offered in 2015-2016.

BIOL 240. Genetics A study of the transmission of genetic information between generations of organisms, and of the mechanism of expression of information within an individual organism. The main emphasis will be on the physical and chemical basis of heredity; mutational, transmissional and functional analysis of the genetic material, and gene expression. A one-credit trailing course, Philosophy 198, CRISPR and You, is available to interested students spring term 2016. Prerequisite: Biology 125 and 126 or instructor permission. 6 cr., NE, QRE, Winter,SpringA. Kalis, S. Zweifel

BIOL 241. Genetics Laboratory Prerequisite: Biology 125 and 126 or instructor permission. 2 cr., NE, Winter,SpringA. Kalis, S. Zweifel

BIOL 248. Behavioral Ecology Behavioral ecologists strive to understand the complex ways that ecological pressures influence the evolution of behavioral strategies. It can be argued that animals face a relatively small set of basic challenges: they must acquire food, water, and mates, and they must avoid danger. Yet we see a rich diversity of solutions to these problems. Consider foraging behavior, for example. All animals must acquire energy, but some filter particles out of sea water, others graze on nearly inedible grasses, while still others hunt in cooperative packs. In this course we will consider such topics as foraging, communication, sociality, and conflict. By focusing on the functions and evolutionary histories of behaviors, we strive to better understand the puzzle of behavioral diversity. Prerequisite: Biology 125 and 126. 6 cr., NE, QRE, WinterA. Bosacker

BIOL 250. Australia/New Zealand Program: Marine Ecology This course will explore the population, community, and evolutionary ecology of marine organisms, with a focus on the Great Barrier Reef. Major topics will include coral reef structure and function, diversity of fauna and flora, as well as impacts of climate change and fisheries on reef ecology. Prerequisite: Biology 125 and 126 and one upper-level Biology course related to ecology, evolution or organismal Biology. 6 cr., NE, QRE, WinterG. Wagenbach

BIOL 252. Environmental Animal Physiology This course explores the physiological adaptations animals employ to survive in a wide variety of environments. Animals maintain physiological functions in the face of environmental extremes in heat, cold, aridity, deep ocean pressure, salinity, and the lack of oxygen in water or at high altitude, to name a few. An organism's ability to cope with environmental extremes has a large impact on the geographic distribution of many species. Associated laboratory will emphasize experimentation and application of physiological concepts in living organisms. Concurrent registration in Biology 253 required. Prerequisite: Biology 125 and 126 . 6 cr., NE, QRE, FallM. Rand

BIOL 253. Environmental Animal Physiology Laboratory Concurrent registration in Biology 252 required. 2 cr., NE, FallM. Rand

BIOL 255. Australia Program: Learning Country, Culture and Environment in Australia In this course students will learn about the natural history of the Australian landscape and the cultural history of the people who have settled there. We will specifically consider the role of sustainability in Aboriginal, colonial, and modern Australian cultures. The majority of work for this class will be reading selected works that showcase central concepts. This reading should be completed before the program begins, and work will be evaluated through written work. In Australia, students will learn through lectures and cultural immersion, and they will synthesize what they learn in reflective essays. Prerequisite: Biology 125 and 126. 6 cr., NE, IS, Not offered in 2015-2016.

BIOL 280. Cell Biology An examination of the structures and processes that underlie the life of cells, both prokaryotic and eukaryotic. Topics to be covered include methodologies used to study cells; organelles, membranes and other cellular components; protein targeting within the cell; and cellular communication and division. Prerequisite: Biology 125 and 126 and concurrent registration in Biology 281. 6 cr., NE, QRE, FallR. Mitra

BIOL 281. Cell Biology Laboratory The focus of the laboratory will be on current techniques used to study cellular structure and function. Concurrent registration in Biology 280 required. Prerequisite: Biology 125 and 126. 2 cr., NE, FallR. Mitra

BIOL 302. Methods of Teaching Science This course will explore teaching methods for the life and physical sciences in grades 5-12. Curricular materials and active learning labs will be discussed and developed. In addition, time outside of class will be spent observing and teaching in local science classrooms. Will not count toward a biology major. Prerequisite: Instructor Permission. 6 cr., SI, Not offered in 2015-2016.

BIOL 307. Australia/New Zealand Program: Evolutionary Ecology of Australia and New Zealand The evolutionary histories of Australia and New Zealand are unique because of their relative isolation from other continental land masses. This course will explore the biogeography of these areas, with emphasis on the evolutionary diversification of endemic lineages of organisms including mammals (such as marsupials), birds (such as moas), plants, and insects. Class research projects on site will examine how ecological interactions have evolved among these unique species, and how these interactions are being affected by the large number of introduced species now present Prerequisite: Biology 125 and 126, one additional course in ecology, evolution, or physiology. 6 cr., NE, QRE, Offered in alternate years. WinterM. McKone

BIOL 310. Immunology This course will examine the role of the immune system in defense, allergic reactions, and autoimmunity. Topics to be covered include the structure and function of antibodies, cytokines, the role of the major histocompatibility complex in antigen presentation, cellular immunity, immunodeficiencies, and current techniques used to study immune responses. Prerequisite: Biology 125 and 126 and either Biology 240 or 280. 6 cr., NE, QRE, WinterD. Walser-Kuntz

BIOL 311. Immunology Laboratory Prerequisite: Biology 125 and 126 and Biology 240 or 280; Biology 310. 2 cr., NE, WinterD. Walser-Kuntz

BIOL 321. Ecosystem Ecology Ecosystem ecology involves the study of energy and material flow through systems, including both the biotic (animals, plants, microbes) and abiotic (soil, water, atmosphere) components. Topics include the major elemental cycles (carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous), patterns of energy flow, and the controls of these fluxes for different ecosystems. Current environmental issues are emphasized as case studies, including climate change, land use change, human alterations of nutrient cycles, and biodiversity effects on ecosystems. Not open to students who have taken Biology 221. Concurrent registration in Biology 322 required. Prerequisite: Biology 126 and one 200 level course in Biology; Geology 230, 232, 258, 285 or Environmental Studies 244, 247, 254, 260, 264, 265, 272, 275, 287, 288. 6 cr., NE, WR2, QRE, FallD. Hernandez

BIOL 322. Ecosystem Ecology Laboratory Concurrent registration in Biology 321 required. Prerequisite: Biology 321; Biology 126 and 1 of the following: Biology 125, Geology 110, Chemistry 123 or Chemistry 128. 2 cr., NE, FallD. Hernandez

BIOL 332. Human Physiology Human Physiology seeks to understand the fundamental mechanisms responsible for the diverse functions of the body. Course topics include the function and regulation of the various physiological systems (nervous, circulatory, endocrine, excretory, respiratory, digestive, etc.), biochemistry, cellular physiology, homeostasis and acid-base chemistry. The study of human physiology provides the principal groundwork for internal medicine, pharmacology, and other related health fields. The laboratory includes a variety of experiments focusing on the function and regulation of the human body. Not open to students who have taken Biology 232. Prerequisite: Biology 125 and 126; Concurrent registration in Biology 333. 6 cr., NE, QRE, WinterB. Jacques-Fricke

BIOL 333. Human Physiology Laboratory Not open to students who have taken Biology 233. Prerequisite: Concurrent registration in Biology 332; Biology 125 and 126. 2 cr., NE, WinterB. Jacques-Fricke

BIOL 342. Animal Developmental Biology An analysis of animal development from fertilization to the establishment of the adult body form. Lectures and discussions will examine the key processes of animal embryogenesis, as well as the molecular and cellular mechanisms that control these developmental processes. Prerequisite: Biology 125 and 126, and Biology 240 or 280. 6 cr., NE, QRE, SpringA. Kalis

BIOL 343. Animal Developmental Biology Laboratory Laboratory will introduce descriptive and experimental embryological techniques using a variety of model organisms. Prerequisite: Biology 125 and 126, and Biology 240 or 280; Concurrent registration in Biology 342. 2 cr., NE, SpringA. Kalis

BIOL 344. Seminar: The Molecular Basis of Plant Development A study of the molecular basis underlying the development of vascular plants. Topics including embryogenesis, meristem function, leaf and root morphogenesis, and reproduction will be investigated through the analysis of primary literature. Emphasis will be placed on the experimental basis for current concepts in plant development ranging from molecular mechanisms to evolution of developmental pathways. Prerequisite: Biology 125 and 126; Biology 240 or 280. 6 cr., NE, QRE, Not offered in 2015-2016.

BIOL 350. Evolution Principles and history of evolutionary change in wild populations, with consideration of both microevolutionary and macroevolutionary time scales. Topics covered include causes of change in gene frequency, the nature of adaptation, constraints on evolutionary change, the evolution of genes and proteins, rates of speciation and extinction, and the major events in evolutionary history. Prerequisite: Biology 125 and 126 . 6 cr., NE, QRE, FallM. McKone

BIOL 352. Population Ecology An investigation of the properties of populations and communities. Topics include population growth and regulation, life tables, interspecific and intraspecific competition, predation, parasitism, mutualism, the nature of communities, and biogeography. Prerequisite: Biology 125 and 126, and Mathematics 111 or other previous calculus course. Recommended course: Mathematics 215 or equivalent exposure to statistical analysis.; Concurrent registration in Biology 353. 6 cr., NE, QRE, SpringM. McKone

BIOL 353. Population Ecology Laboratory Prerequisite: Biology 125 & 126, and Mathematics 111 or other previous calculus course. Recommended course: Mathematics 215 or equivalent exposure to statistical analysis; Concurrent registration in Biology 352. 2 cr., NE, SpringM. McKone

BIOL 354. Human Cutaneous Biology The course will cover the cellular and molecular biology of human skin in its normal and diseased states as it relates to a clinical presentation. Clinical dermatology and pathology will also be reviewed. The course style will be patterned along the lines as if it were a medical school course. Additionally, students will be introduced to many aspects of successfully negotiating medical school including introductions and possible "field trips" to the Mayo Clinic Medical School and/or University of Minnesota Medical School(s). Prerequisite: Chemistry 233 and two upper division Biology courses (200 or 300-level) and instructor's permission required. 3 cr., S/CR/NC, NE, SpringC. Crutchfield

BIOL 358. Seminar: Evolution of Sex and Sexes The origin and maintenance of sexual reproduction remains a central enigma in evolutionary biology. This seminar course will explore contemporary primary literature that addresses a variety of evolutionary questions about the nature of sex and the sexes. Why is sexual reproduction usually favored over asexual alternatives? Why are there no more than two sexes? What determines the characteristics of females and males within diverse species? How did sex chromosomes evolve and why do some species lack them? Prerequisite: Biology 125, 126 and 350. 6 cr., NE, QRE, Not offered in 2015-2016.

BIOL 367. Seminar: The Molecular Basis of Human Disease The course will examine the biochemical basis of human disease. Although the focus will be on common diseases such as metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, rare but instructive conditions will also be examined. An analytical approach, based on primary literature, will be used and the emphases will be placed on critical evaluation of experimental design and data interpretation. Prerequisite: Biology 232/332 or 240 or 242 or 278 or 380 or Chemistry 320 or consent of the instructor. 6 cr., NE, QRE, Offered in alternate years. Not offered in 2015-2016.

BIOL 368. Seminar: Developmental Neurobiology An examination of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying development of the nervous system. We will survey recent studies of a variety of model organisms to explore key steps in neuronal development including neural induction, patterning, specification of neuronal identity, axonal guidance, synapse formation, cell death and regeneration. The laboratory will focus on current techniques used to study neuronal development in invertebrate and vertebrate model systems. Prerequisite: Biology 240 or Biology 280. 6 cr., NE, QRE, Not offered in 2015-2016.

BIOL 370. Seminar: Selected Topics in Virology An examination of selected animal viruses. The course will focus on the most recent developments in HIV-related research, including implications for HIV-treatment and vaccines and the impact of viral infection on the immune system of the host. In addition to studying the structure and replication of particular viruses we will also discuss the current laboratory techniques used in viral research. Prerequisite: Biology 240 or 280. 6 cr., NE, QRE, Not offered in 2015-2016.

BIOL 371. Seminar: Human Dominated Ecosystems Human dominated ecosystems occur wherever human activities become the prevailing force in ecological patterns and processes, including everything from a clear-cut tropical forest to your backyard. It also includes remote areas changing because of human alteration of nutrient cycles and the climate. As human population and impacts grow, so does the need to understand how ecosystems respond. This course will use recent scientific literature to explore this new field of ecology, the study of human dominated ecosystems. Topics include the ecology of cities, decimated ecosystems, ecology of the post-war landscape, preservation and restoration under a changing climate, and designed ecosystem. Prerequisite: Biology 125, 126 and one upper-level ecology course (Biology 210, 221, 236, or 352) or instructor permission. 6 cr., NE, QRE, Not offered in 2015-2016.

BIOL 374. Seminar: Grassland Ecology Grassland ecosystems cover one third of the Earth's surface and occur on every continent except Antarctica. Grasslands provide habitat for millions of species, play a major role in global carbon and nutrient cycles, and are the primary source of agricultural land, making them an important ecosystem both ecologically and economically. This course will utilize scientific literature to explore the environmental and biological characteristics of the world's grasslands from population dynamics to ecosystem processes. Topics include competition and succession, plant-animal interactions, carbon and nutrient cycling, the role of disturbances such as fire and land use change, and grassland management and restoration. Enrollment by application. Waitlist only. Prerequisite: Biology 125 and 126, and one of Biology 210, 238, 248, 250, 308, 321 or 352 and instructor permission . 6 cr., NE, WR2, QRE, SpringD. Hernandez

BIOL 375. Seminar: Natural History of Minnesota This course will explore the ecology of the ecosystems and organisms of Minnesota--including lakes and rivers, grasslands, and deciduous and boreal forest--through the reading and analysis of the primary literature and independent field research projects. Students will gain skills in species identification, experimental design, scientific writing and presentation. In addition to scheduled class time, this course includes two weekend field trips. Prerequisite: Biology 125 and Biology 126, and one upper-level course in ecology (Biology 221, 321 or 352) or plant biology (Biology 236)or instructor permission. 6 cr., NE, QRE, Offered in alternate years. Not offered in 2015-2016.

BIOL 379. Seminar: Behavioral Genetics Recent advances in molecular biology have allowed researchers to test specific hypotheses concerning the genetic control of behavior. This course will examine information derived from various animal model systems, including humans, using a variety of techniques such as classical genetics, genome databases, transgenics, and behavioral neurobiology. Prerequisite: Biology 240. 6 cr., NE, QRE, WinterM. Rand, S. Zweifel

BIOL 380. Biochemistry Biochemistry is an examination of the molecular basis of life processes. The course provides an in depth investigation of metabolic pathways, their interrelationships and regulation, protein structure and function with special emphasis on enzymes. Other topics include the techniques of protein analysis and how they are employed to examine problems of fundamental biochemical importance. This course meets the requirement for the Biochemistry concentration. Prerequisite: Biology 125 and 126 and Chemistry 233 and 234. 6 cr., NE, FallA. Broege

BIOL 381. Biochemistry Laboratory Prerequisite: Biology 380; Biology 125 and 126 and Chemistry 233 and 234. 2 cr., NE, FallA. Broege

BIOL 382. Seminar: Molecular Biology The molecular basis of the structure, replication, stable inheritance, and expression of genetic material illustrated with examples from the primary literature. Topics include: DNA replication and recombination, chromosome stability, DNA mutation and repair, regulation of gene expression, methods of gene identification, and the impact of recombinant DNA technology on human genetics. Laboratory will focus on current techniques in molecular biology including: gene cloning, genome databases, DNA finger printing, DNA sequencing, and the polymerase chain reaction. Prerequisite: Biology 240 and Chemistry 233; Biology.383. 6 cr., NE, Not offered in 2015-2016.

BIOL 383. Molecular Biology Laboratory Prerequisite: BIOL.382. 2 cr., NE, Not offered in 2015-2016.

BIOL 384. Seminar: Biology of Cancer This course explores the molecular and cellular processes that result in the transformation of normal cells into cancer cells, tumor progression, and current advances in therapeutic approaches to treating cancer. An analytical approach based on primary literature is used, and emphasis will be placed on critical evaluation of experimental design and data-interpretation. Prerequisite: Biology 240 or 380. 6 cr., NE, QRE, WinterA. Broege

BIOL 385. Seminar: Microbial Pathology Microbes are the most abundant organisms on earth, and microbial pathogens have caused human and plant disease epidemics worldwide. This course will focus upon the pathogenic strategy of a variety of well-studied microbes in order to illustrate our understanding of the molecular and cellular nature of microbial disease. We will analyze current and seminal papers in the primary literature focusing on mechanisms employed by microbes to attack hosts. Prerequisite: Biology 125 and 126 and either Biology 240 or 280. 6 cr., NE, QRE, SpringR. Mitra

BIOL 386. Neurobiology An analysis of the biology of neurons and the nervous system. Topics include the molecular basis of electrical excitability in neurons, synaptic transmission and plasticity, motor control, mechanisms of sensation, and construction and modification of neural circuits. Prerequisite: Biology 125 and 126 . 6 cr., NE, QRE, SpringB. Jacques-Fricke

BIOL 387. Neurobiology Laboratory Prerequisite: Biology 386; Biology 125 and 126. 2 cr., SpringB. Jacques-Fricke

BIOL 389. Seminar: Evo-Devo; Evolutionary Developmental Biology This seminar course is focused on introductory concepts in evolutionary developmental biology. We will use critical evaluation of primary literature to explore how the genetic mechanisms that control development have evolved the diversity of life on earth. Prerequisite: One of the following: Biology 240, 242, 280, 342, or 350. 6 cr., NE, QRE, FallA. Kalis

BIOL 394. Biology Research Laboratory and/or field investigation associated with an ongoing research program in the department of Biology. The project is undertaken with the direct supervision of a faculty member. Regular individual meetings, written progress reports, and public presentations should be expected. 1-6 cr., NE, Fall,Winter,SpringStaff

BIOL 395. Research Experience Seminar in Biology This seminar course is intended for students who have completed a summer research project or internship in the biological sciences. The intent of the course is to provide students with the opportunity to discuss their research experience, learn from the experiences of other members of the class, read relevant primary literature, and prepare a poster for a student research symposium. Prerequisite: Biology 125 and 126. 3 cr., S/CR/NC, NE, QRE, FallS. Deel

BIOL 399. Critical Reading and Analysis of Primary Literature Guided instruction in reading and interpretation of contemporary primary literature in Biology. Prerequisite: Biology 125, 126 and 3-upper-level Biology courses; BIOL 400. 3 cr., S/CR/NC, NE, Fall,WinterStaff

BIOL 400. Integrative Exercise Preparation and submission of the written portion of the Integrative Exercise. Continuing course (fall or winter). Oral examination, evaluation of the Integrative Exercise, and participation in visiting speakers seminars (spring). 3 cr., S/NC, NE, Fall,Winter,SpringStaff