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Chemistry (CHEM)

Chair: Professor David G. Alberg

Professors: David G. Alberg, Marion E. Cass, Steven M. Drew, Tricia A. Ferrett, William E. Hollingsworth

Associate Professors: Deborah Gross, Gretchen Hofmeister

Assistant Professors: Joseph Walter Chihade, Daniela Kohen

Visiting Instructor: Alexander R. Barron

Chemistry provides the connection between molecular concepts and the complex systems found in nature. Chemistry courses stress the understanding of chemical principles, as well as the experimental basis of the science. The curriculum provides a strong foundation for graduate work in chemistry, biochemistry, and other chemistry-related areas, for positions in industry, for high school teaching, and for studies in the medical and health sciences. The department is on the list of those approved by the American Chemical Society (ACS). For ACS certification students must complete work in chemistry listed under the Professional Requirements section of this catalog.

Prospective chemistry majors should begin their study of mathematics, physics and chemistry in the first year. Majors are encouraged to participate in summer or fall term scientific research programs off campus or in the Chemistry Department Summer Research Program at Carleton.

The Introductory Courses

Most first-year students will take Chemistry 123, Principles of Chemistry or Chemistry 128, Principles of Environmental Chemistry. Both are one-term courses designed for students who have had a good high school chemistry preparation. Although taught from slightly different perspectives, all sections of Chemistry 123 or Chemistry 128 will cover the fundamental topics that prepare students for further work in chemistry, biology, geology, or medicine. In the spring term, a section of Chemistry 123 is offered with problem solving. This smaller section will have additional class meetings for problem solving and review and is appropriate for students who have had a high school chemistry course but want to ease into the study of college-level chemistry.

Students who have not had a high school chemistry course should take Chemistry 122, An Introduction to Chemistry, which is designed to prepare students with little or no prior work in chemistry for further study in chemistry. This course also includes class sessions with problem solving and review.

Students planning to take Chemistry 122, 123, or 128 should take the self-administered chemistry placement evaluation, available on the chemistry department home page. This evaluation covers topics dealing with simple formulas, equations, stoichiometry, gas laws, and the properties of solutions. It also includes a list of topics for you to review before you take the placement exam.

Requirements for a Major:

Chemistry 123 or 128, 230, 233, 234, 304, 305, 343, 344; one of the following: 320, 328, 334, 348, 350, 351, 353, 354, 359, 395; and one of the following lab courses: 306, 321, 329, 335, 338, 349, 352, 355; Physics 113 and 115 or 114 and 115; and Mathematics 211. A second physics course, Physics 126, 128 or 235, is strongly recommended. Chemistry 400 is required of all majors.

Major under Combined Plan in Engineering (see also Engineering in index):

In addition to completing the requirements for the chemistry major listed above, the student should also take the following courses required for admission to the engineering schools: Physics 126 or 128, Mathematics 241, and Computer Science 117. At the discretion of the department, one advanced course may be waived in some instances to allow the student more latitude in selection of courses.

Chemistry Courses

CHEM 115. Chemistry in Context This course explores concepts in chemistry within the context of current social issues. Chemical concepts are introduced on a need-to-know basis to explain the science behind contemporary issues such as global warming, energy policy, nutrition, and drug design. The political, social, and ethical dimensions of these topics are also considered. This course is primarily intended for students not majoring in the sciences. Students who have taken Chemistry 113, 122, 123, or 128 may not register for Chemistry 115. 6 cr., MS, Not offered in 2006-2007.

CHEM 122. An Introduction to Chemistry An introduction to the fundamentals of chemistry to prepare students to enter subsequent chemistry courses (Chemistry 123 or 128). Atoms and molecules, stoichiometry, and gases, will be covered in the course. Although learning through discovery-based processes, small groups, and short laboratory experimentation will occur, this is not a lab course and doesn't fulfill the requirements for medical school. This course assumes competence with simple algebra, but no prior chemistry experience. Students with high school chemistry should probably take Chemistry 123 or 128. (Determined by the self-administered Chemistry Placement Evaluation, Chemistry Home Page). 6 cr., MS, WinterM. Cass

CHEM 123. Principles of Chemistry An introduction to chemistry for students who have taken high school chemistry or Chemistry 122. Topics include the electronic structure of atoms, periodicity, molecular geometry, thermodynamics, bonding, equilibrium, reaction kinetics, and acids and bases. Substantial independent project work is included in the lab. Each offering will also focus on a special topic(s) selected by the instructor. Students cannot receive credit for both Chemistry 123 and 128. Prerequisite: Adequate secondary school preparation as indicated by the self-administered Chemistry Placement Evaluation (Chemistry Home Page) or Chemistry 122. 6 cr., MS, Fall,SpringS. Drew, D. Gross, D. Kohen

CHEM 128. Principles of Environmental Chemistry The core topics of chemistry (i.e. thermodynamics, kinetics, equilibrium, and bonding) are central to understanding major environmental topics such as greenhouse warming, ozone depletion, acid-rain deposition, and general chemical contamination in air, water, and soil. These topics and the chemical principles behind them are addressed through an emphasis on the earth's atmosphere. One four-hour laboratory per week. Because this course covers the major topics of Chemistry 123 (but with an environmental emphasis), students cannot receive credit for both Chemistry 123 and 128. Prerequisite: Adequate secondary school preparation as indicated by the self-administered Chemistry Placement Exam (Chemistry Home Page) or Chemistry 122. 6 cr., MS, Winter,SpringA. Barron, W. Hollingsworth

CHEM 230. Equilibrium and Analysis This course builds on topics from introductory chemistry and deals with quantitative aspects of acid-base and electron-transfer equilibria. Numerical and graphical methods are developed for the examination of these chemical systems. Several modern analytical methods of analysis are introduced including UV spectrophotometry, simultaneous spectrophotometric determinations of mixtures, potentiometry, and flow injection analysis. One laboratory per week. Prerequisite: Chemistry 123 or 128. 6 cr., MS, Fall,SpringS. Drew, D. Gross

CHEM 233. Organic Chemistry I Theoretical aspects of carbon chemistry are examined with reference to structure-reactivity relationships, functional groups, stereochemistry, reaction mechanisms and spectroscopy. Laboratory work concentrates on modern techniques of organic chemistry, the synthesis of new compounds, and identification of unknown compounds using chemical and physical methods. One laboratory per week. Prerequisite: Chemistry 123 or 128. 6 cr., MS, Fall,WinterJ. Chihade, G. Hofmeister

CHEM 234. Organic Chemistry II The chemistry of functional groups is continued from Chemistry 233, and is extended to the multifunctional compounds found in nature, in particular carbohydrates and proteins. The laboratory focuses upon inquiry-based projects and spectroscopic analysis. One laboratory per week. Prerequisite: Chemistry 233. 6 cr., MS, Fall,Winter,SpringD. Alberg, J. Chihade, G. Hofmeister

CHEM 304. Quantum Spectroscopy Laboratory This lab course emphasizes spectroscopic studies relevant to quantum chemistry, including experiments utilizing UV-VIS, infrared absorption spectroscopy, and visible emission spectroscopy. Co-requisite: Chemistry 344. 2 cr., ND, FallT. Ferrett, W. Hollingsworth

CHEM 305. Chemical Kinetics Laboratory A mixed class/lab course with one laboratory and one lecture session per week. In class, theories of kinetics will be covered with problem sets and an exam. In lab, a variety of modern instrumental methods will be studied with a focus on kinetics. Experimental design and extensive independent project work will be emphasized. Prerequisites: Chemistry 230 and 233 or consent of the instructor. Corequisite: Chemistry 343. 2 cr., ND, WinterM. Cass, W. Hollingsworth

CHEM 306. Spectroscopic Characterization of Chemical Compounds This lecture/lab course teaches students how to use modern spectroscopic techniques for the structural characterization of molecules. Lecture sessions will cover topics in the theory and practical applications associated with GC-Mass Spectrometry, ES1- Mass Spectrometry, Infrared, and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1H, 13C, and 2D experiments). Students will apply all of these techniques in the laboratory for the structural characterization of known and unknown molecules. Lecture sessions for the first five weeks, and one laboratory per week during the full ten-week term. Prerequisites: Chemistry 234 and 344 or consent of instructor. 2 cr., ND, SpringD. Alberg

CHEM 320. Biological Chemistry This course involves the natural extension of the principles of chemistry to biological systems. The topics to be examined center around the biochemical formation and cleavage of chemical bonds, with an emphasis on the structure and function of the proteins that mediate these processes. Prerequisites: Chemistry 234 and either Chemistry 230 or Biology 380. 6 cr., MS, SpringJ. Chihade

CHEM 321. Biological Chemistry Laboratory Purification and characterization of proteins and nucleic acids, with a focus on enzyme kinetics and mechanism, macromolecular interactions with small molecules and the basis of specificity in biological systems. One laboratory per week. Corequisite: Chemistry 320. 2 cr., ND, SpringJ. Chihade

CHEM 328. Environmental Analysis In this course, we will study the chemistry of molecules in the air, water, and soil. Emphasis will be placed on understanding the chemistry in the natural (unpolluted) environment, and the changes which occur due to human activity and pollution. In addition, we will explore the methods which are used to measure pollutants in the environment and their applicability, as well as regulatory issues of relevance to the topics studies. Prerequisites: Chemistry 230 or 233 or consent of the instructor. 6 cr., MS, Not offered in 2006-2007.

CHEM 329. Environmental Analysis Laboratory Credit for the laboratory portion of Chemistry 328. Corequisite: Chemistry 328. 2 cr., ND, Not offered in 2006-2007.

CHEM 334. Bioanalytical Chemistry A variety of techniques for the analysis of biologically relevant molecules are explored in this course, including chromatographic, spectroscopic, and electrochemical methods. Some specific topics to be covered include mass spectrometry of proteins, voltammetric methods for examining neurotransmitters in biological media, enzymatic methods for the determination of glucose, and chromatographic techniques for the analysis of amino acids and fatty acids. Prerequisite: Chemistry 230. 6 cr., MS, WinterS. Drew, D. Gross

CHEM 335. Bioanalytical Chemistry Laboratory This laboratory provides hands-on experience working with electrospray mass spectrometry, voltammetry, and high performance liquid chromatography as applied to bioanalytical chemical analysis. Co-requisite: Chemistry 334. 2 cr., ND, WinterS. Drew, D. Gross

CHEM 338. Introduction to Computers and Electronics in Chemical Instrumentation This laboratory serves to introduce students to the general components that make up any instrument useful in chemical analysis. These components include transducers, analog and digital electronic components, data transmission hardware, computers, and appropriate software. The specific topics to be covered are ion selective electrodes, analog and digital electronics, basic data acquisition principles, serial data communication, and LabVIEW programming. Prerequisite: Chemistry 230. 2 cr., ND, Not offered in 2006-2007.

CHEM 343. Chemical Thermodynamics The major topic is chemical thermodynamics, including the First and Second Laws, the conditions for spontaneous change, thermochemistry, and chemical equilibrium. To showcase how chemists utilize energy concepts to solve problems, thermodynamics will be regularly applied to a number of real-world examples and scientific problems. Prerequisite: Chemistry 123 or 128. Corequisites: Mathematics 211 and Physics 113 and 115 or Physics 114 and 115. 6 cr., MS, WinterW. Hollingsworth

CHEM 344. Quantum Chemistry This course introduces quantum mechanics with an emphasis on chemical and spectroscopic applications. The focus will be on atomic and molecular quantum behavior involving electrons, rotations, and vibrations. The objective is to develop both a deeper understanding of bonding as well as an appreciation of how spectroscopy provides insight into the microscopic world of molecules. Prerequisites: Chemistry 123 or 128 and Mathematics 211. Corequisites: Physics 113 and 115 or Physics 114 and 115 or consent of the instructor. 6 cr., MS, FallW. Hollingsworth

CHEM 345. Statistical Thermodynamics Statistical mechanics is the field which bridges the gap between the modern microscopic world of quantum mechanics and the classical macroscopic world of thermodynamics. Starting with the allowed quantized energy levels for the different forms of molecular motion and then statistically averaging for a large collection of molecules, partition functions are developed which accurately predict thermodynamic properties such as free energy and entropy. Prerequisites: Chemistry 343 and 344. 2 cr., S/CR/NC, MS, Not offered in 2006-2007.

CHEM 348. Introduction to Computational Chemistry This class will introduce students to computational chemistry with a focus on simulations in chemistry and biology. This course will include hands-on experience in running classical molecular dynamics and quantum chemistry programs, an introduction to methods to simulate large systems, and demonstrations of the use of more sophisticated software to simulate chemical and biological processes. It will also include a survey of the current literature in this area, as well as lecture time in which the background necessary to appreciate this growing area of chemistry will be provided. Prerequisites: Chemistry 343 and 344. Corequisite: Chemistry 349. 6 cr., MS, Not offered in 2006-2007.

CHEM 349. Computational Chemistry Laboratory Credit for the laboratory portion of Chemistry 348. Corequisite: Chemistry 348. 2 cr., ND, Not offered in 2006-2007.

CHEM 350. Chemical and Biosynthesis This seminar course considers nature's biosynthetic pathways in conjunction with how organic chemists design the chemical synthesis of complex organic molecules. Important metabolic pathways for biochemical syntheses, as well as the methodology of chemical synthesis, will form the focus of the course. Prerequisite: Chemistry 234. 6 cr., MS, FallD. Alberg

CHEM 351. Inorganic Chemistry Symmetry, molecular orbital theory and ligand field theory will provide a framework to explore the bonding, magnetism and spectroscopic properties of coordination complexes. Topics in bioinorganic chemistry, reaction mechanisms, and organometallic chemistry, will also be introduced. Prerequisite: Chemistry 344. 6 cr., MS, SpringM. Cass

CHEM 352. Laboratory in Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Synthesis, purification and spectroscopic characterization of air sensitive and/or chiral transition metal complexes. One laboratory per week. Pre- or corequisite: Chemistry 351 and Chemistry 306. 2 cr., ND, SpringM. Cass

CHEM 353. Organic Chemistry III The correlation of structure and reactivity in organic molecular systems is studied through the analysis of reaction mechanisms. Topics will include linear free energy relationships, isotope effects, and molecular orbital theory. We will use these theories to analyze reactions, such as pericyclic, enantioselective, and organometallic transformations. Prerequisites: Chemistry 234 and 343. 6 cr., MS, WinterG. Hofmeister

CHEM 354. Lasers and Spectroscopy This course addresses aspects of microwave, infrared, electronic, and Raman spectroscopy, especially as they relate to modern investigations in chemical reactivity. Important experimental techniques such as molecular beams and laser applications are developed along the way. Readings are taken both from texts and primary literature. Prerequisite: Chemistry 344. 6 cr., MS, SpringW. Hollingsworth

CHEM 355. Lasers and Spectroscopy Laboratory This project-based lab uses both continuous-wave and pulsed lasers to explore not only the basic principles of laser operation but also spectroscopic applications and excited-state phenomena using techniques such as laser-induced fluorescence and Raman scattering. Corequisite: Chemistry 354. 2 cr., ND, Not offered in 2006-2007.

CHEM 359. Molecular Orbital Theory This course will focus on the construction and understanding of molecular orbital (MO) diagrams using symmetry and energy arguments. Conceptual and calculational techniques will be explored. We will begin with the construction of the MO diagrams of small molecules (water, ammonia) and proceed to larger molecules (such as octahedral metal complexes and benzene) culminating in dimers and asymmetric molecules using the Hoffmann Fragment Approach. Prerequisites: Chemistry 351 or consent of the instructor. 6 cr., ND, Not offered in 2006-2007.

CHEM 394. Student-Faculty Research Projects related to summer research with Carleton chemistry faculty in all areas of chemistry. Activities include: original inquiry, laboratory and/or theoretical work, literature reading, formal writing related to research results, preparing talks or posters for research conferences, or preparing for upcoming summer work. Weekly meetings with a faculty advisor and/or research group are expected. Students doing projects that are not directly tied to Carleton's summer chemistry research program should enroll in Chemistry 291/2 or 391/2. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. 1 to 6 cr., ND, Fall,Winter,SpringStaff

CHEM 400. Integrative Exercise Three alternatives exist for the department comprehensive exercise. Most students elect to join a discussion group that studies the research of a distinguished chemist or particular research problem in depth. Other students elect to write a long paper based on research in the primary literature, or write a paper expanding on their own research investigations. Most of the work for Chemistry 400 is expected to be accomplished during winter term. Students should enroll for five credits of Chemistry 400 during the winter, receive a "CI" at the end of that term, and then enroll for one credit during the spring, with the final evaluation and grade being awarded during spring term. 6 cr., S/NC, ND, Winter,SpringStaff