Chair: Associate Professor Deborah Gross
Professors: David G. Alberg, Marion E. Cass, Steven M. Drew, Tricia A. Ferrett, William E. Hollingsworth
Associate Professors: Joseph Walter Chihade, Deborah Gross, Gretchen E. Hofmeister, Daniela Kohen
Visiting Assistant Professor: Michael W. Burand
Chemistry provides the connection between
molecular concepts and the complex systems found in nature. Chemistry
courses stress the understanding of chemical principles, as well as the
experimental basis of the science. The curriculum provides a strong
foundation for graduate work in chemistry, biochemistry, and other
chemistry-related areas, for positions in industry, for high school
teaching, and for studies in the medical and health sciences. The
department is on the list of those approved by the American Chemical
Society (ACS). For ACS certification students must complete work in
chemistry listed under the Professional Requirements section of this
Prospective chemistry majors should begin their
study of mathematics, physics and chemistry in the first year. Majors
are encouraged to participate in summer or fall term scientific
research programs off campus or in the Chemistry Department Summer
Research Program at Carleton.
Most first-year students will take Chemistry 123, Principles of
Chemistry or Chemistry 128, Principles of Environmental Chemistry. Both
are one-term courses designed for students who have had a good high
school chemistry preparation. Although taught from slightly different
perspectives, all sections of Chemistry 123 or Chemistry 128 will cover
the fundamental topics that prepare students for further work in
chemistry, biology, geology, or medicine. When scheduling permits, we
also offer a section of Chemistry 123 with problem solving. This
smaller section will have additional class meetings for problem solving
and review and is appropriate for students who have had a high school
chemistry course but want to ease into the study of college-level
Students who have not had a high school chemistry course should take
Chemistry 122, An Introduction to Chemistry, which is designed to
prepare students with little or no prior work in chemistry for further
study in chemistry. This course also includes class sessions with
problem solving and review.
Students planning to take Chemistry 122, 123, or 128 should take the
self-administered chemistry placement evaluation, available on the
chemistry department home page. This evaluation covers topics dealing
with simple formulas, equations, stoichiometry, gas laws, and the
properties of solutions. It also includes a list of topics for you to
review before you take the placement exam.
Chemistry 123 or 128, 230, 233, 234, 301, 302, 343, 344; one of the following: 320, 328, 334, 348, 350, 351, 353, 354, 359, 360; and one of the following lab courses: 306, 321, 329, 335, 338, 349, 352, 355; Physics: One five-week Newtonian mechanics course, Physics 131, 132, 141, or 142, and one of the following five-week physics courses: 151, 152, 153, 161, or 162; and Mathematics 211. An additional physics course, Physics 228 or 235, is strongly recommended. Chemistry 400 is required of all majors.
CHEM 113. Concepts of Chemistry
A one-term chemistry course designed for non-science majors. In this course, we examine what gives rise to the three dimensional shapes of molecules and we explore how the structure and composition of molecules effect chemical reactivity. Our goal is to understand readily observable phenomena (such as the removal of grease by soap, the storage of toxins and drugs in fat tissues, cancer, and viruses) on the molecular level. Topics also include those which address anthropogenic forces on the global environment such as acid rain, nuclear energy, and depletion of the ozone layer. The course includes one four-hour laboratory per week. 6 cr., MS, Not offered in 2009-2010.
CHEM 122. An Introduction to Chemistry
An introduction to the fundamentals of chemistry to prepare students to enter subsequent chemistry courses (Chemistry 123 or 128). Atoms and molecules, stoichiometry, and gases will be covered in the course. Although learning through discovery-based processes, small groups, and short laboratory experimentation will occur, this is not a lab course and doesn't fulfill the requirements for medical school. This course assumes competence with simple algebra, but no prior chemistry experience. Students with high school chemistry should probably take Chemistry 123 or 128. (Determined by the self-administered Chemistry Placement Evaluation, Chemistry Home Page). 6 cr., MS, WinterM. Burand
CHEM 123. Principles of Chemistry
An introduction to chemistry for students who have taken high school chemistry or Chemistry 122. Topics include the electronic structure of atoms, periodicity, molecular geometry, thermodynamics, bonding, equilibrium, reaction kinetics, and acids and bases. Substantial independent project work is included in the lab. Each offering will also focus on a special topic(s) selected by the instructor. Students cannot receive credit for both Chemistry 123 and 128. Prerequisite: Adequate secondary school preparation as indicated by the self-administered Chemistry Placement Evaluation (Chemistry Home Page) or Chemistry 122. 6 cr., MS, Fall,Winter,SpringM. Burand, S. Drew, D. Kohen
CHEM 128. Principles of Environmental Chemistry
The core topics of chemistry (i.e. thermodynamics, kinetics, equilibrium, and bonding) are central to understanding major environmental topics such as greenhouse warming, ozone depletion, acid-rain deposition, and general chemical contamination in air, water, and soil. These topics and the chemical principles behind them are addressed through an emphasis on the earth's atmosphere. One four-hour laboratory per week. Because this course covers the major topics of Chemistry 123 (but with an environmental emphasis), students cannot receive credit for both Chemistry 123 and 128. Prerequisite: Adequate secondary school preparation as indicated by the self-administered Chemistry Placement Exam (Chemistry Home Page) or Chemistry 122. 6 cr., MS, SpringW. Hollingsworth
CHEM 230. Equilibrium and Analysis
This course builds on topics from introductory chemistry and deals with quantitative aspects of acid-base and electron-transfer equilibria. Numerical and graphical methods are developed for the examination of these chemical systems. Several modern analytical methods of analysis are introduced including UV spectrophotometry, simultaneous spectrophotometric determinations of mixtures, potentiometry, and flow injection analysis. One laboratory per week. Prerequisite: Chemistry 123 or 128. 6 cr., MS, Fall,SpringS. Drew, D. Gross
CHEM 233. Organic Chemistry I
Theoretical aspects of carbon chemistry are examined with reference to structure-reactivity relationships, functional groups, stereochemistry, reaction mechanisms and spectroscopy. Laboratory work concentrates on modern techniques of organic chemistry, the synthesis of new compounds, and identification of unknown compounds using chemical and physical methods. One laboratory per week. Prerequisite: Chemistry 123 or 128. 6 cr., MS, Fall,WinterD. Alberg, G. Hofmeister
CHEM 234. Organic Chemistry II
The chemistry of functional groups is continued from Chemistry 233, and is extended to the multifunctional compounds found in nature, in particular carbohydrates and proteins. The laboratory focuses upon inquiry-based projects and spectroscopic analysis. One laboratory per week. Prerequisite: Chemistry 233. 6 cr., MS, Winter,SpringD. Alberg, J. Chihade
CHEM 301. Chemical Kinetics Laboratory
A mixed class/lab course with one four hour laboratory and one lecture session per week. In class, the principles of kinetics will be developed with a mechanistic focus. In lab, experimental design and extensive independent project work will be emphasized. Corequisite: Chemistry 343. 2 cr., ND, FallS. Drew, D. Kohen
CHEM 302. Quantum Spectroscopy Laboratory
This lab course emphasizes spectroscopic studies relevant to quantum chemistry, including experiments utilizing UV-VIS, infrared absorption spectroscopy, and visible emission spectroscopy. Corequisite: Chemistry 344. 2 cr., ND, WinterM. Cass, T. Ferrett, W. Hollingsworth
CHEM 306. Spectroscopic Characterization of Chemical Compounds
This lecture/lab course teaches students how to use modern spectroscopic techniques for the structural characterization of molecules. Lecture sessions will cover topics in the theory and practical applications associated with GC-Mass Spectrometry, ESI- Mass Spectrometry, Infrared, and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1H, 13C, and 2D experiments). Students will apply all of these techniques in the laboratory for the structural characterization of known and unknown molecules. Lecture sessions for the first five weeks, and one laboratory per week during the full ten-week term. Prerequisites: Chemistry 234 and 344 or consent of instructor. 2 cr., ND, SpringM. Burand, D. Gross
CHEM 320. Biological Chemistry
This course involves the natural extension of the principles of chemistry to biological systems. The topics to be examined center around the biochemical formation and cleavage of chemical bonds, with an emphasis on the structure and function of the proteins that mediate these processes. Prerequisites: Chemistry 234 and either Chemistry 230 or Biology 380. 6 cr., MS, SpringJ. Chihade
CHEM 321. Biological Chemistry Laboratory
Purification and characterization of proteins and nucleic acids, with a focus on enzyme kinetics and mechanism, macromolecular interactions with small molecules and the basis of specificity in biological systems. One laboratory per week. Corequisite: Chemistry 320. 2 cr., ND, SpringJ. Chihade
CHEM 328. Environmental Analysis
In this course, we will study the chemistry of molecules in the air, water, and soil. Emphasis will be placed on understanding the chemistry in the natural (unpolluted) environment, and the changes which occur due to human activity and pollution. In addition, we will explore the methods which are used to measure pollutants in the environment and their applicability, as well as regulatory issues of relevance to the topics studies. Prerequisites: Chemistry 230 or 233 or consent of the instructor. 6 cr., MS, Not offered in 2009-2010.
CHEM 329. Environmental Analysis Laboratory
Credit for the laboratory portion of Chemistry 328. Corequisite: Chemistry 328. 2 cr., ND, Not offered in 2009-2010.
CHEM 334. Bioanalytical Chemistry
A variety of techniques for the analysis of biologically relevant molecules are explored in this course, including chromatographic, spectroscopic, and electrochemical methods. Some specific topics to be covered include mass spectrometry of proteins, voltammetric methods for examining neurotransmitters in biological media, enzymatic methods for the determination of glucose, and chromatographic techniques for the analysis of amino acids and fatty acids. Prerequisite: Chemistry 230. 6 cr., MS, Not offered in 2009-2010.
CHEM 335. Bioanalytical Chemistry Laboratory
This laboratory provides hands-on experience working with electrospray mass spectrometry, voltammetry, and high performance liquid chromatography as applied to bioanalytical chemical analysis. Co-requisite: Chemistry 334. 2 cr., ND, Not offered in 2009-2010.
CHEM 338. Introduction to Computers and Electronics in Chemical Instrumentation
This laboratory serves to introduce students to the general components that make up any instrument useful in chemical analysis. These components include transducers, analog and digital electronic components, data transmission hardware, computers, and appropriate software. The specific topics to be covered are ion selective electrodes, fluorometry, analog and digital electronics, basic data acquisition principles, serial data communication, and LabVIEW programming. Prerequisite: Chemistry 230. 2 cr., ND, Not offered in 2009-2010.
CHEM 343. Chemical Thermodynamics
The major topic is chemical thermodynamics, including the First and Second Laws, the conditions for spontaneous change, thermochemistry, and chemical equilibrium. To showcase how chemists utilize energy concepts to solve problems, thermodynamics will be regularly applied to a number of real-world examples and scientific problems. Prerequisite: Chemistry 123 or 128, Mathematics 211; and the following Physics 151, 152, 153, 161 or 162. 6 cr., MS, FallD. Kohen
CHEM 344. Quantum Chemistry
This course introduces quantum mechanics with an emphasis on chemical and spectroscopic applications. The focus will be on atomic and molecular quantum behavior involving electrons, rotations, and vibrations. The objective is to develop both a deeper understanding of bonding as well as an appreciation of how spectroscopy provides insight into the microscopic world of molecules. Prerequisites: Chemistry 123 or 128; Mathematics 211 and one of the following: Physics 151, 152, 153, 161 or 162. 6 cr., MS, WinterW. Hollingsworth
CHEM 345. Statistical Thermodynamics
Statistical mechanics is the field which bridges the gap between the modern microscopic world of quantum mechanics and the classical macroscopic world of thermodynamics. Starting with the allowed quantized energy levels for the different forms of molecular motion and then statistically averaging for a large collection of molecules, partition functions are developed which accurately predict thermodynamic properties such as free energy and entropy. Prerequisites: Chemistry 343 and 344. 2 cr., S/CR/NC, MS, Not offered in 2009-2010.
CHEM 348. Introduction to Computational Chemistry
This class will introduce students to computational chemistry with a focus on simulations in chemistry and biology. This course will include hands-on experience in running classical molecular dynamics and quantum chemistry programs, an introduction to methods to simulate large systems, and demonstrations of the use of more sophisticated software to simulate chemical and biological processes. It will also include a survey of the current literature in this area, as well as lecture time in which the background necessary to appreciate this growing area of chemistry will be provided. Prerequisites: Chemistry 343 and 344. Corequisite: Chemistry 349. 6 cr., MS, SpringD. Kohen
CHEM 349. Computational Chemistry Laboratory
Credit for the laboratory portion of Chemistry 348. Corequisite: Chemistry 348. 2 cr., ND, SpringD. Kohen
CHEM 350. Chemical and Biosynthesis
This seminar course considers nature's biosynthetic pathways in conjunction with how organic chemists design the chemical synthesis of complex organic molecules. Important metabolic pathways for biochemical syntheses, as well as the methodology of chemical synthesis, will form the focus of the course. Prerequisite: Chemistry 234. 6 cr., MS, WinterD. Alberg
CHEM 351. Inorganic Chemistry
Symmetry, molecular orbital theory and ligand field theory will provide a framework to explore the bonding, magnetism and spectroscopic properties of coordination complexes. Topics in reactivity (hard and soft acids and bases), bioinorganic chemistry, reaction mechanisms, and organometallic chemistry, will also be introduced. Prerequisite: Chemistry 344. 6 cr., MS, SpringM. Cass
CHEM 352. Laboratory in Advanced Inorganic Chemistry
Synthesis, purification and spectroscopic characterization of air sensitive and/or chiral transition metal complexes. One laboratory per week. Pre- or corequisite: Chemistry 351 and Chemistry 306. 2 cr., ND, SpringM. Cass, G. Hofmeister
CHEM 353. Organic Chemistry III
The correlation of structure and reactivity in organic molecular systems is studied through the analysis of reaction mechanisms. Topics will include linear free energy relationships, isotope effects, and molecular orbital theory. We will use these theories to analyze reactions, such as pericyclic, enantioselective, and organometallic transformations. Prerequisites: Chemistry 234 and 343. 6 cr., MS, Not offered in 2009-2010.
CHEM 354. Lasers and Spectroscopy
Understanding the principles of lasers in conjunction with the framework provided by spectroscopy provides a powerful way to advance a deeper understanding of the molecular basis of chemical reactivity. Important experimental techniques such as Raman scattering methods and molecular beams are explored in addition to a wide range of specific laser applications. Readings are taken from both texts and literature. Prerequisites: Chemistry 302 and 344. 6 cr., MS, Not offered in 2009-2010.
CHEM 355. Lasers and Spectroscopy Laboratory
This project-based lab uses both continuous-wave and pulsed lasers to explore not only the basic principles of laser operation but also spectroscopic applications and excited-state phenomena using techniques such as laser-induced fluorescence and Raman scattering. Corequisite: Chemistry 354. 2 cr., ND, Not offered in 2009-2010.
CHEM 359. Molecular Orbital Theory
This course will focus on the construction and understanding of molecular orbital (MO) diagrams using symmetry and energy arguments. Conceptual constructs will be contrasted to computational output to support theoretical tenets. We will begin with the construction of the MO diagrams of small molecules (water, ammonia) and proceed to larger molecules (such as octahedral metal complexes, benzene and organometallic compounds ) culminating in dimers and asymmetric molecules using the Hoffmann Fragment Approach. Prerequisites: Chemistry 351 or consent of the instructor. 6 cr., ND, WinterM. Cass
CHEM 360. Chemical Biology
This seminar course will center on current literature in chemical biology, an emerging field built around the use of small molecules both to gain an understanding of the molecular mechanisms of biological processes and to manipulate them in a defined and predictable fashion. Topics will include glycobiology, proteomics, chemical genetics, molecular recognition, and protein engineering. Prerequisite: Chemistry 234 and Biology 125 or 126. 6 cr., MS, FallJ. Chihade
CHEM 394. Student-Faculty Research
Projects related to summer research with Carleton chemistry faculty in all areas of chemistry. Activities include: original inquiry, laboratory and/or theoretical work, literature reading, formal writing related to research results, preparing talks or posters for research conferences, or preparing for upcoming summer work. Weekly meetings with a faculty advisor and/or research group are expected. Students doing projects that are not directly tied to Carleton's summer chemistry research program should enroll in Chemistry 291/2 or 391/2. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. 1 to 6 cr., ND, Fall,Winter,SpringStaff
CHEM 400. Integrative Exercise
Three alternatives exist for the department comprehensive exercise. Most students elect to join a discussion group that studies the research of a distinguished chemist or particular research problem in depth. Other students elect to write a long paper based on research in the primary literature, or write a paper expanding on their own research investigations. Most of the work for Chemistry 400 is expected to be accomplished during winter term. Students should enroll for five credits of Chemistry 400 during the winter, receive a "CI" at the end of that term, and then enroll for one credit during the spring, with the final evaluation and grade being awarded during spring term. 6 cr., S/NC, ND, Winter,SpringStaff