You are here: Campus >Registrar's Office > Academic Catalog 2006-2007 > Courses > History

History (HIST)

Chair: Associate Professor Jamie Monson

Professors: Clifford E. Clark, Jr., Kirk Jeffrey, Adeeb Khalid, Diethelm Prowe, Harry McKinley Williams

Associate Professors: Annette Igra, Jamie Monson, Susannah R. Ottaway, Seungjoo Yoon

Assistant Professors: Andrew B. Fisher, Victoria Morse, William North, Parna Sengupta, George H. Vrtis, Serena R. Zabin

Visiting Instructors: Louis Fishman, Colby Nolan Ristow

The objectives of the History major have both a general educational aspect and an aspect that is more narrowly professional. On one level, work in the major develops skills of research, analysis, and expression; on another level, it introduces the student to some of the major civilizations that human beings have created during the past three thousand years; on still another level, majoring in History confronts students with specific problems of interpreting the past—the conflict of opinions among historians and the difficulties of reconstructing past societies from their sources.

In view of the variety of departmental offerings, no specific combination of courses can be considered the ideal program. If you choose History as a major you have, in effect, to design your own mix of courses to meet these objectives. The department offers a few guidelines, even fewer requirements, and the services of a departmental advisor. Still, most of the choice is up to you; it should reflect your particular interests and abilities, and perhaps also your career plans.

See History Department Web site at

Requirements for a Major

A total of 66 credits from courses taken in the history department. First year seminars (History 110s) and the comprehensive exercise both count toward the total number of credits. Certain courses offered outside the history department may count toward the major; consult the department chair for specific information. Courses in ancient history are also taught in the Classics department and count toward the History major.

Primary Field

Courses must be taken in at least three of the following seven fields: 1) United States, 2) Ancient and Medieval, 3) Early Modern and Modern Europe, 4) the Middle East and Asia, 5) Africa and Its Diaspora, 6) Latin America, and 7) the Atlantic World. Students choosing fields 1-4 as their primary field will take four courses; those choosing 5-7 may take four courses in that field, or take three courses in the field and one additional course that is of relevance to the field. This additional course will be chosen in consultation with the adviser.

Self-designed Thematic field Option: In consultation with the faculty, students may also propose a self-designed thematic field as their primary field (e.g., Gender and History, Colonialism). Interested students should consult the department for further details and procedures.

Additional Requirements

In addition to four courses in a primary field, all majors must also take at least two courses in each of two secondary fields. The History major must complete a research seminar (History 395) normally in the primary field, the History Colloquium (History 298) and the senior integrative exercise (History 400).

It is recommended that students planning to major in history take History 110 and one or two other courses during their first year. History majors who are interested in study and research in a major library should consider the Newberry Library Seminar program. Other interesting off-campus programs and graduate studies programs and information can be found in the history department lobby and at the following sites: History Department Resources page or Off-Campus Studies Office.

Courses from other departments (may be included in the sixty-six credits total).

AMST 115 Introduction to American Studies

CLAS 227 Greek History: The Greek World From the Rise of the City-State to the Rise of the Hellenistic Kingdoms

CLAS 228 Roman History, Republic and Principate (Not offered in 2006-2007)

CLAS 229 The Later Roman Empire, Byzantium and Islam

ECON 232 American Economic History

ECON 233 European Economic History

RELG 140 Religion and American Culture

Please ask history department chair or your adviser about any courses in African/African American Studies, American Studies, Asian Studies, Classics, Latin American Studies, Religion, Women’s Studies, or other special courses offered by an historian in another department if you wish to have these courses to apply toward the history major.

History Courses:

Courses numbered below 200 are open to first year students. First year students may not register in courses numbered 200 and above without the permission of the instructor.

HIST 110. African Life Histories This course is an introduction to personal narrative as a form of historical expression. We will read several published life histories, from anthropological recordings to slave narratives to autobiography and memoir. We will consult scholarly essays about life history as a genre, to help us discuss the methodology behind the production of these important texts. Our task is therefore twofold: as we learn about the lives of African men and women through their own stories, we will also examine the processes through which these stories are made available to us. 6 cr., HU, RAD, FallJ. Monson

HIST 110. Drunks and Teetotalers: Alcohol and American Society From its earliest days as a nation, the use and abuse of alcohol in the U.S. has been hotly debated. This course will examine historians' attempts to understand alcohol's powerful impact on American politics, society, and social reform. Using original source materials from the times, this course will focus on colonial rebellions, the temperance movement, immigration and the rise of saloons and saloon politics, the debate over prohibition, and the contemporary reforms of Alcoholics Anonymous, and MADD (Mothers Against Drunk Drivers). 6 cr., HU, FallC. Clark

HIST 110. History and Memory: The Pacific War, 1941-45 This course examines some of the crucial and complex decisions that American military and political leaders faced during the war with Japan, 1941-45 such as the decision to intern Japanese nationals and Japanese Americans who lived on the west coast (1942). At least once during the term, students will be assigned roles of historical figures and will re-enact crucial meetings that shaped policy. The course will also investigate popular memory of the war and compare memory with historical knowledge. 6 cr., HU, FallK. Jeffrey

HIST 110. 1947 Partition of India The 1947 Partition of India into the post-colonial nation-states of India and Pakistan in 1947 was one of the most tumultuous events in modern history: over twelve million people were displaced and almost one million died. Memories of the partition continue to haunt present day politics in the subcontinent. This course will look at how questions of religious, caste, class and gender identities shaped the events leading up to Partition and the ensuing violence. Using political writings, oral history, films and literature, we will attempt to bring together the grand politics, public memory, and private voices that shape our understanding of 1947. 6 cr., HU, RAD, FallP. Sengupta

HIST 110. German Revolutions of 1848 An exploration of the German Revolutions of 1848 from a broad range of nineteenth century intellectual perspectives--liberalism, conservatism, Romanticism, Marxism--and through contemporary analyses and socioeconomic change. 6 cr., HU, FallD. Prowe

HIST 110. Black Slaves, White Masters: Historians and Slavery This seminar explores the place of slavery in American historiography in the half-century following U.B. Phillips's American Negro Slavery (1918). It probes the complexities of the master-slave relationship as well as integrates the methods and skills of the historian regarding questions of culture, gender, economics, and resistance. 6 cr., HU, RAD, FallH. Williams

HIST 110. The Chinese Revolution of 1949 For the last half century the communist regime in China has made an indelible mark on the society comprising a quarter of the world's population. This seminar will examine various interpretations of different aspects and phases of Chinese life between the 1920s and 1990s. The emphasis will be on historical analysis of documentary sources. Students are introduced to materials in translation on the Chinese Revolution consisting of government publications, biographies memoirs, personal letters, journalistic reports, travelogues, and novels. Topics include political ideology, class and gender, nationalism, agricultural development, and mobilization of intellectuals. 6 cr., HU, SpringS. Yoon

HIST 110. The Age of Elizabeth I Her subjects remembered her as Good Queen Bess, and biographers have sung the praises of Gloriana, but what is our current understanding of Elizabeth I of England? This course will examine recent works on Elizabeth's family and personal life, as well as histories of the political and religious events of the Tudor Age. In the process we will be seeking not merely to understand how historians have studied Elizabeth, but also to learn about how historians practice their craft. 6 cr., HU, SpringS. Ottaway

HIST 110. Conflicts in the Middle East This class will survey not only the more well known conflicts of the Middle East such as the ongoing Israeli-Palestinian conflict and the War in Iraq, but will also survey others. Among these we will examine the struggle of the different Arab national movements against European colonialism, and internal conflicts such as the question of the status of ethnic/national minorities and religion in Lebanon, Turkey, and Israel. In addition to academic readings, we will also view films dedicated to understanding these different conflicts. 6 cr., HU, RAD, FallL. Fishman

HIST 120. Rethinking the American Experience: American Social History, 1607-1865 A survey of the American experience from before Christopher Columbus' arrival through the Civil War. Some of the topics we will cover include: contact between Native and European cultures; the development of the thirteen mainland British colonies; British, French, and Spanish imperial conflicts over the Americas; slavery; the American Revolution; religious awakenings; antebellum politics; and the Civil War. 6 cr., HU, WinterC. Clark

HIST 121. Rethinking the American Experience: American Social History, 1865-1945 Reconstruction and the creation of a new system of racial inequality after the Civil War; industrialization, the rise of the modern business corporation, and shifts in the American class system; progressive reformers and the roots of modern liberalism; World War I and the cultural conflicts of the 1920s; the Great Depression and the New Deal; World War II and its consequences. 6 cr., HU, SpringK. Jeffrey

HIST 130. The Formation of Early Christian Thought This course offers a historical survey of the development of Christian thought in the Latin West and Greek East from the second to seventh centuries, the period when the authoritative intellectual traditions of both medieval Europe and Byzantium were created. Among the themes/problems to be explored: Christian attitudes towards non-Christian belief and culture (pagan and Jewish); the interpretation of the Bible; the development of heresy and orthodoxy; and the relationship between theology, asceticism, and the development of the church as an institution. 6 cr., HU, Not offered in 2006-2007.

HIST 137. Before Europe: The Early Medieval World, 250-c. 1050 This course examines the formation of western Christendom from its origins in the Christian Roman Empire to its consolidation in the eleventh century. As we move from Merovingian Gaul, Lombard Italy, and Anglo-Saxon England to the Carolingian Empire and its successor kingdoms in Germany, France, and Italy, we will examine such issues as the cultural and political legacy of the Roman and Carolingian worlds; the nature and forms of secular and sacred power; gender roles and relations; ethnic and social identity; and the forms, patterns and meaning of communication (political, economic, ritual, literary, religious) both inside and outside early medieval Europe. 6 cr., HU, Not offered in 2006-2007.

HIST 138. The Making of Europe What are the origins of what we call "Europe?" How did this corner of the Eurasian continent come to play a predominant role in world history? What forces worked to create or to undermine a recognizably "European" culture? While cultural developments and new institutions offered powerful sources of shared experience and practice, national states and self-conscious localisms introduced new lines of fragmentation. Through lectures and discussion of a wide variety of primary sources from the period this class will examine these competing tendencies as they shaped the history of Europe's peoples during the later Middle Ages and the early Renaissance. 6 cr., HU, SpringV. Morse

HIST 139. Foundations of Modern Europe A narrative and survey of the early modern period (fifteenth through eighteenth centuries). The course examines the Renaissance, Reformation, Contact with the Americas, the Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment. We compare the development of states and societies across Western Europe, with particularly close examination of the history of Spain. 6 cr., HU, Not offered in 2006-2007.

HIST 140. Modern Europe 1789-1914 An introduction in the age of political and social revolutions. Emphasis is given to the impact of industrialization, the rise of national consciousness, and the search for progress through the great liberal and socialist movements, and ultimately the drive for global domination and development, students are invited but not required to take HIST 141 as a follow-up to this course. 6 cr., HU, WinterD. Prowe

HIST 141. Europe in the Twentieth Century A survey of the major political, socio-economic, and intellectual developments of twentieth century Europe. Special emphasis will be placed on the rise of urban masses and private economic power and the attempts to integrate these new forces into a stable political system. 6 cr., HU, SpringD. Prowe

HIST 150. Ancient and Medieval Japan An introduction to the history of Japan from its pre-historical past to the fall of the Tokugawa order in 1868. It examines the ways in which the Japanese civilization has been shaped by its political institutions, foreign relations, religious developments, social forms, and literary achievements. Topics include the sources and legitimization of ancient political power; aristocracy in medieval times; the popularization of various sects of Buddhism; the rise of the warrior class; agrarian society and peasant rebellions; urban lives of artisans, merchants, and entertainers; and the world of popular literature and arts. 6 cr., HU, RAD, Not offered in 2006-2007.

HIST 151. History of Modern Japan This course explores the modern transformation of Japanese society, politics, economy, and culture from the Meiji Restoration of 1868 to the present. It is designed to provide students with an opportunity to explore basic issues and problems relating to modern Japanese history and international relations. Topics include the intellectual crisis of the late Tokugawa period, the Meiji Constitution, the development of an imperial democracy, class and gender, the rise of Japanese fascism, the Pacific War, and postwar developments. 6 cr., HU, Not offered in 2006-2007.

HIST 152. History of Imperial China An introduction to the history of China from its beginnings to the end of the last dynasty in 1911, providing an overview of traditional Chinese thought, culture, institutions, and society. Students examine the development of philosophy and religion, achievements in art and literature, and social and economic change. This course also considers foreign conquest dynasties, Chinese expansion into Inner Asia, and China's relations with the West. 6 cr., HU, RAD, Not offered in 2006-2007.

HIST 153. History of Modern China This course, a continuation of History 152 (History of Imperial China), offers a critical survey of the modern transformation of politics, economy, society, and culture in Chinese history from the eighteenth century to the present. Topics include neo-Confucianism, the bureaucracy, the repudiation of civil society, the interaction with the West, peasant rebellions, nationalism, party politics, the dynamics of Communist rule, and alternative Chinese societies both inside and outside Mainland China. 6 cr., HU, SpringS. Yoon

HIST 156. History of Modern Korea An historical survey on the development of Korean society and culture from the 15th century to the present. Students will analyze various aspects of Korean life such as autocracy and bureaucracy, family and education, peasantry and rural life, commerce and industry, Yanghan literary enterprises, and religious orientations, both elite and popular. In addition, sections will be devoted to a discussion of Korea's interactions with its neighbors, including China, Inner Asia, Japan, Europe and America. North Korea, for example, will be examined in terms of colonialism and postcolonialism as well as Cold War contexts. 6 cr., HU, WinterS. Yoon

HIST 160. History of Classical India This course will look at classical Indian civilization by examining the interconnectedness of its political and social institutions, religions, and material life. We begin with the Indus Valley civilization (2500 BC) and end with the Turkish Sultanate in Northern India (1525 AD). Ancient India has recently become the object of intense political debate; we will consider the implications of current debates and the challenges and methods of reconstructing India's history. 6 cr., HU, WinterP. Sengupta

HIST 161. History of Modern India A survey of the modern history of the Indian sub-continent from the establishment of the Mughal Court in North India (1525 AD) to the present including the Indian Ocean trade, the Southern independent kingdoms, British colonial rule, nationalism and post-colonial South Asia. Students will be asked to consider the differences between the early modern, colonial, and national states and empires on the subcontinent. 6 cr., HU, RAD, SpringP. Sengupta

HIST 165. Modern Middle East 1800-1939 This class will survey the history of the Middle East from the late eighteenth century until the breaking up of the Ottoman State and the rise of the Modern Turkish and Arab States. In addition, it will also touch upon Iran and North Africa. The first section will concentrate on the nineteenth century with emphasis on the "reforms" which were prevalent both in the Ottoman Empire and Egypt. The second section will deal with the years leading up to WWI, the subsequent dividing of the Ottoman Lands, and the British and French mandates. In this class we will try to define if there is such a thing as the "Middle East," and we will focus on some central issues such as Islamic thought, the rise of nationalism, and European intervention. 6 cr., HU, Not offered in 2006-2007.

HIST 166. Modern Middle East 1939 to Present This class will survey Middle East history from the 1930's until the present and will concentrate on the phasing out of European colonialism, the rise and decline of the Arab revolutionary parties, the role of Islamic movements, and the growing American intervention. It will also focus on other issues such as the Palestinian-Israeli conflict, the Iranian revolution, and Turkey's turn towards Europe. 6 cr., HU, RAD, FallL. Fishman

HIST 168. Palestinian-Israeli Conflict, 1881 to Present This class will trace the roots of the Palestinian-Israeli conflict back to Europe, Istanbul, and late Ottoman Palestine. Following this, the class will move on to the British mandate period, cover the Holocaust's impact on the conflict and how following Israeli independence this conflict transformed into a full-fledged Arab-Israeli conflict. The last section will cover events in Israel and the Palestinian territories once the land was united following the 1967 war. Lastly, it will focus on the Oslo Accords and its eventual failure. 6 cr., HU, WinterL Fishman

HIST 169. Colonial Latin America 1492-1810 How did peoples from the Americas, the Iberian Peninsula, and Africa contribute to the creation of new colonial societies in Latin America and the Caribbean? The course examines the bewildering spectrum of indigenous societies Europeans and Africans encountered in the Americas, then turns to the introduction and proliferation of Hispanic institutions and culture, the development of mature colonial societies, and the increasing tensions and internal contradictions that plagued the region by the late eighteenth century. It asks how the colonized population managed to survive, adapt, and resist imperial pressures and examines the creation of new collective identities. 6 cr., HU, RAD, Not offered in 2006-2007.

HIST 170. Modern Latin America 1810-Present This course focuses on the legacy of colonial rule and asks how nascent nation-states dealt with new challenges of political legitimacy, economic development, and the rights of citizens. Case studies from the experiences of individual nations will highlight concerns still pertinent today: the ongoing struggle to extend meaningful political participation and the benefits of economic growth to the majority of the region's inhabitants, popular struggles for political, economic, and cultural rights, and the emergence of a civic society. 6 cr., HU, RAD, FallStaff

HIST 172. Introduction to Andean Social History, This course serves as an introductory survey of the social transformation of the Andean region of South America from the rise of the Inca state to the modern era. Emphasis will be placed on the role of the region's peasant communities in state development, colonial rule, agrarian rebellion, and the advent of capitalism. Although seeking to offer a comprehensive view of the region's history, the course will focus primarily on the sixteenth through nineteenth centuries. 6 cr., HU, RAD, Not offered in 2006-2007.

HIST 180. An Historical Survey of East Africa Using case studies and primary documents, this course will survey the history of Eastern Africa from 1000 BC to the present. Topics to be covered include the economic and cultural networks that have linked the Indian Ocean with the interior; the East African slave trade; comparative colonialism; anti-colonial resistance and East African nationalism. 6 cr., HU, RAD, Not offered in 2006-2007.

HIST 181. Western African Societies in Historical Perspective This course will examine the political and economic history of West Africa with a focus on long-distance trade (including the Atlantic slave trade) and political centralization. 6 cr., HU, Not offered in 2006-2007.

HIST 182. A Survey of Southern African History This course will review the history of southern Africa from the Late Neolithic period to the twentieth century. The development of a multiracial society; the impact of the mineral/industrial revolution in the nineteenth century; and the growth of African resistance and nationalism up to the present will be the focal points. 6 cr., HU, FallJ. Monson

HIST 195. American Environmental History This course examines the changing relationship between humankind and the natural world in the portion of North America that is now the United States. It begins with a consideration of Native American resource strategies and ideas about nature, and then turns to the arrival of Europeans, colonialism, industrialization, increasing urbanization, and the conservation and environmental movements, among other major historical developments. As we explore these developments, we will focus on the deeper ecological implications of human activities, cultural patterns and social organization. One goal of the course will be to provide an historical context for understanding contemporary environmental issues. 6 cr., HU, FallG. Vrtis

HIST 200. The Zen of Asian and Western Woodworking This course will contrast traditional Chinese and Japanese philosophies of woodworking to those used in England and the U.S. through readings, museum visits, and hands-on projects in the woodshop. The focus will be on the history of the design and construction of furniture using traditional hand tools. Particular attention will be paid to the impact of Ming Dynasty furniture design on the furniture constructed in colonial America. We will also explore some of the complexities of cultural borrowing and cultural difference. Students will be responsible both for writing essays and for completing several small projects made out of wood. 6 cr., HU, Not offered in 2006-2007.

HIST 204. Crusade, Contact and Exchange in the Medieval Mediterranean The theory that the focus of affairs in Europe turned northwards after the Muslim conquests of North Africa and Spain has been highly influential in shaping courses on medieval Europe. More recently, however, attention has focused on the rich culture of contact among the peoples of the Mediterranean throughout the medieval period. Through lectures and critical discussion of primary sources, this course will explore the many faces of this contact, including trade, warfare, political ties, missions, and artistic and intellectual influences. Our primary focus will be on the Christian European experience, but we will also study Jewish, Muslim and Byzantine sources. 6 cr., HU, RAD, Not offered in 2006-2007.

HIST 208. The Atlantic World: Columbus to the Age of Revolutions, 1492-1792 In the late fifteenth century, the Atlantic ocean became a vast highway linking Spain, France, Britain, and the Netherlands to the Americas and Africa. This course will examine the lives of the men and women who inhabited this new world from the time of Columbus to the eighteenth-century revolutions in Haiti and North America. We will focus on the links between continents rather than the geographic segments. Topics will include the destruction and reconfiguration of indigenous societies; slavery and other forms of servitude; religion; war; and the construction of ideas of empire. Students considering a concentration in Atlantic History are particularly encouraged to enroll. Emphasis on primary sources. 6 cr., HU, Not offered in 2006-2007.

HIST 210. Studies in Traditional Societies: Bandits, Outlaws and Other Rebels: A Comparative History Are bandits and outlaws "Primitive Rebels?" Images of the bandit-hero abound in history and folklore, from Robin Hood, Blackbeard, Jesse James and Bonnie and Clyde. In this course, we will examine criminality as a form of resistance in the history of selected societies around the world. Using both theoretical texts and examples from case studies, we will discuss whether smuggling, poaching, riots and plunder can be considered rebellious acts. 6 cr., HU, Not offered in 2006-2007.

HIST 211. More than Pilgrims: Colonial British America An intensive exploration of particular topics in early American history in its context as part of an Atlantic world. Topics will include voluntary and involuntary migration from Europe and Africa, personal, political, and military relationships between Europeans and Native Americans, the pattern of colonial settlement and politics, concepts of family and community, strategies of cultural adaptation and resistance, slavery, religion, the making of racial, rank, and gender ideologies, and the development of British and American identities. 6 cr., HU, SpringS. Zabin

HIST 212. The Era of the American Revolution This class will examine the American Revolution as both a process and a phenomenon. It will consider the relationship of the American Revolution to social, cultural, economic, political, and ideological change in the lives of Americans from the founding fathers to the disenfranchised, focusing on the period 1750-1800. The central question of the course is this: how revolutionary was the Revolution? Students without a solid grounding in early American history should read Edmund S. Morgan, The Birth of the Republic (Chicago: 1993), before the first class. 6 cr., HU, WinterS. Zabin

HIST 213. The Age of Jefferson This course will examine the social, political and cultural history of the period 1783-1830 with special consideration of the framing and ratification of the Constitution and the defining of the "United States." Historians contend that the period covered by this course is the key era of social transformation in American history. To assess this hypothesis, we will examine changes in race, gender, and class relations within the context of economic and geographical expansion and religious revitalization. We will explore paradoxes of American democracy and citizenship as they developed in the early Republic. Previous knowledge of American history will be assumed. 6 cr., HU, Not offered in 2006-2007.

HIST 214. The Era of Civil War Reconstruction, 1846-1877 This course will examine the American Civil War as a defining moment in this country's history. We will study the years leading up to the war as well as the Reconstruction period following it, and trace such themes as the definitions of citizenship to freedom; the role of the federal government and race relations. 6 cr., HU, Not offered in 2006-2007.

HIST 217. From Ragtime to Football: U.S. History in the 1890s The 1890s were a period of turmoil. From the closing of the frontier west to the debates over imperialism, immigrants, ragtime music, and football, Americans tried to come to terms with the changing standards and social relationships of the modern world. Using original sources from the period, this course will explore the various debates over war, women's roles, sports, art, music, politics, and popular culture in the 1890s. 6 cr., HU, SpringC. Clark

HIST 218. History, Memory, and the Vietnam War What is the difference between history and memory of past events? Do members of different generations remember historical events differently? In this course we will first examine the political, diplomatic, and military events of the Vietnam War, then look at oral histories and memoirs as historical sources about the war. Students will then put their knowledge about oral history into practice by taking oral histories from elderly residents of Northfield. 6 cr., HU, Not offered in 2006-2007.

HIST 219. US in the Cold War Era, 1945-1989 The cold war and the national security state; postwar affluence and suburbanization; popular images and critiques of American life in the 1950s and 1960s; the civil rights and other protest movements; Vietnam and Watergate; the energy crises and stagflation of the 1970s; the rise of the new American Right; the end of the cold war. 6 cr., HU, FallK. Jeffrey

HIST 220. African American History I This survey begins with the pre-enslavement history of African Americans in West Africa. It proceeds to the transition of the slave from an African to an African American either directly or indirectly through the institution of slavery until 1865. Special attention will be given to black female activists, organizations, and philosophies proposing solutions to the African-American and Euro-American dilemma in the antebellum period. 6 cr., HU, RAD, FallH. Williams

HIST 221. African American History II The transition from slavery to freedom; the post-Reconstruction erosion of civil rights and the ascendancy of Booker T. Washington; protest organizations and mass migration before and during World War I; the postwar resurgence of black nationalism; African Americans in the Great Depression and World War II; roots of the modern Civil Rights movement, and black female activism. 6 cr., HU, RAD, SpringH. Williams

HIST 222. U.S. Women's History to 1877 Gender, race, and class shaped women's participation in the arenas of work, family life, culture, and politics in the United States from the colonial period to the late nineteenth century. We will examine diverse women's experiences of colonization, industrialization, slavery and Reconstruction, religion, sexuality and reproduction, and social reform. Readings will include both primary and secondary sources, as well as historiographic articles outlining major frameworks and debates in the field of women's history. 6 cr., HU, RAD, FallA. Igra

HIST 223. U.S. Women's History Since 1877 In the twentieth century women participated in the redefinition of politics and the state, sexuality and family life, and work and leisure as the United States became a modern, largely urban society. We will explore how the dimensions of race, class, ethnicity, and sexuality shaped diverse women's experiences of these historical changes. Topics will include: immigration, the expansion of the welfare system and the consumer economy, labor force segmentation and the world wars, and women's activism in civil rights, labor, peace and feminist movements. 6 cr., HU, RAD, WinterA. Igra

HIST 226. U.S. Consumer Culture In the period after 1880, the growth of a mass consumer society recast issues of identity, gender, race, class, family, and political life. We will explore the development of consumer culture through such topics as advertising and mass media, the body and sexuality, consumerist politics in the labor movement, and the response to the Americanization of consumption abroad. We will read contemporary critics such as Thorstein Veblen, as well as historians engaged in weighing the possibilities of abundance against the growth of corporate power. 6 cr., HU, FallA. Igra

HIST 227. History of the American West This course explores the history of a large and seemingly unruly swath of North America, the lands lying west of the Missouri River. For many people, the West tends to conjure up familiar images: Indians riding hard after buffalo, wagon trains winding their way west along river valleys, bedraggled goldseekers, Custer's last stand at the Little Bighorn, hardscrabble cities, Populist stump-speakers, and vast, beautiful national parks, among many others. This course will treat these images -- these iconic western stories -- and the complex historical processes and periods they both represent and illuminate from the sixteenth century through the twentieth century. 6 cr., HU, SpringG. Vrtis

HIST 228. American Indian History This course offers an introduction to the history of American Indian societies from prehistory to the end of the nineteenth century. It will focus on the major issues and events that defined and shaped Indian peoples' lives, including their deep roots in North America, the dynamics of Indian-European encounters, the impact of Euro-American expansion, the process of removal, and the programs to "Americanize" Indian peoples. Throughout the course, we will examine how Indians struggled to retain a sense of their historic cultures and political autonomy, even as they confronted and adapted to the powerful forces unleashed by Euro-American society. 6 cr., HU, WinterG. Vrtis

HIST 229. Gender and Work in U.S. History Historically work has been a central location for the constitution of gender identities for both men and women; at the same time, cultural notions of gender have shaped the labor market. We will investigate the roles of race, class, and ethnicity in shaping multiple sexual divisions of labor and the ways in which terms such as skill, bread­winning and work itself were gendered. Topics will include domestic labor, slavery, industrialization, labor market segmentation, protective legislation, and the labor movement. 6 cr., HU, RAD, Not offered in 2006-2007.

HIST 232. The Renaissance Through lectures and careful reading and discussion of primary sources and secondary essays, we will enter the creative, turbulent world of Renaissance Europe to assess continuities with and changes from the "medieval" world and to examine the differences between the northern and southern Renaissances. We will listen to contemporaries discuss the meaning of being human and ideal forms of civil society and government; the nature of God and mankind's duties toward the divine; the family and gender roles; definitions of beauty and the goals of artistic achievement; accumulation of wealth; and exploration of new worlds and encounters with other peoples. 6 cr., HU, WinterV. Morse

HIST 233. Cultures of Empire: Byzantium, 710-1453 Heir to the Roman Empire, Byzantium proved to be one of the most enduring and fascinating polities of the medieval world. Through written and visual evidence, we will examine the central features of Byzantine history and culture from the period of Iconoclasm to the Empire's fall to the Ottoman Turks in 1453, concentrating on the nature and function of imperial rule; Byzantine aesthetics and religiosity; Byzantium's relations with the Latin West and Islam; and the changing nature of the Byzantine thought world. No prerequisites, but HIST 130 and/or CLAS 229 will be useful preparation. 6 cr., HU, RAD, SpringW. North

HIST 234. France in the Making, 987-1460 This course will examine the political, social, religious, and cultural developments that came to form the kingdom of France, one of the most influential polities in the medieval world. R and discussion will focus in particular on: the theory and practice of medieval governance; the formation of "French" national identity; France as a center of European intellectual and cultural life (in particular, music and architecture); forms of religious life, dissent, and persecution; and the ideals and realities of social relations (courtly romance, the rise of the merchant class, the status of women). No prerequisites but HIST 137 or 138 will be useful preparation. 6 cr., HU, FallW. North

HIST 235. Dante's Italy Italy at the end of the Middle Ages was an intricate patchwork of small states woven together by a vibrant and distinctive culture. We will examine the politics, law, economic life, culture, and spirituality of the independent city states like Florence and Milan, the Papal States (centered on Rome), and the Kingdom of Naples through texts, including selected works by Dante, buildings and city plans, and works of art. Our goal will be to develop a vivid sense of what life was like in the Italy of Dante, Boccaccio, Giotto, and Petrarch. 6 cr., HU, Not offered in 2006-2007.

HIST 236. Courtly Queens to Revolutionary Heroines: European Women 1100-1800 Did women have a Renaissance? Were women increasingly relegated to a separate sphere from men: "domesticated" into the household? Or, on the contrary, is the history of European women characterized by fundamental continuities? This course seeks to answer these questions through an exploration of women's place in the family and economy, laws and cultural assumptions about women, and women's role in religion. Throughout the term, we will be focusing not only on writings about women, but primarily on sources written by women themselves, as we seek a fuller understanding of the nature of European women's lives before the modern era. 6 cr., HU, Not offered in 2006-2007.

HIST 237. The Enlightenment This course focuses on the texts of Enlightenment thinkers, including Locke, Montesquieu, Voltaire, Diderot, Rousseau, Kant and Mesmer. Emphasis will be on French thinkers and the effect of the Enlightenment on French society. The course covers the impact of the Enlightenment on science, religion, politics and the position of women. Students will have the opportunity to read the philosophies in French. 6 cr., HU, SpringS. Ottaway

HIST 238. The World of Bede This course will examine the works and world of the Venerable Bede (c. 673-731), one of the great Christian thinkers and historians of the Middle Ages and a key witness to the history of early medieval Ireland and Anglo-Saxon England. Through close study of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People and other contemporary sources, we shall address such issues as Christian vs. Germanic rulership; the nature of religious conversion in early medieval societies; monasticism and conceptions of sanctity; Ireland and England as outposts of classical and Christian culture; and the problems of historical thought and writing in the early Middle Ages. 3 cr., HU, WinterW. North

HIST 238. Topics in Medieval History: Church, Papacy and Empire Over the course of the late eleventh century, the foundations of medieval society began to shake as monks and clerics, kings and princes, lay men and women, challenged the traditional order of European society, demanding purity, freedom, and justice for their church and the reform of institutions grown corrupt. Yet the traditional order had its defenders, too. In this course we will examine their intellectual and political struggles as they debate such issues as clerical marriage and purity, institutional corruption, the relationship of Church and King, the meaning of canon law, the concept of just war, and the power of the pope within the Church. 3 cr., HU, WinterW. North

HIST 240. History of Russia to 1917 A survey of selected topics in Russian history including the emergence of Kievan Rus, the period of Mongol domination, the rise of Muscovy, Westernization under Peter the Great, and Russia's emergence as a major European power. We will pay special attention to the multiethnic character of the Russia Empire. 6 cr., HU, Not offered in 2006-2007.

HIST 241. History of Russia Since 1917 A continuation of History 240, this course examines the history of the Soviet Union and its successor states. Special attention is given to policies in the realms of politics, society, and nationalities. 6 cr., HU, Not offered in 2006-2007.

HIST 243. The Peasants are Revolting! Society and Politics in the Making of Modern France Political propaganda of the French Revolutionary period tells a simple story of downtrodden peasants exploited by callous nobles, but what exactly was the relationship between the political transformations of France from the Renaissance through the French Revolution and the social, religious, and cultural tensions that characterized the era? This course explores the connections and conflicts between popular and elite culture as we survey French history from the sixteenth through early nineteenth centuries, making comparisons to social and political developments in other European countries along the way. 6 cr., HU, Not offered in 2006-2007.

HIST 244. History of European Diplomacy A study of modern European diplomacy from the seventeenth to the twentieth century. Special attention will be given to the evolution of diplomatic principles, concepts and methods. 6 cr., HU, Not offered in 2006-2007.

HIST 245. Ireland: The Origin of the Troubles The religious and political tensions and violence that have characterized modern Irish history have deep roots in centuries of troubled relations between Ireland and England. This course examines Irish history with a special focus on Anglo-Irish relations from Tudor colonization through the Great Hunger of the nineteenth century. We will also be examining the very different ways in which Irish history is told by nationalist and revisionist scholars. 6 cr., HU, Not offered in 2006-2007.

HIST 249. The New Central Europe in Historical Perspective An examination of the new Central Europe in historical perspective. We will explore the evolution of state and civil society from the early nineteenth century to the present in the multicultural/multinational regions of present-day Czechia, Slovakia, Poland, Hungary, as well as eastern Germany and Austria. Much of the course will focus on the common experiences of authoritarianism, anti-Seminitsm, fascism/nazism, and especially the Communist totalitarian/post-totalitarian era and its dissolution. 6 cr., HU, WinterD. Prowe

HIST 253. Bureaucracy, Law, and Religion in East Asia One tends to interpret East Asian polity in terms of rule by person rather than rule by law and of the unity between politics and religion. Students will examine the validity of these traditional conceptualizations through an analysis of the intricate interactions between bureaucratic behaviors, legal parameters, and religious orientations as evolved in the East Asian historical societies from its beginnings to the present. Students will discuss the relationships between autocracy and bureaucracy, church and state, aristocracy and literati ideals, eunuch prerogatives, samurai ethics, and yangban protocols, with a focus on various bureaucratic configurations (public, private, ecclesiastical, parallel, and interstitial). 6 cr., HU, Not offered in 2006-2007.

HIST 254. Colonialism in East Asia This course explores the colonialisms in East Asia, both internal and external. Students examine Chinese, Inner Asian, Japanese, and European colonialisms from the seventeenth century to the present. Geographically, students cover borderlands of East Asian empires (Tibet, Xinjiang, Mongolia, Manchuria, Fujian, Yunnan, Canton, Vietnam, Taiwan, Korea, Okinawa, and Hokkaido). Methodologically, students eschew power-politics and an historical studies of "frontier" regions in order to analyze everyday aspects of colonial arrangements and communities in different historical moments from the bottom up. Topics include ethnic identities, racial discourses, colonial settlements, opium regimes, violence and memory (e.g. Nanjing massacre), and forced labor migrations (e.g. comfort women). 6 cr., HU, Not offered in 2006-2007.

HIST 258. Foreign Relations of East Asia in Modern Times This course explores the history of foreign relations in East Asia, with special attention given to its cultural underpinnings. It covers the seventeenth century to the present, the period during which the Chinese, Koreans, and Japanese became integrated into the modern world. Students will first examine the distinguishing characteristics of multilateral exchanges in the context of empires, kingdoms, modern states, and Western Powers. The course then attempts to define a system of regional order in theoretical terms and, by extension, the role of East Asia in the world. Topics include the collapse of the tributary system, colonialism, nationalism, and post-colonialism. Some previous work on East Asian history is recommended. 6 cr., HU, WinterS. Yoon

HIST 259. Women in South Asia: Histories, Narratives, and Representation The objective of this course is to survey the historical institutions, practices and traditions that defined the position of women in India. We will examine the laws and religious traditions related to women in South Asia including marriage, inheritance, sati and purdah. We will also read a variety of women's writings including the poetry of buddhist nuns and medieval women saints, as well as stories and memoirs from the colonial and post-colonial period. The purpose of the course is to understand women in India as both the object and subject of history. 6 cr., HU, RAD, SpringP. Sengupta

HIST 260. The Making of the Modern Middle East A survey of major political and social developments from the fifteenth century to the beginning of World War I. Topics include: state and society, the military and bureaucracy, religious minorities (Jews and Christians), and women in premodern Muslim societies; the encounter with modernity. 6 cr., HU, Not offered in 2006-2007.

HIST 261. The Modern Middle East A study of the major political and social developments in the Middle East since World War I. Topics discussed: the decline of the Ottoman Empire and the emergence of nation-states; the impact of Western imperialism; the domination of military regimes; "Islamic fundamentalism;" women and gender in contemporary Muslim societies. 6 cr., HU, Not offered in 2006-2007.

HIST 262. Post-colonial South Asia, 1947-Present This course will examine the questions and issues that faced post-independence India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. We will examine both the similarities and differences in how different nations dealt with the imprint of colonialism, the struggle for democracy, the relationship between religion and politics, women's movements; ecological movements, demands for regional autonomy and globalization. We will use a wide range of primary and secondary sources as well as theoretical texts to illuminate the specificities of post-colonial modernity. 6 cr., HU, WinterP. Sengupta

HIST 265. Empires of the Steppe This course provides an introduction to the history of Inner Asia, the vast region that bridges the civilizations of China, the Middle East, and Europe, but which itself has been the center of empires that have shaped and reshaped the history of the Old World. Beginning with the ecological imperatives that shape life in Inner Asia, we will survey the history of the region and its interactions with its neighbors, with an emphasis on cultural and political developments from the earliest times to the present. 6 cr., HU, Not offered in 2006-2007.

HIST 267. History of Modern Turkey We will focus on the last years of the Ottoman Empire and on the emergence of different ideologies, such as nationalism and Islamism, and how these ideologies played out during the first years of the Turkish Republic. We will concentrate on the Turkish-Greek population exchange and the status of religious minorities, then on the present, and then on the vital role of the military, secularism, and the rise of political Islam, the Kurdish question, and Turkey's road to the European Union. Finally we will also touch on how history, religion, and current events are played out on literature, film, and music. 6 cr., HU, SpringL. Fishman

HIST 272. The Emergence of Modern Mexico This course will explore the challenges that nation-builders in Mexico encountered in their attempt to forge and maintain an independent nation-state after achieving independence from Spain in 1821. An important theme of the course will be how national leaders and popular groups came to define Mexican national identity, particularly during and after the Mexican Revolution (1910-1920). The themes of the course should help frame similar inquiries about other post-colonial situations in Latin America and elsewhere. Prerequisite: History 169 or 170 or consent of the instructor. 6 cr., HU, RAD, WinterStaff

HIST 276. The African Presence in Latin America A study of the participation of peoples of African descent in the creation of Latin American societies and culture. After an examination of the Atlantic slave trade, the course will survey the institution of African slavery in colonial societies with particular attention given to urban versus rural slavery, slave resistance and rebellion, maroon communities, gender relations, manumission, and cultural continuities and innovations. The course concludes with a consideration of the experiences of freed peoples in post-abolition societies and the historical legacy of slavery. Some background knowledge of Latin American history is recommended. 6 cr., HU, RAD, Not offered in 2006-2007.

HIST 277. Human Rights, the Cold War and US Foreign Policy in Central America Over the course of the Cold War, Central America endured one of the worst records of human rights violations in the world. This course investigates the multiples factors behind this catastrophe, including the role of U.S. foreign policy. Of particular interest will be the powerful humanitarian response the crisis generated both within the United States and in the larger international community, and how such organizations sought to uncover the truth about human rights abuses, negotiate peace, and less successfully, implement justice in the region. 6 cr., HU, FallC. Ristow

HIST 278. Religion and Identity in Latin American History This course traces the relationship between religious belief and collective identity in Latin America. Thematic in approach, case studies will highlight the range of cultural responses and sources of social conflict associated with religious change that are emblematic of the region's historical development. Depending upon the year it is offered, coverage may include the "conversion" of indigenous societies to Catholicism, millenarian movements,the religious beliefs of African slaves and their descendants, and the rise of Protestantism in contemporary Latin America. Some background knowledge of Latin American history is recommended. 6 cr., HU, RAD, Not offered in 2006-2007.

HIST 279. American Intellectual History A study of selected moments in the history of ideas from Puritanism to the 1960s. The major focus will be on the classic writing of William Bradford, Anne Hutchinson, Thomas Jefferson, Henry David Thoreau, Alexis de Tocqueville, William James, Charlotte Perkins Gilman, and others. 6 cr., HU, Not offered in 2006-2007.

HIST 283. Farm and Forest: African Environmental History We will explore the complex interaction between the African physical world or "nature" (plants, soils, water, climate) and "culture" or human society over time, from the pre-colonial through the colonial period to the present. We also seek to understand the meanings (including cultural and symbolic meanings) associated with the African natural world, both for African societies and for non-Africans who have lived, worked, or been engaged with the continent. We will delve into controversies about land use, population growth, wildlife conservation, desertification and other topics. Each student will gain insight into a particular issue or case study through an independent research project. 6 cr., HU, RAD, WinterJ. Monson

HIST 284. Colonial West Africa This seminar will explore the history of West African societies from 1885 to independence, with a focus on the impact of European colonialism. 6 cr., HU, Not offered in 2006-2007.

HIST 285. Topics in Historical Ethics: The Ethics of Service In this course we will discuss the ethical questions that arise when students engage in service and learning in contexts of difference. Taking our examples from the Peace Corps; Teach for America; internships in developing countries and off-campus study, we will read and discuss diverse perspectives on the ways that power and privilege relate to service and altruism. We will place our discussion in historical perspective (including the histories of empire and colonization) while considering its implications for today's world. This course will be based on discussion and will welcome all points of view. 3 cr., S/CR/NC, HU, SpringJ. Monson

HIST 298. Junior-year History Colloquium In the junior year, majors must take six-credit reading and discussion course taught each year by different members of the department faculty. The general purpose of History 298 is to help students reach a more sophisticated understanding of the nature of history as a discipline and of the approaches and methods of historians. A major who is considering off-campus study in the junior year should consult with their adviser on when to take History 298. 6 cr., ND, Fall,WinterP. Sengupta, H. Williams

HIST 306. Topics in Env History: The World's Water   Each year, this course will focus on a major issue in environmental history. Although the course will privilege North America, it will take a global view of the issue. For 2006-07 the topic will be the owrld's water. It is difficult to overstate the importance of water on the critical concerns currently facing societies around the world. With many societies already facing water shortages, a growing number of contaminated waterways, and a billion people lacking lclean drinking water, we stand ont he brnk of a global water crisis. This course will seek to explain how and why this situation emerged. 6 cr., HU, WinterG. Vrtis

HIST 322. The Civil Rights Movement in America It will be the task of this seminar to explore the discourse of civil rights reform in U.S. history from the standpoint of activists, organizations, and histories of domestic civil rights politics. The impact of Cold War foreign affairs on civil rights is discussed. The seminar is also an occasion to interogate the idea of freedom and contours of black policial discourse. African American History II recommended. 6 cr., HU, RAD, Not offered in 2006-2007.

HIST 324. The Concord Intellectuals The social and intellectual history of the American Renaissance with focus on selected works of Emerson, Thoreau, Amos Bronson Alcott, and Margaret Fuller. Special emphasis will be placed on the one common denominator uniting these intellectuals: their devotion to the possibilities of democracy. Prerequisite: History 120 or consent of the instructor. 6 cr., HU, Not offered in 2006-2007.

HIST 353. Intellectuals & the State Power in E. Asia A course to explore issues concerning the evolving relations between intellectuals and the state power in East Asia with an emphasis on developing the skills to analyze primary sources. 6 cr., HU, SpringS. Yoon

HIST 360. Muslims and Modernity Through readings in primary sources in translation, we will discuss the major intellectual and cultural movements that have influenced Muslim thinkers from the nineteenth century on. Topics include modernism, nationalism, socialism, and fundamentalism. Prerequisite: at least one prior course in the history of the Middle East or Central Asia (History 260, 261 or 265) or Islam (Religion 122, 123, 235, 263, 264). 6 cr., HU, RAD, Not offered in 2006-2007.

HIST 381. History, Memory and Black Atlantic: Ghana and the United States This course is an interdisciplinary, comparative, and international seminar. It asks: Did Ghanaians participate in the Atlantic slave trade as equal partners, or were they the victims of European power and greed? How have Ghanaians and black Americans remembered and recorded the Atlantic slave trade, colonialism and independence? Was Nkrumah's real mentor Garvey or duBois? Why during the Nkrumah years was Ghana the African American Camelot? Permission of the instructor is required. 6 cr., HU, RAD, Not offered in 2006-2007.

HIST 382. History, Memory and Black Atlantic: On-Site in Ghana and Revisited The first part of the course consists of a two-week field trip in late November-early December to Ghana. The field trip begins in Accra, continues to Kumasi, and ends in Cape Coast. The seminar will conclude on campus, meeting once a week for ten weeks to enable students to complete and give oral presentations on topics chosen during the fall term and researched during the two-week field trip. Prerequisite: History/African American Studies 381 and permission of the instructor. 6 cr., HU, Not offered in 2006-2007.

HIST 395. Arab Nationalism Through readings and discussion this class will focus on the different types of Arab nationalism prevalent in the Middle East during the last century. Tracing Arab nationalism back to the late Ottoman period, this class will demonstrate on how the division of the Middle East into nation-states influenced local nationalism and will concentrate on such movements as Nasserism (Egypt), the Syrian and Iraqi Baath Party, and the Palestinian Liberation Organization. Also, it will address such questions on how colonialism and the Cold War influenced Arab nationalism and how Islamic movements have changed how we understand Arab nationalism. 6 cr., HU, SpringL. Fishman

HIST 395. Liberty, Equality, Power: America from 1607-1865 From Roanoke to Gettysburg, tensions between liberty, equality, and power have shaped the American past. This is an advanced research seminar in which students will write a 25-30 page paper based on original research. Possible topics include colonial American societies, relations between America's red, white, and black inhabitants, the American Revolution and the Constitution, the religious reform movements of the Second Great Religious Awakening, and the debates over the spread of slavery. Participation in the seminar will also include some common readings about the major themes of this period, and extensive peer reviews of research papers. 6 cr., HU, SpringS. Zabin

HIST 395. Voyages of Understanding This seminar will focus on ancient, medieval, and early modern experiences of travel. We will look at motivations for travel; ideas about place, space, and geography; contacts with people of different religions, ethnicities, and cultures; the effect of travel on individual and group identity; and representations of travel, cultural contact, and geography in texts, maps, and images. Each student will conduct an original research project leading to a 25-30 page research paper. With permission of the chair/director, the course may count towards the French and Francophone Studies major and concentration; normally, the research paper will focus on French sources. Papers may be written in French if there are enough French-speakers in the class. 6 cr., HU, FallV. Morse

HIST 395. Fascism An historical analysis of the twentieth century totalitarian movements in Europe, with special emphasis on the interrelationships between fascist and communist movements and regimes. A two-credit reading course during the summer break, set up in consultation with the instructor at the end of the spring term, is required. History 141 is recommended, but not required, as useful background. Limited to juniors and seniors. 6 (plus 2 summer reading) cr., HU, FallD. Prowe

HIST 395. Narrative and Memory in African History How has the African past been remembered, reconstructed, and retold? In this seminar, we will examine different forms of historical narrative and memory-making in Africa, from the pre-colonial through the contemporary period. Our source materials will include oral narratives, written texts, songs, art and dress. The bulk of the course work will involve in-depth individual research projects. 6 cr., HU, SpringJ. Monson

HIST 400. Integrative Exercise Required of all seniors majoring in history. Registration in this course is contingent upon prior approval of a research proposal. 6 cr., S/NC, ND, WinterC. Clark, A. Igra, S. Zabin

Other Courses Pertinent to History:

ENTS 305 Topics in Environmental History: The World’s Water