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Religion (RELG)

Chair: Associate Professor Michael McNally

Professors: Roger R. Jackson, Michael McNally, Louis E. Newman

Associate Professor: Lori K. Pearson

Assistant Professor: Kristin C. Bloomer, Noah Salomon, Asuka Sango

Visiting Assistant Professor: Avaren E. Ipsen

Visiting Instructor: Shana Sippy

Post-doctoral Fellow: Anthony Terrance Wiley

The study of religion, in the context of a liberal arts education, draws upon multiple disciplines in the humanities and the social sciences. This is reflected in the variety of courses offered within the department: some introduce a religious tradition and trace its development historically; others examine in a cross-cultural context the issues faced by various religious communities and individuals; and still others explore and compare diverse theories and methods employed in the study of religions. The department is concerned with traditional and contemporary forms of both major and more marginal religions, and with both "elite" and "popular" forms of religious expression. We examine the existential, intellectual, and social problems to which religions respond, and probe the dynamic and often ambiguous relationship between religious beliefs and practices and the social order in which they are embedded. Throughout the curriculum, religion is approached as a significant and pervasive expression of human culture, both in the past and the present.

Requirements for a Major

Sixty-nine credits in the department, including Religion 110; a minimum of one course numbered 111-199; two courses numbered 211-299; two advanced seminars (311-398); Religion 300: Issues in the Study of Religion; Religion 399: Senior Research Seminar; and Religion 400: Integrative Exercise. Students planning to major in Religion should consult with their adviser in the spring of their sophomore year; a sequence of at least three courses in a religious tradition, theme, or topic is to be designed in consultation with an academic adviser by the end of the junior year, and majors are expected to build some cross-cultural diversity into their programs of study. Religion 300 is normally taken during the winter term of the junior year, Religion 399 during the winter term of the senior year and Religion 400 in the spring term of the senior year. Religion 110 is a prerequisite for Religion 300.

Religion Courses

RELG 100. Buddhism and the Beats This course uses writings from the "Beat Generation" as a lens for understanding the place of Buddhism in American culture and society. Through the fiction, poetry, essays, and letters of such figures as Kerouac, Ginsberg, Snyder, Whalen, and di Prima, we will explore how the Beats appropriated Buddhist ideas and practices as part of a program to transform American literature and politics. We also will consider the Beats’ predecessors and successors. Throughout, our central concern will be to understand what the Beats’ embrace of Buddhism tells us about the nature of Buddhism, American culture, and their unexpected but fruitful intersection. 6 cr., WR; AI, WR1, IDS, FallR. Jackson

RELG 100. Re-imagining God In this class we explore how religious thinkers have interrogated and re-imagined the concept "God" in response to a range of modern intellectual, political, and cultural challenges to traditional faith. Focusing particularly on contemporary (post-WWII) contexts, we consider the ways in which questions related to secularization, social justice, oppression, and religious pluralism have prompted theologians to re-define the very meaning of the word "God" and the nature of God’s power, agency, and relation to human communities. As we encounter these conceptions of God, we examine and assess the definitions of power, truth, and human fulfillment that undergird them. 6 cr., WR; AI, WR1, FallL. Pearson

RELG 110. Introduction to Religion This course offers an opportunity to reflect upon religion in human life. Sections vary with professors' aims, but all sections encounter material from more than one religious tradition, and probe theories of religion from several disciplinary perspectives. The study of individual quests highlights the personal dimension of religion, while the examination of historical cases brings out its cultural and political dimensions. Issues of gender, power, and social location also receive attention. Although Religion 110 makes no attempt to survey the world's religions, it provides an introduction to aspects of religious life and to the academic field of religious studies. 6 cr., HU; HI, Fall,Winter,SpringK. Bloomer, N. Salomon, S. Sippy

RELG 111. Judaism, Christianity, Islam Western civilization has been shaped decisively by three monotheistic religious traditions--­Judaism, Christianity and Islam. In this course, we explore some of the central beliefs, values, and ritual practices of these religions, some of their interactions, and some of the issues that divide them. Attention will be paid both to the historical development of these traditions and to the distinctive forms they have assumed in modern times. The course will be useful for anyone interested in the religious roots of western culture and it will prepare you to do more advanced work in any of these traditions. No prerequisites. 6 cr., HU; HI, Not offered in 2010-2011.

RELG 118. Religion and the Ethical This introductory course will examine philosophical accounts of what it means to live well, focusing mainly on works written since the American Civil War that are relevant to issues in religious ethics: whether morality requires a religious foundation, the ethical significance of divine commandments, and the concepts of virtue, goodness, evil, horror, holiness, sainthood, faith, and the sacred. Among the thinkers to be discussed are Tolstoy, H. Richard Niebuhr, Richard Rorty, John Finnis, Alasdair MacIntyre, Iris Murdoch, and Robert Merrihew Adams. 6 cr., HU; HI, Offered in alternate years. SpringA. Wiley

RELG 120. Introduction to Judaism How does a religious tradition evolve over time? This course provides an overview of the Judaic tradition as a whole, exploring its history, modes of expression, and characteristic polarities as they have emerged in various times and places. The contours of classical Jewish life and thought are explored, as well as the crises, challenges, and choices confronting Jews and Judaism today. 6 cr., HU; HI, Not offered in 2010-2011.

RELG 121. Introduction to Christianity This course will trace the history of Christianity from its origins in the villages of Palestine, to its emergence as the official religion of the Roman Empire, and through its evolution and expansion as the world’s largest religion. The course will focus on events, persons, and ideas that have had the greatest impact on the history of Christianity, and examine how this tradition has evolved in different ways in response to different needs, cultures, and tensions--political and otherwise--around the world. This is an introductory course. No familiarity with the Bible, Christianity, or the academic study of religion is presupposed. 6 cr., HU; HI, Offered in alternate years. SpringK. Bloomer

RELG 122. Introduction to Islam This course introduces Islam, a 1400-year old religion whose more than one billion adherents are spread throughout the world today. Of the various ways of approaching such an extensive tradition, we will follow a socio-cultural method with particular emphasis on how various types of Muslims have understood and interpreted their religion over the course of history. We will examine Islamic religious ideals, practices, institutions, and personalities to elicit the broad parameters that give coherence to Islamic religion and civilization. The course will also emphasize the diversity of Islamic religious perspectives, paying attention to social factors such as language affiliation, ethnicity, nationality, and gender. 6 cr., HU, RAD; HI, IS, Offered in alternate years. WinterN. Salomon

RELG 123. Muhammad and the Qur'an This course explores the Islamic religious tradition through its scripture, the Qur'an, and the life of its prophet, Muhammad. We will study Muhammad's biography to understand how it has influenced the development of Islamic belief and ritual. Through an examination of religious texts, art, and music, we will explore the role his memory has played in popular religious culture. We will study the Qur'an through its content, its origins, and the impact it has had on the development of Islam. In the process, we will emphasize the Qur'an as an aesthetically charged scripture as well as a written text. 6 cr., HU, RAD; HI, IS, Not offered in 2010-2011.

RELG 124. Jews and the American Experience What happens to a traditional religion when it is transplanted into a modern environment? How do people adapt old beliefs and practices to a new social setting, and what new forms of religious and ethnic life develop? These are the questions raised by the study of Jews and Judaism in America. We will analyze the development of Judaism in America through the works of historians, sociologists, novelists, filmmakers, and theologians. 6 cr., HU; HI, Not offered in 2010-2011.

RELG 125. Jesus and the Gospels The Gospel accounts of Mark, Matthew, Luke and John are among the earliest Christian texts depicting the life, mission or "good news" of Jesus Christ. Comparative critical reading of these four Gospels is the basis for both historical and literary modes of discerning the social world of Jesus, his audiences, and his core message. Through these unique canonical texts that describe Jesus, his social world, and the audiences he inspired, this course will survey key results of the methods of distinguishing the worlds behind, in front of, and within these four Gospels, as well as the means of discerning them. 6 cr., HU; HI, Offered in alternate years. WinterA. Ipsen

RELG 130. Native American Religions This course explores the history and contemporary practice of Native American religious traditions, especially as they have developed amid colonization and resistance. While surveying a broad variety of ways that Native American traditions imagine land, community, and the sacred, the course focuses on the local traditions of the Ojibwe and Lakota communities. Materials include traditional beliefs and practices, the history of missions, intertribal new religious movements, and contemporary issues of treaty rights, religious freedom, and the revitalization of language and culture. 6 cr., HU, WR, RAD; HI, WR2, IDS, FallM. McNally

RELG 140. Religion and American Culture This course explores the colorful, contested history of religion in American culture. While surveying the main contours of religion in the United States from the colonial era to the present, the course concentrates on a series of historical moments that reveal tensions between a quest for a (Protestant) American consensus and an abiding religious and cultural pluralism. 6 cr., HU, WR, RAD; HI, WR2, IDS, Not offered in 2010-2011.

RELG 150. Religions of South Asia A survey of the origins and classical development of the major religious traditions of the Indian subcontinent. Primary attention will be given to the Hindu and Buddhist communities, but Islam and the Jain and Sikh traditions also are considered. Readings are drawn mainly from Indian sources in English translation. 6 cr., HU, RAD; HI, IS, SpringS. Sippy

RELG 151. Religions in Chinese Culture An introduction to the major religious traditions of China, from earliest times to the present. Combining thematic and historical approaches, this course will scrutinize both defining charactersistics of, and interactions among, various religious traditions, including Buddhism, Daoism, and the Confuciansim, as well as Christianity and new religious movements. We also will discuss issues crucial in the study of religion, such as the relation between religion and violence, gender, modernity, nationalism and war. 6 cr., HU, RAD; HI, IS, WinterR. Jackson

RELG 152. Religions in Japanese Culture An introduction to the major religious traditions of Japan, from earliest times to the present. Combining thematic and historical approaches, this course will scrutinize both defining characteristics of, and interactions among, various religious traditions, including worship of the kami (local dieties), Buddhism, shamanistic practices, Christianity, and new religious movements. We also will discuss issues crucial in the study of religion, such as the relation between religion and violence, gender, modernity, nationalism and war. 6 cr., HU, RAD; HI, IS, Not offered in 2010-2011.

RELG 160. Living Jewish Texts: Reading, Wrestling, and Ritualizing In this course we will read a range of Jewish texts, from the Biblical to modern, to consider the role that texts have played in the construction of Jewish beliefs, practices, identities, and communities. We consider how these texts engage in dialogue with one another across time and place and have been and continue to be brought to life--interpreted through rituals, literature, art, film, and music. We will explore how different groups (from Ultra-Orthodox to feminists) have wrestled with these texts and reinterpreted as them sources of theology, law, ritual practice, and creative inspiration. 6 cr., HU; HI, Offered in alternate years. WinterS. Sippy

RELG 161. Patriarchs, Priests, Prophets and Poets (Hebrew Bible) The central religious beliefs and moral values of ancient Israel will be explored both in relation to other ancient Near Eastern cultures and as the basis of later developments in Judaism and Christianity. Attention will also be given to the diversity of literary genres exemplified in the Hebrew Bible and to the problems of interpreting biblical texts. 6 cr., HU; HI, Not offered in 2010-2011.

RELG 162. Jesus, Paul, and Christian Origins (New Testament) This course introduces students to the diverse literature and theologies of the New Testament and to the origins and social worlds of early Christian movements. Possible topics include: Jesus and his message; Paul and womens' spiritual authority; non-canonical gospels (Mary, Thomas, Judas, etc.); relations between Christians and Jews in the first century; and more. Attention is given to the interpretation of New Testament texts in their historical settings, and to the various ways contemporary scholars and groups interpret the New Testament as a source for theological reflection. 6 cr., HU; HI, Not offered in 2010-2011.

RELG 163. The Qur’an An exploration of the most influential single authority for Muslims world-wide, the Arabic text received by the prophet Muhammad in the seventh century known as "The Recitation," or Qur’an. We will investigate questions regarding its transmission, redaction, interpretation, and ritual uses. Our major concern will be to utilize the contents of the Qur’an as a window on the Islamic world-view, and to consider issues that arise from diverse attempts to read and understand it in the context of contemporary Muslim experience. 6 cr., HU, RAD; HI, IS, Not offered in 2010-2011.

RELG 188. Women and Religion: India and Abroad This course addresses some of the most challenging questions facing the combined study of religion, gender, and post-colonialism today, using case studies from India, Europe and the United States as starting points. What do we mean when we talk about "religion" and its scholarly study? Do "women" constitute a legitimate category of analysis? How might women and men manipulate an inherited tradition to creative ends, and how might these ends be related to gender and power? This class focuses on Christianity and Hinduism, and other religions as time allows. 6 cr., HU; HI, Offered in alternate years. FallK. Bloomer

RELG 213. Sex and Scriptures This course will juxtapose contemporary sexual theories with religious texts, such as the Hebrew and Christian scriptures, when assessing the sexual moral economy they promote, presuppose, or have been interpreted to contain. Among issues covered: kinship systems, gendered poverty, sex and disability law, violence, the economics of caring labor, and racism as sexual ideology. Texts by Marcuse, Fanon, Rubin, Foucault, Irigaray, Butler, and Sandoval, among others, are surveyed for application in order to clarify relationships between sexual hierarchies, religious systems, and the social and economic struggles of various groups for human dignity. 6 cr., HU, WR; HI, WR2, IDS, SpringAvaren Ipsen

RELG 222. The State of Judaism in the State of Israel The course will explore the complex relationship between Judaism and social-political realities of modern Israel. What is the role of Judaism in the modern, largely, secular, State of Israel? How and why did the early Zionists’ anti-religious ideology give rise to such enormous religious passions? How have traditional Jewish practices been adapted to this new environment? Readings will range from biblical texts to the works of contemporary "post-Zionist" Israeli thinkers. This course is part of the off-campus winter break program to Israel. Winter break programs involve two linked classes in fall and winter terms, and this class is the first class in the sequence. 6 cr., HU; HI, Not offered in 2010-2011.

RELG 223. Research on Israel This course is the second part of a two-term sequence beginning with Religion 222 and will give students an opportunity to develop a research project on a topic of their choice on the state of Judaism in Israel. It is anticipated that research projects will be shared in a public symposium at the end of the term. 6 cr., ND; HI, Not offered in 2010-2011.

RELG 224. Women and Christianity This course first examines women's historical involvement in Christianity and the various views on women held by influential Christians of the past. It then probes literary and theological texts that reflect the efforts of contemporary thinkers to understand and transform a tradition they find both oppressive and liberating where justice for women is concerned. A diverse range of contemporary authors (including African-American, Chinese-American, European-American, and Mexican-American) invite reflection on topics such as God-language, Christian missions, race, class, spirituality, sexuality, and environmental justice. 6 cr., HU; HI, Not offered in 2010-2011.

RELG 225. Catholicism An introduction to the histories, cultures, doctrines, and practices of Catholicism. We will explore aspects of the global history of the Catholic tradition, distinctively Catholic theologies and ethics, liturgical and sacramental practices, the roles of the hierarchy and the laity, and popular religiosity among Catholics in the Americas. Our sources will include primary historical texts, official church documents, contemporary theology, literature, and film, and field study. Previous study of Christianity is recommended but not required. 6 cr., HU; HI, Not offered in 2010-2011.

RELG 226. Liberation and the Bible Liberation theologians argue that the core theme of the Judeo-Christian Bible is human liberation. This course will survey the classical biblical texts used to support this claim, as well as the key concept and theoretical presuppositions of liberal hermeneutics. We will also engage with contemporary challenge to classic liberation approaches coming from post-colonial, queer, indigenous, feminist, critical race and disability studies. Liberation readings from all continents will be covered utilizing the new Peoples' Bible and the Peoples' Companion to the Bible. 6 cr., HU, WR, RAD; HI, WR2, IS, SpringA Ipsen

RELG 227. Liberation Theologies An introduction to black theology, United States hispanic theology, Latin American liberation theology, and feminist theology through writings of various contemporary thinkers. Attention will be directed to the social settings out of which these thinkers have emerged, their critiques of "traditional" theologies, and the new vision of Christian life they are developing. Previous study of Christianity is recommended but not required. 6 cr., HU, RAD; HI, Not offered in 2010-2011.

RELG 228. Christian Ethics How do Christians live, imagine, and speak of the moral life? In this course, we will explore central questions in Christian ethics (such as love and justice, sin and free will, the authority of Scripture in ethics) in the thought of historical and contemporary Christian thinkers, from the Gospel writers and Augustine to Martin Luther King, Jr. and John Paul II. We will also consider practical questions in Christian ethics through a particular focus on sexual ethics and the ethics of war and peace. Previous study of Christianity and/or ethics is recommended but not required. 6 cr., HU; HI, Not offered in 2010-2011.

RELG 230. Feminist Theologies How have feminist theologians attempted to understand and transform religious traditions they find both oppressive and liberating where justice for women is concerned? This course examines works by feminist scholars (from Christian and Jewish traditions) who have sought to re-think fundamental categories, symbols, questions, and methods related to the study of scripture, ethics, and theology. We explore the ways in which theologians from various cultural backgrounds have worked toward women’s empowerment through critiques of sexism, racism, and colonialism, and through feminist models of community, identity, and justice. Topics include: gender and biblical interpretation, God-language, redemption, sexual ethics, and ecofeminism. 6 cr., HU, RAD; HI, IDS, Not offered in 2010-2011.

RELG 231. From Luther to Kierkegaard Martin Luther and the Reformation have often been understood as crucial factors in the rise of “modernity.” Yet, the Reformation was also a medieval event, and Luther was certainly a product of the late Middle Ages. This class focuses on the theology of the Protestant Reformation, and traces its legacy in the modern world. We read Luther, Calvin, and Anabaptists, exploring debates over politics, church authority, scripture, faith, and salvation. We then trace the appropriation of these ideas by modern thinkers, who draw upon the perceived individualism of the Reformers in their interpretations of religious experience, despair, freedom, and secularization. 6 cr., HU, WR; HI, WR2, Offered in alternate years. SpringLori Pearson

RELG 234. Way of Wisdom: Job and Ecclesiastes How do religious people respond when their time-honored doctrines no longer explain their experience? How can one believe in a benevolent God in the face of suffering, or in life's essential goodness in the face of human mortality? These are some of the questions that troubled the ancient writers of the biblical books of Job and Ecclesiastes. This course explores these two classic examples of "wisdom literature," as well as the efforts of contemporary writers to build on their insights. Prior study of the Bible is not a prerequisite. 6 cr., HU; HI, Not offered in 2010-2011.

RELG 236. Gender and Religion in the African Diaspora This course explores the role of women and constructions of gender in four religions of the African Diaspora (Haitian Vodou, Cuban Lucumí/Santería, Brazilian Candomblé/Macumba, and Jamaican Rastafarianism), as well as one continental West African tradition. The course’s main objectives are to acquaint students with the range of prominent positions that women have held in these religions; to investigate how these religions have organized women’s ritual practice; to draw distinctions between the ideal female religious subject and the everyday experiences of actual women in these traditions; and to consider their worship and representation of female deities. 6 cr., HU; HI, Not offered in 2010-2011.

RELG 241. Envisioning Vodoun: Haitian Popular Religion in Historical Perspective This course explores a religious tradition vital to the culture of Haiti, examining Vodoun against its African background, in its practice in Haiti and the Haitian diaspora, and over against its depiction in American popular culture as "Voodoo." 6 cr., HU; HI, Not offered in 2010-2011.

RELG 243. Native American Religious Freedom This course explores historical and legal contexts in which Native Americans have practiced their religions in the United States. Making reference to the cultural background of Native traditions, and the history of First Amendment law, the course explores landmark court cases in Sacred Lands, Peyotism, free exercise in prisons, and sacralized traditional practices (whaling, fishing, hunting) and critically examines the conceptual framework of "religion" as it has been applied to the practice of Native American traditions. Service projects will integrate academic learning and student involvement in matters of particular concern to contemporary native communities. 6 cr., HU, RAD; HI, IDS, SpringM. McNally

RELG 244. Prophetesses and Prostitutes, Murderesses and Matriarchs: Gender Roles in the Hebrew Bible This course focuses on the roles and activities of women in the Hebrew Bible. By carefully examining selected stories, we will discover that women-- as poets (Deborah), thieves (Rachel), disguisers (Rebekah) and betrayers (Delilah)--had manifold ways of exercising power. We will read accounts of a woman who dresses as a prostitute (Tamar), an actual prostitute (Rahab), a witch (the witch at Endor), evil queens (Athaliah and Jezebel), and erotic poetry in a woman’s voice (the Song of Songs). We will analyze these stories through the lens of modern Biblical scholarship and emphasize current feminist approaches to Biblical studies. 6 cr., HU; HI, Not offered in 2010-2011.

RELG 246. Religion and the Black Freedom Struggle This course will examine the key events, figures, philosophies, tactics, and consequences of the modern civil rights movement in United States. The period from 1955-1965 will receive special attention, but the roots of the freedom struggle and the effect on recent American history will also be considered. Studying primary source documents, film, secondary literature, and music will facilitate understanding of what is widely regarded as the most effective mass protest movement in modern American history. Emphasis will be given to the centrality of religion for the social ethics of key movement participants. 6 cr., HU; HI, IDS, Offered in alternate years. WinterA. Wiley

RELG 248. Religion, Law, Religious Law This course will examine the burgeoning field of "religion and law" through asking two questions central to its inquiry: 1) How does religion become law? 2) How does secular law extend into domains to which religion also stakes claims through the adjudication process? To answer the first question, we'll examine the development of Islamic shari‘a from "God’s Path" into "religious law" in its codification and canonization by the modern state. To answer the second question, we'll look at American First Amendment jurisprudence, examining recent cases to determine how the law defines "religion" and what assumptions about religion such definitions legislate. 6 cr., HU; HI, Offered in alternate years. WinterN. Salomon

RELG 249. Religion and American Public Life This course explores the contentious place of religion in American public life. What roles do religious organizations and religious motivations play in the public arenas of electoral politics, policy-making, schools, courts, social service delivery, media, and marketplace? What roles ought they play? In a pluralistic society, how are Americans to balance diverse moral positions with our shared civic life? Engaging the insights of sociologists of religion, legal scholars, ethicists, political theorists, and cultural critics this course will refine the language with which we address such broad questions. Students will apply those insights to focused critical analyses of issues they choose. 6 cr., HU, WR; HI, WR2, IS, Not offered in 2010-2011.

RELG 251. Theravada Buddhism Study of Buddhism's beginnings in India and its spread to Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia, where it is a dominant religious and cultural form. The first part of the course focuses on Theravadin interpretations of the Buddha's life and basic teachings, as found in the Pali canon. The second part of the course analyzes Buddhism's function as a cultural system in one or more Theravadin society, with special attention to such issues as Buddhist legitimization of secular power, popular religious practices, the relation between monks and laity, and the role of women. Religion 150 recommended but not required. 6 cr., HU, WR, RAD; HI, WR2, IS, Not offered in 2010-2011.

RELG 253. Tibetan Buddhism Against a background of the essential ideas and practices of Mainstream and Mahayana Buddhism, this course examines the development within Mahayana of the esoteric traditions of Tantra, and then traces the rise and development of the complex, Tantra-dominated Buddhism of Tibet. Topics include the role of the lama, ideas about death and reincarnation, tantric meditative practices, debates about such doctrines as emptiness and skillful means, the place of women, and the history of the Dalai Lamas. Religion 150 is recommended but not required. 6 cr., HU, WR, RAD; HI, WR2, IS, FallR. Jackson

RELG 254. Zen Buddhism An exploration of the "meditation" school of East Asian Buddhism. We will trace Zen back to its purported origins in India, through its development in China, on to its efflorescence in Japan, where it became a powerful cultural and political force. We will explore the paradoxes and practices of Zen; its impact on Japanese religion, aesthetics, and philosophy; and its complex ethical implications. We also will consider Zen’s place in Korea and Vietnam, as well as in America, where it has influenced art, literature, and religion for over a century and remains perhaps the best known of all Buddhist traditions. 6 cr., HU, WR, RAD; HI, WR2, IS, Offered in alternate years. SpringR. Jackson

RELG 255. Social Engagement in Asian Religions This course explores religions in contemporary Asia while focusing on their energetic engagement with social and political issues and crises. In Vietnam, Burma, and Tibet, for example, Buddhists famously protested against war and violence by quietly marching, fasting, or immolating themselves. Yet in Japan and China, many religious groups are criticized for having justified imperialism, engaged in terrorist activities, or become mere money-making machines. Can religions serve as a vehicle of social and political activism? Do they potentially change or passively maintain the status quo? We will critically examine both examples and counter-examples of social engagement in Asian religions. 6 cr., HU, RAD; HI, IS, Not offered in 2010-2011.

RELG 256. Modern Hinduism: Encounters with the West A controversial statement: "Modern Hinduism was defined in engagement with Western discourses of 'religion.'" This course will begin with the ideas of such prominent Hindu thinkers as Rammohan Ray, Vivekananda, Savarkar, and Gandhi, looking to a range of historical and critical materials to ground their voices in the experience of colonialism. We’ll move on to consider contemporary contexts: strains of Indian nationalism; migration and the growth of diasporic Hindu communities overseas; conversion and the transnational spread of modern guru movements; consumerism and globalization. Throughout we'll remain mindful of the question: Why is the theme of this class controversial? 6 cr., HU, RAD; HI, IS, Not offered in 2010-2011.

RELG 257. Buddha Buddha, "the awakened," is the ideal being--and state of being--in all Buddhist traditions. This course will explore the contours of the Buddha-ideal as revealed in legendary narratives, devotional poems, ritual texts, visionary accounts, philosophical treatises, meditation manuals, and artistic representations. We will draw primarily on classical South Asian and Tibetan sources from the Theravada, Mahayana, and Tantric traditions, but also will consider East Asian (e.g., Pure Land and Zen) conceptions of Buddha and modern reinterpretations of the idea. In addition, we will compare Buddha with the "ideal being" of other traditions, e.g., Brahman, the Dao, and God. 6 cr., HU, WR, RAD; HI, WR2, IS, Not offered in 2010-2011.

RELG 258. Women and Buddhism This course explores various, often contradictory, images and roles of women in Buddhism from cross-cultural and comparative perspectives. First, we examine how women's sexuality and spiritual capacity are perceived in different strands of Buddhim that were developed in South and East Asian societies. Then we probe the ways in which Buddhist ideas both reflected and prescribed the gender roles practiced in these societies. Special attention will be given to women's efforts to understand and appropriate the resources of Buddhist traditions to address the social problems they encounter. 6 cr., HU, RAD; HI, IS, Not offered in 2010-2011.

RELG 261. Beyond Hindu and Muslim: The Lives of Indian Saints Charismatic teachers--Hindu and Sikh gurus and Muslim pirs--have been prominent as interlocutors between religious communities in South Asia. This course will examine how this cross-pollination produces a mutual flowering in the early modern period, with Bhakti and Sufism developing kindred concepts and attitudes, including a complementary mistrust of institutional authorities, a fondness for rhetorical paradox, and an emphasis on eroticism and mystical ecstasy. We will consider studies of the careers and cults of holy men and women from the medieval period to the present alongside critical readings of primary texts, including poems, songs, and films. 6 cr., HU, RAD; HI, IS, Not offered in 2010-2011.

RELG 263. Sufism This course explores the Islamic devotional tradition known as Sufism. We will spend the term both re-situating Sufism within the Islamic tradition of which it is a part (but apart from which it is too often studied) as well as disentangling Sufism from its common reduction to "Islamic mysticism." We will come to understand Sufism’s unique contributions to Islamic theology, liturgy, theories of religious knowledge, structures of religious authority and even political theory and jurisprudence. Further, we will examine a history of Sufism, paying particular attention to its development from an elite theosophical stance to a popular organized phenomenon. 6 cr., HU; HI, IS, Offered in alternate years. SpringN. Salomon

RELG 264. Islamic Politics The specter of Islamic politics haunts much policy discussion in the United States and abroad. Behind phrases such as "radical Islam," "political Islam," and "liberal Islam" do we understand what a political theory which draws its inspiration from an Islamic tradition means? Can Muslim political positions/institutions exist comfortably in a secular, democratic state or international order, or must they always necessarily be at odds with them? This course will examine scriptural paradigms in Muslim politics, several modern Muslim political theorists, and contemporary attempts at Islamic political formations in Iran, Sudan and Turkey to shed light on this complicated topic. 6 cr., HU, RAD; HI, IS, Offered in alternate years. FallN. Salomon

RELG 266. Islamic Conversions: The Muslim Presence in South Asia A survey exploring Islamic orthodoxies and heterodoxies in South Asia. We will chart the process of Islam’s Indianization through a sequence of historical readings. The question "What’s South Asian about this?" then opens the way to ethnographic perspectives on themes of contemporary practice; possession and healing, dress and diet, ideology and relations with state and other authorities, caste. In the last third of the course we turn to representative literary texts for a view of how a distinctively Muslim cultural sensibility has come to be identified in both Pakistan and India with the language and letters of Urdu. 6 cr., HU, RAD; HI, IS, Not offered in 2010-2011.

RELG 267. Contemporary Jewish Thought This course introduces students to contemporary (Post-World War II) Jewish theology. We will explore the creative and diverse ways in which modern Jewish thinkers have combined elements of modernity (e.g. the emphasis on autonomy and freedom) with traditional Jewish beliefs about God, revelation, and redemption. The course will include representative selections from rationalists and mystics, feminists, traditionalists and post-modernists. Prior study of religion and/or philosophy will be helpful. 6 cr., HU; HI, Not offered in 2010-2011.

RELG 268. Encountering Islam: Dialogue and Difference This course explores discourses that emerged as Islamic traditions encountered other cultures, from the medieval and colonial to the modern. Reading texts--historical, fictional, and ethnographic--we will consider how different religious, political, civic and cultural formations (i.e. Judaism, Christianity, Hinduism, Feminism and the Secular State) engage with Islam. Focused on questions about representation--the perception of Islam by "others," and Muslim self-representation--we will explore the nature of dialogue and alliance, both on the interfaith community and geo-political levels. Students will also explore Minnesota's varied Muslim populations and the nuances at work in contemporary American encounters with Islam. 6 cr., HU; HI, Not offered in 2010-2011.

RELG 269. Jewish Ethics How do religious beliefs shape our moral perspectives? In this course we will examine the ways in which this has happened within the Jewish tradition, paying attention to both ethical theory (e.g., the relationship of law and ethics) and issues in applied ethics (e.g., war, sexual ethics, abortion). Both traditional and contemporary approaches to Jewish ethics will be examined. Prior study of religion and/or ethics will be useful, but is not required. 6 cr., HU; HI, WinterL. Newman

RELG 270. Philosophy of Religion A study of classic issues in the philosophy of religion and philosophical theology. Possible topics include: the existence and nature of God; the status and nature of religious experience; the problem of evil; the meaning of faith, belief, and truth; definitions of the self and salvation; and the significance of religious pluralism for claims about truth and God. Readings are drawn from the work of modern and contemporary philosophers and theologians. Prerequisites: Previous work in religion or philosophy will be helpful but is not required. 6 cr., HU, WR; HI, WR2, Not offered in 2010-2011.

RELG 271. Religious and Moral Issues of the Holocaust This course explores the profound theological and moral issues raised by the Nazi policy of systematic genocide. Attention will be given to a wide range of issues, including Jewish and Christian responses to these events, collaboration with the perpetrators, spiritual resistance, whether there are "unforgivable" crimes, and the use of scientific data from experiments on concentration camp inmates. Permission of the instructor required. 6 cr., HU; HI, SpringL. Newman

RELG 281. Performing Tradition: Art, Religion, and Globalization Visit a museum and it is not uncommon to find--along side visual displays--exhibitions of "culture" in the form of performances. Building upon the idea that "art is a bridge to understanding," festivals, fairs, and classrooms have become venues for artists and religious leaders to bring the global local. Tracing the history of exhibiting cultures, beginning in the late nineteenth century, we will consider how religions and traditions are represented in different contexts with a range of political and social implications. We will also work with artists-in-residence to consider the role performance plays in constructions of rituals, religions and cultures. 6 cr., HU; HI, IDS, Offered in alternate years. SpringS. Sippy

RELG 284. The Virgin of Guadalupe This course examines the apparition of the Virgin Mary called the Queen of Mexico and Patroness of the Americas, placing particular emphasis on the diverse appropriations of her image. Beginning with her precursors in the Old and New World, we approach Guadalupe as a tool with which to pry open questions central to Mexican history and identity, including issues of gender, ethnicity, class, nationalism, and representation with regard to Guadalupe and devotional objects more generally. The course concludes with a consideration of the Virgin's contemporary materialization as a symbol to be not only displayed and consumed, but also embodied. 6 cr., HU, RAD; HI, Not offered in 2010-2011.

RELG 285. Goddesses This class examines goddesses both ancient and modern, from Mesopotamia, Europe, South Asia, West Africa, the Caribbean, and Latin America. It introduces some of the world’s most complex deified figures through their mythical narratives, visual representations, and ritual practices. This course places goddess worship within the context of human gender roles and relations and considers theoretical issues regarding the goddess's function as a role model for women. The course pays particular attention to issues of iconography, sacrifice, the political and social significance of goddess worship, the phenomenon of goddess possession, and what goddesses do for--and with--men. 6 cr., HU; HI, Not offered in 2010-2011.

RELG 286. Religion and Music in Cuba This course tells the story of Cuba’s religious formations through their musical genres. Readings draw from ethnomusicology, history, anthropology, and religious studies to provide an understanding of the role music plays in celebrating deities, ancestors, and community. We focus on the relationship between music and dance, spirit possession, and mythology, as well as the construction of nation, race, and gender through music. Among the music to be considered is that of the all-male secret society Abakuá; French-Haitian Tumba Francesa; the initiatory traditions of Lucumí and Palo Monte; and Havana-based hip-hop. Some Spanish language competence not a prerequisite but strongly recommended. 6 cr., HU; HI, Not offered in 2010-2011.

RELG 287. Many Marys The history of Christianity usually focuses on Jesus: the stories and doctrines that have revolved around him. This course will focus on Mary and the many ways she has contributed to the various lived traditions of Christianity. We will, for example, consider the mother of Jesus (Miriam, as she was first called) as she has figured in literature, art, apparition, and ritual practice around the world. We will also consider Mary Magdalene, her foil, who appears in popular discourse from the Gnostic gospels to The Da Vinci Code. Case studies, texts, images, and film will be our fare. 6 cr., HU, WR; HI, WR2, IS, Offered in alternate years. WinterK. Bloomer

RELG 289. Global Religions in Minnesota Somali Muslims in Rice County? Hindus in Maple Grove? Hmong shamans in St. Paul hospitals? Sun Dances in Pipestone? In light of globalization, the religious landscape of Minnesota, like America more broadly, has become more visibly diverse. Lake Wobegon stereotypes aside, Minnesota has always been characterized by some diversity but the realities of immigration, dispossession, dislocation, economics, and technology have made religious diversity more pressing in its implications for every arena of civic and cultural life. This course bridges theoretical knowledge with engaged field research focused on how Midwestern contexts shape global religious communities and how these communities challenge and transform Minnesota. 6 cr., HU, RAD; HI, IDS, WinterShana Sippy

RELG 300. Theories and Methods in the Study of Religion This seminar is designed to acquaint junior religion majors with some of the basic theories, methods, and problems in the field of religious studies 6 cr., HU; HI, WinterPearson

RELG 300. Issues in the Study of Religion This seminar is designed to acquaint junior religion majors with some of the basic theories, methods, and problems in the field of religious studies. 6 cr., HU; HI, WinterL. Pearson

RELG 322. Gender and God-Talk: Christian Feminist Theologies How have thinkers from Black, White, Asian, and Latina backgrounds responded to the claim that Christianity is hopelessly patriarchal, which philosopher Mary Daly argued for so strongly in Beyond God the Father three decades ago? This seminar probes Daly's challenge and the ensuing developments in Christian biblical, ethical, and theological studies. Catholic and Protestant writers from within and beyond the United States will be studied on such topics as gender and biblical interpretation, God-language, redemption, the Virgin Mary, sexual ethics, and ecofeminism. Some prior knowledge of Christianity is highly recommended. 6 cr., HU; HI, Not offered in 2010-2011.

RELG 323. Scriptures and Hermeneutics: Class, Gender and Sexuality This theory seminar will attend to the key methods and questions that can be applied to religious texts, such as the Hebrew and Christian scriptures, when assessing the sexual moral economy they promote, presuppose, or have been interpreted to contain. Among issues covered: kinship systems, gendered poverty, sex and disability law, violence, the economics of caring labor, and racism as sexual ideology. Theory texts by Marcuse, Fanon, Rubin, Foucault, Irigaray, Butler, and Sandoval, among others, are surveyed for application in order to clarify relationships between sexual hierarchies, religious systems, and the social and economic struggles of various groups for human dignity. 6 cr., HU; HI, IDS, Offered in alternate years. Not offered in 2010-2011.

RELG 326. Approaching the Jewish Body Called the "People of the Book," it is no wonder that it is texts that most think of when they study Jews. But what of Jewish bodies--the importance of circumcision in making a covenanted body, of embodied rites (eating, immersing, praying), of "big noses" and "hidden horns" in stereotypes? This course will consider how Jewish bodies have been constituted ritually, textually, politically, and theologically. We will pay particular attention to matters of gender and sexuality, as we read classical and modern sources to consider the ways Jewish bodies have been made and represented (by themselves and others) over time. 6 cr., HU; HI, Not offered in 2010-2011.

RELG 327. Genesis This course will address two central concerns through an in-depth study of the book of Genesis: hermeneutics--the problems and possibilities of textual interpretation, and theology--the ways in which religious communities and individuals reflect on the meaning of sacred events. This important biblical book raises an extraordinary range of issues, including cosmogony, the nature of humankind, faith, familial relationships, politics, sex and violence. Materials will be drawn from both classical and modern commentaries. Prior work in literature or religion helpful, but not necessary. 6 cr., HU; HI, Not offered in 2010-2011.

RELG 329. Theology, Pluralism, and Culture Is there one Christianity or are there many Christianities? Is Christianity separate from, or shaped by, its surrounding culture? Do religious traditions have boundaries? How and why do beliefs and doctrines change? How much should contemporary culture influence the ways we talk about God? In this course we analyze the complex relationship between theology and culture. We consider the influence of cultural identity on religious belief and practice, and we learn about theories of tradition and culture from a variety of disciplines. Throughout the term we explore the implications of relativism, pluralism, and diversity for theological reflection on the identity of Christianity. 6 cr., HU; HI, Not offered in 2010-2011.

RELG 330. Radical Pacifism This seminar will explore the emergence of pacifism as a modern tradition and the development of pacifist thinking and activism from the Mexican-American War to the War on Terror. Students will endeavor to understand the religious beliefs, ethical commitments, and ontological assumptions that inform pacifist criticism(s) of modern social order. And consider how pacifism relates to other modern social theories, including Marxism, anarchism, and feminism. Emphasis will be given to the writings of American pacifists, including William Garrison, Adin Ballou, Jessie Hughan, Jane Addams, Dorothy Day, and Martin Luther King Jr., and to the histories and philosophies of major peace organizations. 6 cr., HU; HI, Offered in alternate years. WinterR. Jackson

RELG 344. Lived Religion in America The practices of popular, or local, or lived religion in American culture often blur the distinction between the sacred and profane and elude religious studies frameworks based on the narrative, theological, or institutional foundations of "official" religion. This course explores American religion primarily through the lens of the practices of lived religion with respect to ritual, the body, the life cycle, the market, leisure, and popular culture. Consideration of a wide range of topics, including ritual healing, Christmas, cremation, and Elvis, will nourish an ongoing discussion about how to make sense of lived religion. 6 cr., HU; HI, IDS, Not offered in 2010-2011.

RELG 350. Emptiness An exploration of the central concept of Mahayana Buddhism, shunyata, translated as emptiness. We will trace prefigurations of emptiness in early Buddhism, then examine its classical expression in the Perfection of Wisdom sutras and the treatises of the Madhyamaka school, and its gnostic application in tantric traditions. Throughout, we will try to understand how the "emptiness factor" affects basic questions in Buddhist metaphysics, epistemology, meditation-theory, and ethics. Our primary focus will be on Indian and Tibetan texts, but we also will consider interpretations from East Asian and modern Buddhist writers, and reflect on emptiness vis à vis Western philosophies. 6 cr., HU, WR, RAD; HI, WR2, IS, WinterR. Jackson

RELG 353. Hindu Hierarchies: Caste in Theory and Practice This seminar will investigate two aspects of India’s "peculiar institution:" caste hierarchy as lived in historical and present-day Hindu communities; and discourses of caste as conceived, justified, and reformed within Hindu thought. Alongside mythological and shastric texts taken from the classical Brahmanical corpus, we will consider a range of alternatives to orthodox caste dharma (varnashramadharma) as advanced by lower-caste voices, exponents of Bhakti devotionalism, and modern critics such as Gandhi, Ambedkar, and Periyar. We will also pursue critical readings of analytic frameworks developed to study caste, foregrounding the work of theorists such as Dumont, Srinivas, Beteille, Marriott, and Dirks. 6 cr., HU, RAD; HI, IS, Not offered in 2010-2011.

RELG 356. Buddhism and Ecology Both environmental scholars and activists have been vigorously discussing the role that religion plays in shaping our attitudes towards the environment. In this course, we carry on this conversation through a unique vantage point, Buddhism. Western environmentalists often assume Buddhism to be "eco-friendly." Together, we will critically rethink this benign image, exploring the parallels and the divergences between Buddhism and ecological practice, as well as the problems and the prospects of Buddhist environmentalism. 6 cr., HU; HI, IS, Not offered in 2010-2011.

RELG 358. Zen, Nationalism, and Orientalism To most people in the West, the term "Zen" means a religion of serene meditation, simple aesthetics, healthy food, or the key that unlocks the art of just about anything. We will challenge the commonly accepted images of Zen and reveal its active (and often problematic) engagement with social and political issues in modern and contemporary societies. Why did Japanese Zen monks justify and participate in Japan’s modernization, nationalism, and imperialism? How did they reinterpret Zen when trying to introduce it to the Western audience? How did Westerns, in turn, understand and represent Zen as a religion of mysterious orient? 6 cr., HU, RAD; HI, IS, Not offered in 2010-2011.

RELG 362. Spirit Possession This course considers questions of agency in relation to religion, gender, and spirit possession. Through surveying a number of works on spirit possession--recent and past, theoretical and ethnographic--we will analyze representations of the female subject in particular and arguments about agency that attend these representations. This class will explicitly look at post-colonial accounts of spirit possession and compare them to Euro-American Christian conceptions of personhood. We will consider how these Euro-Christian conceptions might undergird secular-liberal constructions of agency, and contribute to feminist ideas about the proper female subject. 6 cr., HU, WR; HI, WR2, IS, Offered in alternate years. SpringK. Bloomer

RELG 380. Radical Critiques of Christianity This course introduces students to some of the most radical critiques brought against the foundations of Christian theology (by philosophers and theologians, outsiders and insiders, alike) in the modern period. We examine critiques concerning the authority and historical veracity of scripture, the nature and status of Christian doctrines, the true meaning of faith, the relation between Christian theology and oppressive power, and the value of Christian morality. We also consider the work of Christian theologians who have embraced these critical perspectives and who have put them to use in their efforts to reform and redefine Christianity. Prerequisites: Prior coursework in philosophy or Christian theology is desirable, but there is no prerequisite for the course. 6 cr., HU; HI, Not offered in 2010-2011.

RELG 381. Religion and Nationalism From the pageantry of patriotic rituals to the bloody sacrifices of martyrdom, the link between religion and nationalism is unmistakable. In this course, we will ask: Is nationalism itself a religion? How does religious identity support and/or undermine nationalism? Is religious nationalism necessarily violent? Is it compatible with democracy? What are the religious ethics of nationalism? Drawing on diverse disciplines, we will focus on the dynamics of religion and nationalism in selected cases (examples may include the United States, Ireland, Israel, and the former Yugoslavia). We will conclude by considering religious responses to the problems (and possibilities) of nationalism. Background in Religion recommended, but not required. 6 cr., HU; HI, Not offered in 2010-2011.

RELG 399. Senior Research Seminar This seminar will acquaint students with research tools in various fields of religious studies, provide an opportunity to present and discuss research work in progress, hone writing skills, and improve oral presentation techniques. Prerequisite: Religion 300 and acceptance of proposal for senior integrative exercise and instructor's permission. 6 cr., ND; HI, WinterM. McNally

RELG 400. Integrative Exercise 3 cr., S/NC, ND; NE, Winter,SpringStaff

Other Courses Pertinent to Religion

ARTH 164 Buddhist Art (not offered in 2010-2011)

HIST 130 The Formation of Christian Thought (not offered in 2010-2011)

HIST 230 Institutional Structure and Culture in the Middle Ages (not offered in 2010-2011)

HIST 238 The World of Bede (not offered in 2010-2011)

HIST 238 Topics in Medieval History: Church, Papacy and Empire (not offered in 2010-2011)

HIST 266 History of Islam in India

HIST 278 Religious Orthodoxy and Deviance in New Spain

HIST 333 Iconoclasm (not offered in 2010-2011)

HIST 360 Muslims and Modernity (not offered in 2010-2011)

SOAN 260 Myth, Ritual, and Symbolism